Turkeys are kept in many households. There are two types of breeding young - natural under the hen and artificial (laying eggs in the incubator). This article will talk about the second method of turkey poults.
The use of artificial hen has some advantages over the natural way. Indeed, in the incubator you can put as many eggs as you need, and breed the offspring at the right time for the host.
What is the preparation of the incubation material
In turkeys, eggs have a light brown color with small specks. Before laying eggs, each must be carefully inspected for the absence of cracks, deformation, extraneous growths. All material must be the same size, too large or small eggs are rejected.
Eggs are suitable for storing a clean and dry place, where they have a sharp end down. When storing material for more than four days, eggs should be systematically turned over. Storage over 10 days is not recommended.
Before laying the material in the incubator, the eggs must be cleaned, treated with potassium permanganate and heated to room temperature. The incubator itself is also disinfected.
Why ovoscopy is needed
This procedure consists in scanning the hatching eggs to determine the quality. In the best case, the yolk part is located in the center, and it has no clear outlines. The air chamber must be from the blunt edge. When the egg turns, the yolk part should not move quickly.
In a normal egg, protein is transparent. In some cases, eggs can be detected that have a pair of yolks: such material is not allowed until further incubation. Thanks to the ovoscope, it is possible to assess the quality of the incubation products for obtaining good, viable young animals.
How is the incubation
The duration of incubation is approximately 28 days. During the first week, the temperature regime is maintained in the range of +37 to +38 ° C. Humidity rates are around 65%.
Good hatchability will depend on the turning of the incubation material. If there is no automatic rotation in the incubator, then it will have to be done manually at least 5 times a day, and better than 10. After 8 days, it is recommended to check all eggs with an ovoscope.
Already from this time you can see the embryo with the circulatory system in the formative stage. At the same time there is a culling of material that will not be further incubated. These include non-fertilized eggs, as well as embryos that have stopped their development.
Starting from the 8th day, the temperature mode is slightly lowered to + 37.6 ° С. Experiments with temperature should not be done, otherwise it may harm the chicks.
From the 14th day, the embryos begin to generate heat and so that the eggs do not overheat, it is necessary to ventilate the incubator. Either the cool air supply system is turned on, or the incubator door is opened once a day for 15 minutes. And the temperature should be maintained in the range from +37.4 to +37.6 ° С. If the eggs are turned by the owner, now it can be done 4 times a day.
Selection and storage of eggs
Egg selection is one of the important stages in turkey poult breeding. Turkey eggs are white or brown in color, which is diluted with small specks. For incubator worth picking eggs that have the correct shape. Material with an atypical color, underdeveloped or overgrown, is not suitable for hatching poults in an incubator at home.
The selection is accompanied by a very important procedure - ovoskopirovaniya. She is in egg translucency. For efficient breeding of poults, it is necessary to choose the material in which the yolk is in the middle, and the air layer should be near the blunt edge. During cultivation should be observed smooth movement of the yolk. Only such eggs can be used for breeding turkeys in an incubator at home.
For storage it is worth choosing dry and warm place. The material should be placed in such a way that the sharp edge looks down, but if storage is planned for more than 4 days, then after this time it is worth turning them over. After 10 days, the eggs lose their ability to ripen and cannot be used for further breeding of poults. It is very important to provide the necessary conditions in the room where they will be stored: humidity can not be more than 80%, and the average temperature should be 12 ° C.
Before the material goes to the incubator, it is thoroughly cleaned: after the eggs have been in the room for several hours, they should be dipped into a solution of potassium permanganate, glutex or hydrogen peroxide. After the final warming and drying, you can move them to the incubator.
Terms and conditions for incubation
The standard incubation period is limited to 4 weeks. During this time, a lot of processes occur, maturation of chicks is carried out. It is during this period that it is necessary to ensure proper temperature conditions, humidity indicators, so that as a result healthy and strong turkey poults will emerge.
