How to keep quail at home? How to feed them properly, what temperature to maintain in the cells. What should be care and maintenance in the winter. How are eggs and quail meat useful?
Interest in the production of quails is manifested for several centuries.
The first attempts at breeding quail were in Japan and China. It was there that noticed the extraordinary nutritional and vitamin properties of products.
Quail meat is very tender and fragrant, and eggs are considered to be a unique dietary, nutritious product.
Advantages and economical aspects of keeping quails at home:
- The purchase of eggs and an incubator or finished chicks does not require significant financial costs.
- Easy care and maintenance of poultry. Quails need large areas and special growing conditions.
- If the birds are raised for sale, then the return on investment will not take long (you can sell them for meat in 3.5-4 months).
- Growing quail, you can get high-quality home products, which are much more useful than chicken.
- Quails are rarely affected by diseases and pests.
The most popular breeds of quail
Depending on the purpose of growing quails, they are divided into groups (breeds):
- meat. It has only one appearance - the pharaoh. The weight of a quail is not more than 270-300 g. The number of eggs is only about 200 pcs. in year. With proper feeding, it grows fast and gains weight. The only minus of this breed is the color of the plumage, which can spoil the type of meat.
- meat and egg. Even at home can produce up to 280 eggs per year. Has sufficient weight - 180-220 gr. Products of this type are often able to replace chicken.
- egg breed. One of the popular species of this breed is Japanese quail. Breeding the breed is very profitable: more than 300 eggs per year, the weight of quail - 120-160 grams. They practically do not require vaccination. Not less popular types: English quail, marble, kaytavers.
California quail home has partially lost the incubation instinct. Most often for the emergence of offspring requires an incubator. Then the breeders use the brooder, in which the chicks create all the conditions for growth.
A hen of this breed per year can carry up to 110 drop-shaped eggs. Breeders say that it is possible to determine the gender of quails of this species only after the age of 40 days.
Most of those who breed quails buy or make small incubators on their own. This is despite the fact that the occupation will be permanent and, possibly, will have an industrial scale. Incubators are also needed due to the fact that females of quail have no incubation instinct.
Conclusion of young chicks
The size of the incubator depends on the number of eggs that are planned to be laid. The average small-sized incubator is designed for 365-390 pieces. If the amount is much smaller, then you can build it yourself on 70-100 eggs. Eggs that will be placed in it must be fresh, demolished no later than 6-7 days before the bookmark. Chicks are born almost simultaneously - in 16-17 days.
During incubation, the following conditions should be observed:
- The average temperature of the incubator is 37.7-38.5 °.
- In special trays the water level should be observed, which controls the ideal humidity (65-75%).
Already the first 1-2 days quail it is desirable to provide a complex vitamin mixture. From 3 to 8 days you can add corn grits or cottage cheese to food, you can also add special food for young animals. Up to 20 days they can eat only purchased feed, and then go on to adult food.
For watering use only special drinkers. The first days it is desirable to give them a solution of chloramphenicol as a prophylaxis. They grow only the first two months. After a month they are already able to rush, on average, they can go on laying in 40-50 days.
How to keep quail at home
To get a healthy bird you need to create its comfort.
For 10 quails enough area 200 sq. Cm. You can make a cage with your own hands and keep the birds there. The number of quails in the cage does not affect the number of eggs or the quality of quail meat. Quail cells must meet the following requirements:
- As a material, use only galvanized mesh.
- Drinking bowls and feeders should be outside the cage and properly attached to it. In this case, the cage must be equipped so that the bird could stick its head out and get them.
- The optimal height of the cage is 20-25 cm. Less - not desirable because quails love to jump and may be injured. If the space in the room is not much, the cells can be carefully put one on another.
- Birds do not use sockets to be carried, therefore it is advisable to put special trays for them.
- Tray can be put for litter. This will help maintain constant cleanliness.
- Be sure to keep good ventilation and ideal temperature (+ 21-23 °). Temperature not lower than 16 ° and not higher than 25 ° is allowed. Average humidity - 60-70%.
- To achieve the desired egg production quail, you need to increase their daylight with additional lighting up to 16-18 hours.
What to feed?
Do not require special food. Finance expenditure on quail feed does not exceed the cost of feed for chickens. Quail products are much healthier than chicken and their cost is also much higher.
Many ready-made feeds for adult quails are sold. For one individual enough 35 grams. such feed per day. To achieve the desired results, it is better not to lower the amount of the diet.
There is no ideal feed for adult birds. Experienced poultry farmers recommend supplementing it or replacing it with any kind of grain. Use only fine grain.
Greens will also be a good addition to the diet. Giving it is not worth more than 2-3 times a day. For the rapid growth and strengthening of bones, poultry farmers add to food 2–3 times a week chalk, fish or bone meal, crushed eggshell.
For water use nipple drinkers. Use only fresh, clean, preferably filtered or boiled water.
