Tillage occurs in a mass of different methods, regardless of whether it is a private garden or a large field. But each of the cultivation options must be timely and in order of the correct sequence of manipulations.
Soil harrowing is performed not once a year, but several. Therefore, the order and time frame are also important for this event.
When harrowing is carried out:
- In early spring after complete thawing of the snow and drying out of the soil. If you loosen the soil, which contains water in abundance, the earth will become dense. The overdried soil is not shredded as needed, but kept lumpy.
- Winter fields are harrowed at the beginning of spring in order to activate microbiological processes and put oxygen to the roots.
- Presowing treatment with a disk harrow has a slightly different purpose. Seeds in the ground are distributed over the entire area evenly, because the seedlings will be the same across the field.
- The sowing harrowing of the soil is supplemented with a seeder, and not only distributes the seeds evenly, but also deepens them to a more humid, fertile ground level.
- Harrowing after sowing takes place before the beginning of shoots and after the appearance of the first shoots. Only one of these treatments can be performed or two in sequence. The second will act as weeding.
- Summer loosening is applied additionally - for the “black pair”. The field after such a procedure is not used, but remains empty until the next season.
- Autumn harrowing - chilly. Designed to prepare the land for spring sowing, without early spring loosening.
Different types of harrowing are not performed by the same device, but different, depending on the purpose of the event.
The process is performed not by the tractor itself or the walking tractor, but also by the structures that use these vehicles in the field work.
Referring to the required depth of loosening, the harrow is different. The fixture processes the soil by grabbing the top layer and adapts itself differently:
- from 10 to 20 cm,
- from 20 to 30 cm.
The required immersion is achieved by varying the severity of the instruments.
The simplest design - tooth. The teeth are inclined towards the portage and are often square in cross-section, but round and flat variants are possible. The most convenient is the tetrahedral shape, because it splits even large clumps into smaller ones, and not into somewhat larger ones, as is the case with the flat one.
The toothed harrow can have a rigid or hinged frame. The first resembles a zigzag and covers a large strip with shifted front and back rows, thanks to which harrowing is as tight as possible. Hinged - mesh, because they belong to the light type, dividing the level of density into small, medium and heavy.
Early spring processing of clay plots is performed with heavy gear devices, in which the pressure on one element is up to 3 kg, and the depth of loosening is maximum.
Pre-sowing harrowing of already more loose soil is carried out by structures of medium gravity, in which the load on 1 element is up to 2 kg.
The most effective loosening is performed by trailed harrows belonging to a gear but externally similar to a scraper. To traction transport of such devices can be hitched in several rows.
Is there a need for harrowing
Any cultivation of land takes place for some purpose. No one will engage in useless things on such a scale, spending a lot of time and effort on their actions.
The harrow is used to grind the upper layer of the earth, and in some cases, additionally to distribute the crops over the entire area of the site evenly.
In early spring, the earth is most saturated with melt water, and deep loosening allows you to reach them to the surface. It is very important in this case to adjust the time so that the procedure does not turn out to be useless, because the earth dries up very quickly before sowing.
Sometimes procedures are performed under the name of a black and white couple, but, as a rule, on depleted soils or before changing crops at a particular site.
But there is one very important point: early spring processing by a harrow, by grinding the upper layer of the earth, breaks the capillary connection of the lower layers with the surface. Thereby helping to save some of the melt water at the bottom, pulling out a little. Therefore, in common people, this procedure is called “closing moisture” in fertile soil. Moreover, processing by cultivation with harrowing partially solves the issue of pest control.
Under the upper layer of the earth, the larvae and pupae of many insects, among which there are very dangerous for crops, such as the click beetle and the bread beetle, hide. After loosening, the majority of larvae and pupae are on the surface, and they are eaten by birds feeding in the fields. If the birds do not cope with all the pests, because a part will still be hidden in the upper layer of the soil, spring showers and sudden frosts will solve this problem.