Egg incubation mode
The whole period is divided into certain stages. (days) below:
- 1–8th day. It is necessary to provide a temperature of 37.5–38 ° C. Humidity should be approximately 65%. Eggs should be rotated at least 6 times. This is necessary to improve their heating, as well as to prevent the embryo from sticking to the shell and the shell.
- 8–14th day. Temperatures should be 37.7–38 ° C, humidity should be slightly reduced and left at 45%. Turkey hatching egg should be rotated 6 times a day.
- 15–25th day. Temperatures gradually decrease to 37.4 ° C, and humidity increases to 65%. Starting from the 15th day, it is important to cool the material for 10–15 minutes. Turn the material up to 5 times per day.
- 26–28th day. The final stage. These days is the removal of turkey poults.
Summary table of incubation of turkey eggs looks like this:
before sampling it is necessary to fully open (approximately 2-3 hours)
Terms of hatching chicks
On the 4th week of the incubation period, naklev begins to appear. At this time, mandatory control ovoskopirovaniya. With proper development of the egg, its internal filling should be dense, only those places where there is an air cushion can be translucent.
Starting from the 25th day, you can expect the first bite of the shell. By the end of the 27th day, the poults begin to hatch massively from eggs. This process takes an average of 6-8 hours. At that time it is forbidden to open the incubator, as this may lead to hypothermia wet poults. Only after the chicks are completely dry can they be removed from the incubator.
Observing incubation regimes, you will be able to independently breed the chicks. The main thing is to be confident in achieving your goal. In this case, you will help accuracy, concentration and attentiveness. Anyone can arrange an incubator and breed healthy chicks.
How to grow turkeys in an incubator?
In order to raise healthy chicks from eggs, you need to consider such factors as:
- egg quality: for incubation, eggs should be selected without growths, even, of correct shape. They must have the same color, must be fertilized,
- temperature in the incubator: after loading the eggs, it is necessary to set the temperature at 37.8 degrees. At the onset of 9 days, you need to lower the temperature to 37.5 and keep it up to 21 days. From 21 to 25 days, the temperature regulator is set to 37 degrees. After 25 days - 37.4 degrees, with a humidity of 29%. After the chicks begin to emerge into the world, lower the temperature to 36.6 degrees and increase the ventilation of the chamber.
How to choose an incubator?
To grow turkey poults in an incubator, you need to choose the optimal model of the output apparatus. Incubators come in different sizes. For home use, a device designed for a small number of eggs from 10 to 40 pcs. It is necessary to pay attention to the following specifications:
- Egg flipping mode: it is manual and automatic. Better to choose with auto flip. In this case, the incubator will turn the eggs independently the required number of times per day,
- food network: the emergence of your chicks depends on the uninterrupted operation of the incubator, so it is better to purchase an incubator that works both from the household network and from the battery,
- temperature control: it is recommended to choose a device with an automatic controller. It is necessary to take into account the accuracy of the readings of the regulator. The lower it is, the better.
What to do after the birth of turkey poults?
After the birth of the chicks, they need to provide the necessary conditions of detention. It is best to place them in a special brooder with lighting and heating, as well as built-in drinkers. You can teach them to eat by tapping on the trough with food. Thereby you will imitate the knock that the hen makes by calling on the chicks. You also need to teach them to drink. To do this, you can forcibly dip them with your beak into the drinking bowl with warm water. Feed the poults can be ready bought feed. Feeding chicks is possible only from soft feeders. This will prevent damage to their weaker beaks.
How to choose the right breed of turkeys for hatching in an incubator?
There are lots of turkeys, there is even a special table for farmers with all the advantages and disadvantages of a particular species of bird. That is why it is very responsible to choose the breed for the withdrawal. In this case, you need to consider that turkeys are bred for good and high-quality meat and for sale. Therefore, turkey meat should not only be of high quality, but also have a presentation.
The main breeds of turkeys include
- North Caucasian bronze rock. This breed is very beneficial for breeding, as the mass of an adult turkey reaches 50 kg. Many domestic producers, both industrial and domestic production choose this breed. Also to the pluses of this breed is a large litter. On average, one turkey of this breed gives 80 eggs per year.