How to care for quails
The main conditions for care and maintenance are: maintaining the optimum temperature, feeding on time, the right amount of hours of daylight hours.
An equally important factor is the maintenance of cleanliness: timely washing of drinkers and feeders, replacement of litter, cleaning of litter.
Drafts are not allowed in the room. They can cause illness or even feather loss. 1-2 times a week it is recommended to carry out a "general" cleaning in the cells.
Twice a week to put a tray with sand. They love to "swim" in it. This will have a positive effect on their health and growth. Timely inspection of livestock is desirable. Diseases in quails - a rare case, but the cases of slander are common.
Winter care and maintenance
The main hazards of this period are a sharp drop in temperature or frequent fluctuations in humidity. If quails are bred in an apartment or a private house, there may be no problems with this.
But if a cottage or a shed is used for their breeding, it is better to warm them before the onset of cold weather. Alternatively, you can significantly increase the number of livestock for the winter. So they emit additional heat and warm each other.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that the young growth tolerates colds more easily with the help of still luxuriant plumage. A correctly selected cell, which has only the front part of the grille, and the back and side - made of wood or plywood, can also save from severe frosts. So you can maintain the desired temperature longer.
In winter, quails also need additional nutrient intake due to the high energy costs of heating. Therefore, during this period, it is better to introduce food containing protein or add sunflower oil to feed.
Spheres of use of products of quails
- Used in the diet as prevention and treatment of diseases of the liver, kidneys, stomach, heart.
- It helps strengthen bones, gives vitality. Regular consumption of eggs in food will help to normalize the amount of hemoglobin and cholesterol in the blood, remove toxins from the body, promotes rapid memorization, can stimulate potency in men.
- Even in elite restaurants, quail dishes are considered exclusive. Nutritional cocktails are made from eggs.
- Components of quail eggs are part of many expensive shampoos and creams. They can be used for the preparation of masks, scrubs at home. They will help restore the skin of the face, hair, relieve face acne.
Even with perfect care, problems can arise from illness, weight loss, or a decrease in the number of eggs laid. Although this is not the case often.
The most common reasons for this are:
- Infringement of the mode of lighting or temperature condition.
- Poor quality, unbalanced feed or the transition from one food to another.
- Stressful situations. For quail, it may even be transportation or relocation to another cage.
- Refusal to rush during the week may be due to the change of the male in the herd.
- Injuries or diseases: most often there is a molt or injuries as a result of falling or fights between individuals.
If signs of fights or injuries can be treated with iodine or brilliant green, then if there are signs of any diseases, it is better to contact a veterinarian.
Only by observing the above conditions can a healthy bird be raised and high-quality products be obtained. Or even make good money on it.
Features content quail
Kids can not stand the heat, as well as cold and drafts, so the room should be about 20C. To ensure and heat use special lamps that work around the clock until the chicks are three months old.
The cells are placed in dry indoor areas, they must be well ventilated. On private farmers, cardboard boxes or plywood boxes can be used instead of cells. Spread out paper on the bottom and periodically change it.
Since males often show aggression, babies are seated in groups in separate cells, usually combining two females and one male.
Chicks need a balanced diet. For the smallest, the feed “PK-5” and “Chick-1” are recommended, and at the age of 30 days they can be transferred to adult feed.
It is also important to change the water in the drinker several times a day. The water level should be small, about 1.5 cm, so that the chicks do not choke.
Feeding - what to feed quail
The quality of feed will directly affect the rate of weight gain. Food should be varied, it is recommended to include in the diet of millet, barley, corn, oats. In the summer you need greens: lucerne, clover. Root crops, grated vegetables, and wheat germ will also be helpful.
Shells, sand and salt promote digestion, it is important to ensure free access to them. It will not be superfluous crude protein, which is added to the diet from 4 months.
You need to feed 3-4 times a day with equal intervals. The feeder should be comfortable so that the quail will not scatter the food. It is important to take care that large individuals do not interfere with eating the weaker, otherwise it will affect their growth and development.
How to choose Pharaoh quail eggs for incubation
Despite the fact that this breed is not so popular in Russia, sale of quails and eggs Pharaoh is still there. Many restaurants and private traders willingly buy carcasses for cooking various dishes.
There are few well-known large nurseries in which you can buy chicks and Pharaoh’s eggs in Russia. On average, the price of young animals fluctuates around 55 rubles, then increases depending on the feeding day.
As places for the acquisition of the Pharaohs can recommend:
- The hatchery in the village of Sergeevo, Moscow region, the city of Chekhov-5. It sells not only young animals, but also the necessary equipment for growing.
- Poultry house in the village Izyak-Nikitino, Orenburg region.
- Make a purchase of young stock of this breed, as well as a Texas Texas Pharaoh hybrid, in the farm “Perepelkino” Leningrad Region.
High-quality eggs with proper care provide a high percentage of hatching, and given the high quality of meat, breeding quails of the Pharaoh breed is considered cost-effective both on large farms and in private farms.