- Bronze wide-breasted breed. It has many common characteristics with the North Caucasian breed. In fact, it differs only slightly in appearance.
- White wide-breasted breed. This breed is considered one of the best. The number of offspring can reach 100-120 eggs in 12 months, or even more. Accordingly, such a turkey will cost more, and his meat is much better.
Incubators are different.
If you want future turkeys to feel like in natural conditions, then an incubator with top heating and optimal ventilation will be useful. Unfortunately, this heating has its drawbacks. These include the fact that warm air tends to rise up. That is why if you decide to bring the turkey poults at home in the incubator, then your birds can receive less precious heat. In this aspect, it will be better to take the heated incubator from the bottom.
This will give you a little opportunity to save money. Unfortunately, both the one and the second options have one common negative - heating is not evenly distributed, which means it will not be as effective as we would like. In any case, each equipment is accompanied by instructions. Self-made output devices and the manufacture of such a device as a thermostat and humidifier are possible, but they require certain knowledge and skills from the breeder.
Not all people can make their own drawings so that automatics will turn out in the future; the best way is to purchase a ready-made controller in this case. Of course, folk kulibins have already come up with ways to correct such shortcomings. The camera can be sheathed with a special foil to save the heat of turkey eggs. Just do not forget to make holes for ventilation so that the eggs do not suffocate.
Making an incubator at home
Many farmers try to make a device or a tray in order to incubate a turkey to get good offspring. The price of the hatcher can vary depending on which materials will be used and how you will make a special tray. To incubation and hatching were excellent, you need to make a design with your own hands, so that it was with an automatic egg flip.
If there is no automatic coup, but at some stages of cultivation, it is necessary to turn the eggs several times a day and even at night. There is a special ne555 circuit or 555 microcircuit called the interval timer, this device allows you to make the incubator completely autonomous. The construction of the incubator should be the simplest, no even the coolest incubator will not cope with its task if it does not have a heat and air supply controller, such as a refrigerator or microwave.
This design can be made of foam or cardboard box, it must necessarily be a lattice. Any, even the smallest, mechanism should have optimal sizes suitable for turkey eggs and chickens. In order not to be mistaken with the dimensions, before proceeding with the collection of a home incubator, it is worth exploring all sorts of training videos and photos of the construction of this equipment.
Criteria for the correct selection of eggs
- Egg shape. It must be strictly correct, slightly oval.
- The shell must be clean and beautiful.
- The surface of the egg is perfectly flat, smooth and solid.
- There should not be any extra points on the egg that are not typical for turkeys.
Also, before putting eggs in the incubator, they need to be enlightened.
When educating eggs should have the following characteristics
- In any egg, the main yolk. It must be exactly in the center, otherwise there will be no sense from this egg.
- The contours of the yolk should be fuzzy, vague.
- The air chamber should be at the blunt end of the egg.
If you adhere to all these criteria, then your hatching eggs will successfully hatch and good meaty turkeys will grow from them and you will not think where to put the spoiled eggs. In order to be even more confident as a result, it is best to take eggs from turkeys for more than eight months. But the most suitable season will be spring and autumn. It is during this period that the birds give the most offspring. Make sure that you have a table where you will record the output of turkeys in the incubator by day and by week.
Eggs have a specific shelf life. A maximum of such eggs can be stored for 10 days. After that, they are no longer suitable for an incubator.
You can not wash the eggs, because you violate the natural protection of the eggs and the turkey will just die. As mentioned earlier, turkeys are very demanding in terms of habitat. Eggs are exactly the same. For example, the storage humidity should not exceed 84%. Storage temperature is much lower than for an adult turkey. Eggs tolerate temperatures up to 12 degrees. But to comply with all these conditions will not be enough.
Proper egg laying in the incubator
- You need to prepare the incubator itself. Such training begin the day before the bookmark.
- The incubators do not yet provide for the adjustment of humidity, which is why they put a bowl of water on the bottom. Then the humidity will reach the required level. Of course, to constantly adjust the temperature you need a thermometer. Usually it is always put exactly two thermometers, 2 cm above the eggs.
- Also worth noting eggs. For example, 1 and 2 at opposite ends. This is done so that you can turn the eggs every 4 days. A harmless simple pencil is best for this purpose.
- When you place the eggs, look for the tags on top to be the same, otherwise you will just get confused.
- It is recommended to turn the eggs every three to four days.
- On the 25th day such manipulations should stop, because your turkey poults will soon be born.
- Put eggs should be strictly blunt end to the bottom.
Incubator eggs life
Usually, under optimal conditions, it takes 28 days from laying to the first turkey poults. All these 28 days they are taken care of, maintain temperature and humidity. On all these days, the temperature should be different.
- From 1-8 days the temperature should be 37.8 degrees on the thermometer number 1 and 30 on the thermometer number 2.
- From 9-21 days the temperature drops slightly, to 37, 6 degrees.
- From 22-25 days the temperature is kept at 37 degrees.
- And from the 26th day - turkey poults are slowly beginning to hatch. At this time, the temperature should be 37.4 degrees on the thermometer number 1 and 29 on the thermometer number 2.
While the chicks are already beginning to emerge, the temperature is reduced to 36 and the air intake is increased, since the already hatched chicks need a lot of oxygen. If you want good and healthy offspring, then you need to turn the eggs up to 4 times a day. If everything goes well, then within two weeks the bird forms a respiratory organ, it is he who helps the chick to breathe all this time.
When the chick is just starting to hatch it can be seen with the naked eye. But this process is not fast, so you should be patient. При нормальном развитии в яйце должно быть темно, и контуры постоянно меняются. Если этого не происходит, вероятнее всего ваш птенец погиб. После этих действий повороты уже прекращаются. В этот период в инкубаторе должно быть много кислорода и тепла.
Хранение яиц до инкубации
Успешное разведение индюшат в инкубаторе, это, в первую очередь, правильный подход к выбору яиц. Immediately select some of the distinctive features, although they are difficult to confuse with others: they are tapered and spotted, usually white or light brown in color.
It is desirable that the egg was as little as possible pollution.
Also not suitable for incubation:
- non-standard samples,
- too large or small specimens,
- with a suspicious greenish tint.
Store eggs before laying should be in a dark and dry place. It is desirable that the eggs are located with the sharp side down and the blunt end up. Copies with a shelf life of more than 4 days must be periodically turned over every few days. It is not recommended to keep such eggs for more than 1 decade.
The laying of eggs in the incubator should be as follows:
- Seed should warm to room temperature. This does not mean that you need to put the eggs to the heater - it is enough to hold them overnight in the living room.
- Remove excess debris and disinfect them in a solution of peroxide or manganese.
- Before laying eggs, they must be checked at the ovoskop.
Translucent embryo overscope
Ovoskopirovaniya - simple procedure for scanning the eggs to identify possible defects with the help of light. Quality materials have a yolk with clear edges and are located in the center. The blunt edge of the egg is the place with the air chamber. When turning the specimen in the process of ovoscoping, the movement of the stomach inside should be slow and even. The surrounding protein in a normal egg is transparent.
Ovoskopirovanie - a preliminary procedure for assessing the quality of future offspring, so it is undesirable to neglect it.
Breeding turkeys in an incubator is a creative step-by-step process. Incubation of turkey poults lasts 28 days. The first 8 days the temperature in the incubator should be within a minimum of 37.5 ° C - a maximum of 38.1 ° C. Humidity should not exceed 65%. It is necessary to turn the eggs 2-4 times a day. After a week of incubation, you can enlighten samples on the ovoskop.
On day 8, it is quite realistic to see the germ and the beginnings of the circulatory system. Already during this period, with the help of the device, one can examine unformed specimens and remove them from the incubator. Typically, such samples have a red blood clot inside the egg. From 8 to 14 days, the temperature range in the incubator should be at least 37.6 ° C - maximum 38 ° C. Some manufacturers recommend to reduce the level of humidity in this period to 50%.
At the end of a two-week incubation period, allantois closes in the embryos. This is a kind of respiratory organ of the embryo, allowing it to receive oxygen from the surrounding air. The deadline for incubation lasts for the twenty-fifth day inclusive. During this period, the future turkey poults activate metabolic processes.
Video: the stages of incubation of turkey eggs
Simply turn off the incubator and open the lid. It usually takes 10 - 15 minutes for the eggs to cool slightly. The temperature regime is maintained in the incubator at 37.5 degrees.
Optimal mode for turkey poults
Usually, eggs are clearly visible by day 26. Before this crucial moment has arrived, it is recommended to examine the embryo with an ovoscope. What is the last inspection for, and what needs to be determined?
On the 25th day, by the time of laying the chicks, you need to stop the coup of eggs in the incubator.
At the final stage, during the hatch period, the temperature in the incubator should be maintained at 37 degrees. Up to 70% need to adjust the humidity. At this time, the chicks need a sufficient flow of oxygen. It is not difficult to implement, adjusting an acceptable level of ventilation. By the end of 27 days, we can expect the appearance of long-awaited turkey poults.
As you can see, the breeding of poults in the incubator is a common procedure; even newcomers to the poultry industry will cope with this. It is important to simply follow the instructions for the unit. There are all the necessary parameters that correspond to your chosen eggs.
Video - the first turkey
Features of turkey incubation and preparation for it
Eggs intended for incubation from the birds are taken hourly and immediately transferred to storage. Eggs on trays are placed with a sharp end down, which saves space and creates all the conditions for moving the air lens to the upper, blunt part.
So that at the time of entry into the incubator all the embryos were at the same stage of development, and their conclusion turned out to be as friendly as possible, the eggs are kept cool with constant ventilation of air and high humidity.
The most suitable conditions for this:
- temperature 10–15 ° C,
- humidity within 60–89%.
It must be remembered that even in the best conditions, time is not the best friend of the poultry farmer. The longer the fertilized egg lies, the less chance the embryo will become a strong, viable turkey. It is optimal if the incubation of turkeys begins no later than 4–5 days after the appearance of the egg. If the turkey poult breeding goes naturally, then the eggs are heated by the heat of the hen.
Perfectly adapted to this complex mission, birds, better than any automatic incubator, cope with maintaining the required temperature and humidity; they turn the eggs up and 50 times a day and roll the eggs so that the entire laying of one and a half dozen eggs warms evenly.
Such work is most important at the first stage of embryo development. Then the eggs themselves become sources of heat, and here the turkey has to get up more often, so that its future children get enough air, there is no threat of mold and fungi in the nest.
The atmosphere in the incubator for breeding poults at home
For novice poultry farmers, the question is always relevant: “After how many days will the turkey poults hatch into the light?”
It takes an average of 28 days from the moment of laying the incubation of the chick coming out of the egg. This is a few days earlier than the output of goslings. But such a time is relative, since several factors affect the term at once:
- the size and initial quality of the incubated eggs,
- coordination of the real temperature temperature for turkey poults indicated in the table,
- observance of other conditions of care for the egg, including airing and maintaining the desired humidity.
As a rule, the first signs of chick appearance can be seen on day 26. Moreover, turkey poults of light lines appear earlier than their large heavy counterparts.
At home, in an incubator, the withdrawal of poults from the first spitting to release from the shell of the last chick requires up to two days. Delaying the timeline indicates possible problems.
Selection of turkey eggs for incubation
Interested in incubating turkeys eggs in advance are selected so that the pledged party was as uniform as possible and of high quality. Experienced poultry farmers consider the criteria for egg selection:
- sizes, inside too small or large eggs sometimes there are weak or non-viable embryos,
- a form that affects the position of the embryo, its development and success of withdrawal,
- the quality of the shell, which should be smooth, without microcracks, sagging, spotting and other defects.
However, the appearance can not guarantee that the egg is fertilized and has no internal, invisible at first glance defects.
To control the state of the embryo used candling - x-ray. This method helps to identify cracks in the shell, malformations of the embryo, to investigate the volume and position of the air chamber that the chick uses for breathing until the time of spitting.
In the early stages and before laying in the incubator, the yolk becomes the subject of study. In a high-quality egg suitable for breeding turkeys in an incubator at home, the yolk:
- at rest is located in the center,
- has vague blurred boundaries,
- as a result of turning the egg moves inside the volume, but after it restores its previous position.
When the selected egg enters the incubator, it is also not ignored. The development of the embryo should be assessed at least twice, and it is better to do this every week, for example, on the eighth, fifteenth day, as well as at the time of transfer of eggs to the output trays. This is done on the 25th day after the start of incubation.
How does turkey poult go in an incubator at home?
Activation of the embryo when released into the incubator occurs due to an increase in temperature and humidity. Artificially created conditions imitate the incubation of eggs with turkey. But if in the natural environment the main concerns are on the bird, then at home, in the process of hatching poults in the incubator, the person assumes the main role.
The main task is to maintain and timely adjust the temperature and humidity level. For this, it is convenient to use the incubator temperature table developed for turkey eggs above. It is necessary:
- regularly monitor the state of the bookmark,
- up to the transfer to the output, turn the trays 12 times,
- according to the recommendations conduct airing,
- starting from the 9th day, cool the brickwork, gradually increasing the time from 5 minutes to half an hour twice a day,
- monitor the humidity every day, and from the 22nd day twice, sprinkle the egg with warm water.
On the 25th day, the egg is transferred to the hatcher trays and ventilation is increased. Since the beginning of the mass appearance of turkey poults, it is important to control the condition of the hatching chicks, and individuals already ready for independent living.
6 hours after hatching, the birds are inspected and sorted.
Incubation of turkeys is troublesome, requiring skill and experience. But with a certain zeal and attention to the needs of the bird, the first brood will please both with a quick weight gain and health.
Features incubation of turkey eggs: rules and regulations
The process of incubation of turkey eggs is carried out on the same principle as the eggs of other poultry (geese, chickens and ducks). Specificity for turkeys is in other indicators that distinguish the mode of incubation of turkey eggs at home, namely:
- air temperature inside the device
- humidity and air exchange,
- frequency of turning eggs, cooling, spraying,
- incubation period.
All these parameters are not universal, therefore it is important to follow tips on their size in order to bring the poults into the incubator as efficiently as possible.
The essential feature that distinguishes the incubation of turkey eggs from the eggs of other birds (chickens, geese and ducks) is its dependence on correct, timely turning over. Turning is carried out much more often than in other cases. This directly affects the hatchability index.
A distinctive feature - and the way of keeping the flock of birds, whose eggs will be used for breeding. Turkeys should be separate from the males. The latter should be allowed turkeys only for the purpose of fertilization for a period of about six hours, and then again to separate.
Eggs should be collected in the event that the female has already laid them in the amount of 15 pieces, because of this clutch, the brood instinct may develop. In the incubation herd must be present turkeys aged eight months.
How to choose eggs for incubation?
Turkey eggs for incubation
The weight and size of the turkey egg for subsequent incubation depends on the breed of turkeys and their parameters.
Thus, the most widely bred in farms are such breeds:
- North Caucasian bronze - the optimal weight of the incubation product is about 100 grams,
- bronze wide chest - select a product weighing about 85 grams,
- white wide-chested - use turkey product weighing 80 to 90 grams for breeding,
- Moscow white and bronze - for which the incubation product has an average weight of 85 g.
For an incubator, only medium sized eggs should be selected. Excessively large or very small specimens give a low hatchability rate and weak juveniles. On the shell should not be any growths, roughness, damage.
The color of quality eggs is white, light beige, with a slight brown tint. The pigmentation is not very bright, but not pale. All specimens with greenish-blue spots are not suitable for incubation. The form must be correct. Spherical and overly elongated eggs are also considered marriage.
Internal product qualities are determined by viewing through the ovoscope. The incubated egg must meet the following criteria:
- one yolk,
- the yolk is centered,
- when turning it moves slowly,
- yolk fuzzy in shape,
- no extra airbags, except at the blunt end,
- protein is transparent.
The inconsistency of at least one of these criteria is the reason for rejecting eggs, because it will not be possible to remove the poults from the incubator at home.
How should eggs be stored and processed before placing them in the device?
The eggs selected for incubation should be stored in a dry place, without access to it by direct rays of the sun. It is recommended to fold them down with a sharp end. The temperature that is set in the storage room is 12 ̊C, and the humidity of the air in the room should not exceed 80%. It is strictly not recommended to keep eggs in the refrigerator.
The shelf life of a turkey product before it is set aside for incubation is not more than ten days. The longer the eggs lie, the lower the hatchability will be. The dependence of the productivity of incubation on how many days the eggs are stored is displayed in the table:
When preserving turkey eggs for incubation, they should be turned over at least four times a day. The formation of the future embryo and the hatching of the poults in the incubator at home depends on this.
Before placing the clutch in the device for hatching turkeys at home, both the eggs and the incubator should be disinfected. This will help in the future to protect chicks from infection. Disinfectants are now sold in all vet pharmacies (Ecocide, Virotsid, Gluteks, etc.). The solutions prepared by themselves have similar properties: a warm (about 40 ° C) aqueous solution of potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide.
It is not recommended to wash the eggs in the indicated solutions - they are treated with a napkin moistened in the solution, they should not drip from them. They should be allowed to dry out naturally, do not rub them with a dry towel, so as not to damage the protective shell on the shell.
Rules for placing eggs in an incubator
Only eggs heated to room temperature should be laid in the incubator for turkey eggs.
Loading into the device can be both horizontal and vertical. With the horizontal method, the eggs are laid out on the grid, not forgetting to mark the upper side with a marker, so as not to get confused, turning over. In the version with the vertical placement of the eggs should be laid with a sharp end down into the trays at an angle of 45̊.
The eggs are laid with the pointed end down.
Often, incubators are designed so that when horizontal loading there is no mechanism for automatic rotation of the trays, so the farmer will have to produce it manually. Machines with vertical placement often provide for automatic rotation.
Since the incubation of turkey eggs at home is very dependent on turning, it should always be carried out in a timely manner.
The first inversion must be carried out after 12 hours of laying on incubation. Further, this procedure is recommended to be carried out at least every three hours until the 24th day of incubation, inclusive. In general, the number of turns per day can reach the indicator from 8 to 12 times.
It has been observed in the course of research that when laying eggs in an incubator in a direction from north to south, the chicks are born slightly earlier than when placed from east to west.
In order to prevent overheating and maintain the desired level of moisture, it is necessary to spray the wall during incubation.
This procedure should be performed from the 1st to the 12th day twice a day during the ventilation of the incubator, and from the 13th to the 24th day the number of sprays can be increased up to three times per day. From the 25th day, as well as overturning, spraying stops.
Temperature conditions inside the incubator
During the first 72 hours of eggs being incubated, the temperature in the incubator is set at 38 to 38.3 ° C. After this time, the temperature of two weeks is maintained within, somewhat lower than before - from 37.6 to 38 ° C.
From the 15th day, the temperature should be in the device in the range from 37.5 to 38 ̊C. At this time, in connection with the closure of the respiratory organs, the temperature of the eggs increases in the embryos. From the 10th day you should start airing the incubator twice a day - sutra and in the evening - 10 minutes each, and from the 15th day you should cool the eggs up to three times a day for 15 minutes.
On the 25th-26th days the temperature is set at 37 ° C, on the 26th-27th day the hatching of the poults begins in the incubator, which lasts at the same air temperature.
Ventilation and humidity inside the device
During the first three days, the humidity in the incubator should be from 60 to 65%, and over the next 10 days it drops to the mark from 40 to 45%. From the 15th day it rises again to 60%.
From the moment it appears, moisture increases from 65 to 70% and is maintained at this level during the entire hatching process. The decrease in humidity is fraught with drying of the shell and the inability of the poults to freely get out from under it.
Incubation of turkeys takes place with constant ventilation, which is carried out using special vents in the incubator. The rules of their use and the frequency of opening should be read in the instructions for each specific incubator.
Ventilation is supported by artificial means during ventilation of the device and cooling eggs (from the 10th day — twice a day for 10 minutes, from the 15th to the 24th day — two or three times a day for 15 minutes).
The ratio of temperature and humidity indicators displays a table of incubation of turkey eggs:
These conditions are optimal for turkeys to be productive.
Incubation of poults occurs under the regular supervision of a farmer and is accompanied by a translucent laying through the ovoscope. Control translucencies are performed on the 8th, 13th and 26th day.
By the eighth day, the first stage of incubation of turkey poults is completed, as a result of which a sufficiently well-developed circulatory system can be seen inside the egg of the embryo. The embryo itself cannot be clearly considered, since it is still completely in the yolk.
In its place, only a zone is visible, somewhat lighter than the rest of the yolk mass, with a vascular net. If the egg shook slightly from side to side, then the movement of the embryo can be seen through the ovoscope. If during translucence a dark spot is seen inside - so-called. the blood ring means the germ has died and the egg can be removed.
By the 13th day, during the second translucence, one can see the clear contour of the embryo, in the sharp end of the egg there is a closed allantois. Very clear mesh of vessels, which also closes at the sharp end. In the dead embryos the vessels are atrophied, blood is not observed in them. They look like a regular shapeless dark spot, easily dangling from side to side. Such eggs should be disposed of.
On the 26th day, the embryo should occupy all the space in the egg. In the sharp end of the lumen is not observed. Air chamber - large size. The fetus is moving, preparing for hatching. Visible protrusions of the neck. If no movements are observed, then the future chick has stopped.
When do turkeys hatch?
Hatching turkey chicks
The incubation period for turkey eggs lasts 27 days. The first barks are observed on the 25th and 26th day. By the end of the 27th day, the mass breeding of poults in the incubator begins. It lasts several hours - an average of 6 to 8.
It is not recommended to open the device frequently and check how the process is proceeding. This is fraught with hypothermia still wet chicks. Poults in the incubator should be completely dry, only then notching is carried out.
If the hatching lasts longer than 8 hours, it is better to do the notch twice, but not more: after the main mass of chicks has dried, and the second time - to pick up the remaining belated ones.
Common mistakes beginners
The most common mistakes made by beginning farmers in the process of breeding poults in an incubator include:
- Overheating masonry. As a result, if the chicks do not die, they are bred with deformities resembling an umbilical hernia with sagging of the internal organs in the untrained yolk sac. Hatching begins early, is uneven.
- Underheating masonry. Those embryos that live to the end of the incubation period are pecked late in a few days. The chicks have weak legs, almost immobile, the fuzz is dirty, uneven, swelling is present on the head and neck.
- Low humidity. It leads to a decrease in the mass of eggs. Breeding poults in an incubator starts too soon. It is difficult for them to get out from under the shell due to its hardening. The poults themselves are excessively dry.
- High humidity. It leads to the fact that the hatching of the poults in the device occurs “with a delay”. In chicks fluff dirty, stuck together. Many can not get out of the egg, choked in the amniotic fluid.
- Insufficient egg turning frequency. Causes the embryo to dry. Embryos often die, or turkeys are born with deformities.
It is important to note that the breeding of young turkeys in an incubator is not a time consuming process. The main thing that is required from the poultry farmer is to observe the incubation regimes. A huge find for each farmer will be the incubation table for turkey eggs, which will tell you how to organize the whole process.
As a visual aid, we offer you a video: