In the autumn in the forest is especially beautiful and fresh. The golden-red crowns of trees, the rustling of foliage underfoot, pristine silence and a special mushroom scent give pleasure to any person. When the next family of honey agarics falls into a basket, there is no limit to joy. These mushrooms are delicious in any form: pickled, fried with egg, stewed with potatoes or cooked in soup. The main thing - do not pick up inedible, which can be poisoned. On how to distinguish the false mushrooms from the present, everyone should know. The collection of mushrooms and their use should take place according to all the rules, the observance of which is mandatory for anyone, even an experienced mushroom picker.
The differences summer experience
This type of mushroom grows almost the entire year, with the exception of very cold weather. Mushrooms can be collected in spring, summer and autumn, with their peak of growth in September-October. During the summer months, we can also gain a lot of mushrooms, but they are completely different from the autumn. They usually have very large caps and legs, which makes them look like inedible ones. How to distinguish the false agaric from the real, if they grew up in the summer? Here again, pay attention to the upper part of the fungus. Although the head of the summer monkey sometimes reaches 10 centimeters in diameter, it is usually thin-walled, its edges are slightly wrapped inside, in the middle it is also covered with something like a web. Its color is yellowish-brown. It has plates of rusty, white or brown shades, which only darken with age. The leg of summer mushrooms sometimes grows very long, but at the same time it remains brown, with a “skirt” and scales on it. Instead, the false summer garland is easy to distinguish. His leg and cap are bright yellow, of an unpleasant, poisonous color. The surface is smooth, there are no scales on it.
Some useful tips will help you to distinguish false mushrooms from real ones. For example, when you cut a mushroom, carefully inspect its "insides". They should not come unpleasant smell, they should not change their color: to become darker or brown, or acquire a poisonous shade. Before going to the forest, be sure to read the encyclopedia, the section about real and false honey agarics. The description of both is detailed, with pictures and photographs.
In addition, help you distinguish between edible mushrooms and spores, which are located inside the cap. Shake the mushroom over a piece of paper or palm, and they will pour out. In real honey agarics, the spores are white or completely colorless. A form similar to an egg or an ellipse. They are completely smooth. In false experiences they are dark: purple or brick.
And the last tip - bite off a piece of the fungus, which you doubt, chew and spit out. In false agaric honey, the taste will be bitter. But remember that this procedure is dangerous, can cause poisoning, so it’s best not to risk it.
Leg of the bud
In edible mushrooms on the leg there is a ring. The inedible honey agarics does not have a ringlet or there are residual signs of it (traces of the ring, fragments of tissue). In addition, the leg of this powder is not high (except for adult specimens) - 4-6 cm, and the false reaches 10 cm.
The exception is edible meadow mushrooms, whose legs grow up to 30 cm tall!
Regardless of the environment in which edible mushrooms grow (in a light or dense forest, in a wet or dry place), their caps are not very bright: they are usually pale brown, with small dark scales (adult mushrooms with darker hats and without scales).
And the hats are falsely bright again bright: yellow-gray, rust-red or red-brown, and without scales.
How to distinguish summer mushrooms from false
Summer mushrooms, unlike autumn brothers, can bear fruit in spring, summer, and autumn. In summer experience, as a rule, long legs and large caps grow. How to distinguish them from poisonous mushrooms?
- Hat summer garment. Although its diameter is sometimes 10 cm, its walls are thin, and the edges are slightly bent inward, where the fabric of the fungus resembles a spider web. The color of the hat is yellowish-brown, there are scales.
- Records of summer honeycomb. The color of the plates of genuine powder is whitish, rusty or brown (darkens as the fungus grows).
- Leg of the summer honeycomb. Sometimes its leg grows extremely long - up to 30 cm, but it remains brown, with a little ring.
The false honey agarics have no rings, the caps are bright and smooth, without scales.
Now you know how to distinguish the mushrooms from the false mushrooms. If there are doubts about a fungus, it is better not to cut it off at all or to have a water test at home. Gradually, you will gain mushroom experience, and you will know exactly where the edible honey agaric, and where the poisonous.
Are false mushrooms poisonous mushrooms or not?
But are all false mushrooms poisonous or not? It is interesting, but even an edible mushroom may well become poisonous if you do not follow the rules for its storage, as well as carry out improper processing. For example, everyone knows that fruit bodies are perishable, therefore it is strictly forbidden to keep them fresh for a long time. Otherwise, they will begin to quickly turn black and release harmful substances that are hazardous to health. In addition, it is important to make proper preparation for processing, and for each type of fungus it is different. Therefore, it is not always possible that a false honeydew can be called a poisonous mushroom.
Inedible fruiting bodies will not necessarily be considered poisonous. Non-poisonous mushrooms that have a bad taste and an unpleasant odor can be attributed to this type. In this regard, it is simply not eaten.
In this article you will learn about poisonous mushrooms of honey agarics and see their photos, which help to examine in detail their appearance. In addition, the information provided will help you learn to distinguish between false mushrooms and edibles.
Poisonous substances in the false mushrooms
False or poisonous species of mushrooms are mushrooms that look very similar to edible ones. These two representatives have a lot in common, including habitat and growth characteristics. False mushrooms can live even on the same plot with edible ones. In addition, both those and others grow with their families on stumps, forest clearings, fallen and dead trees. Some types of false mushrooms are poisonous, others are inedible, and still others are conditionally edible. However, all mushroom pickers are strongly advised not to experiment with the collection of such mushrooms. Anyone, especially a beginner lover of a “quiet hunt,” needs to remember the main rule of successfully using the gifts of the forest: “If you have any doubts, pass by!” Take only those mushrooms in which you are absolutely sure. False mushrooms emit toxic substances, so negligence or lack of information can play a cruel joke on your health.
So, are all false mushrooms poisonous? As it turns out, conditionally edible mushrooms are also considered to be false species, which, subject to certain heat treatment, can be eaten. However, you must be very careful, because even here it is impossible to give an absolute guarantee of security.
How poisonous false mushrooms are poisonous and how do they look?
Moreover, the fungus monkey is able to partially change. Such transformations are the result of changes in weather conditions, and also depend on the type of wood on which the fruit body grows. Experienced mushroom pickers are often already ready for such “surprises”, so they turn to additional features. But some newcomers, unfortunately, do not always realize how poisonous the false agarics are, therefore they often ignore additional signs, limited to only superficial knowledge. In this case, it is highly desirable even before you go for your first harvest, to go through the "course of the young fighter" under the guidance of an experienced mushroom picker. Incidentally, it is not at all necessary to study the entire group of twins of each species. It is enough just to deepen your knowledge of one or two types, the most famous in a given area. If we know what kind of edible fruit bodies look like, then we need to determine what poisonous honey mushrooms look like? After all, as already mentioned, false representatives can be very similar to their edible "brethren."
We invite you to familiarize yourself with the detailed description and photos of poisonous mushrooms, which are the most common in most territories of the Russian Federation.
Poisonous autumn mushrooms: photos and distinctive features of false mushrooms
Autumn monkey is considered the most popular among all other species of its kind. He is very fond of his high nutritional value, taste and aroma. However, in autumn experiences there are poisonous twins: bast-lump sulfur-yellow and brick-red.
Latin name:Hypholoma fasciculare.
Synonyms:Naematoloma fasciculare, Geophila fascicularis, Agaricus fascicularis, Dryophila fascicularis, Pratella fascicularis, Psilocybe fascicularis.
Hat: convex, fleshy, at a young age the size is 4-6 cm in diameter. As it grows, the cap slightly straightens and increases in size by 1-2 cm. The surface of the cap is yellow, the center is a reddish or rusty-brown spot. A close look at the edges of the cap can see a greenish tint, and the fruit body itself in these places has barely noticeable remnants of the veil.
Leg: high, up to 10 cm, cylindrical, hollow, often curved. It has a yellow color, a brownish tint appears closer to the base. A distinctive feature of the poisonous fungus of the false honeydew sulphureus is the absence of a skirt ring, which is inherent in edible species.
Pulp: whitish or light yellow, has a strong bitterness and unpleasant odor.
Records: thin, densely located, greenish or olive-black, adherent to the stem.
Edibility: the mushroom is poisonous. When eaten in 2-4 hours, the first signs of poisoning appear.
Spread: growing families on old and rotten stumps of predominantly deciduous trees. Also found at the base of the living and dead trunks, as well as on fallen branches.
Harvest season: August-October, with favorable weather increases until mid-November.
We offer to see photos of poisonous mushrooms, similar to autumn species:
Summer poisonous brick-red mushrooms
Latin name:Hypholoma lateritium.
Synonyms:Agaricus carneolus, Agaricus perplexus, Deconica squamosa, Geophila sublateritia, Hypholoma perplexum, Hypholoma sublateritium, Naematoloma sublateritium, Psilocybe lateritia.
Hat: with a diameter of 4 to 10 cm, spherical, opens with age. Dense, fleshy, red-brown or yellow-brown. The crown has a much darker shade than the base color.
Leg: up to 10 cm in height, up to 1.5 cm in thickness, flat, narrowed at the base, brown. The rest of the legs are yellow, the ring is missing.
Pulp: thick, dark yellow, bitter, foul-smelling. It is better not to taste the taste, as you can get poisoned.
Records: thick, narrow-grown, with a light gray tinge in young individuals and olive-gray in old ones.
Edibility: poisonous, although some experts attribute it to the category of conditionally edible.
Spread: deciduous and coniferous forests of Eurasia and North America. It grows from July to October by large families on stumps, dead trees, forest clearings, and also near the roots of trees.
I must say that the above poisonous honey agarics can be confused with summer species, and not just autumn ones. Therefore, to begin with, it is recommended to find out what the real edible mushrooms look like, and then proceed to study the material about false counterparts.
What other poisonous mushrooms?
What other poisonous mushrooms can be found in our territory? No less famous is Candol's mock-suckling, also known as Candolla Candol. First of all, it is important to remember that this species is very cunning. The fact is that everything affects its appearance - age, habitat, air temperature, humidity. In this case, only a mushroom picker with experience can know how to distinguish poisonous mushrooms from edible ones.
We offer to see this with the help of photos and descriptions.
Latin name:Psathyrella candolleana.
Synonyms:Agaricus violaceolamellatus, Agaricus candolleanus, Drosophila candolleana, Hypholoma candolleanum, Psathyra candolleanus, Candybettle, Candol's Fragile.
Hat: hemispherical, with a diameter of 4-8 cm, as the growing becomes bell-shaped, then - flat. In the center there is a tubercle, the edges are wavy-winding, often cracked. The surface is almost smooth with small brown or yellow-brown scales, which quickly disappear. The color of the cap is yellow or creamy, the surface itself is matt, dry, the edges are quite fragile. The picture below clearly shows how poisonous agony of this species looks.
Leg: 4-10 cm long, 0.5 cm thick, smooth, hollow, easily broken. The base thickens, sometimes there is a root-like appendage. White or soft cream color, velvety at the top.
Pulp: whitish, fragile, thin, has no pronounced taste or smell.
Records: grown, frequent, thin, as they grow, change color from white to gray-violet and even dark brown.
Edibility: poisonous fungus, however, discussions about whether the specimens of this species are poisonous, continue to this day. Sometimes it is classified as conditionally edible.
Spread: grows on the territory of the Eurasian continent and North America. Chooses hardwood and soil near stumps. It grows in large groups, sometimes there are single instances. The season of abundant fruiting begins in June and ends at the end of September.
How can I check whether poisonous mushrooms are mushy or not?
How can you distinguish edible mushrooms from poisonous, and what signs for this exist? The question is quite natural, because hardly anyone would want to harm their health by eating one of these fruit bodies. The most correct and logical way to understand this issue will be a trip to the forest together with an experienced mushroom picker. However, no one has yet forbidden to get a preliminary consultation on the Internet by comparing photos of edible and poisonous mushrooms:
The main distinguishing feature of real experience is the presence of a skirt ring, which the false ones do not have. However, it is worth remembering that old overgrown fruit bodies can lose this trait, despite their edibility.
In addition, in poisonous fruit bodies the color will always be brighter, and in edible representatives - more modest. How else can you check whether poisonous fungus mushrooms or not? You can smell the fruit body and even slightly touch the pulp language. The smell of false monkey is unpleasant, and the pulp is bitter. In addition, poisonous species do not have scales on the cap, their surface is often completely smooth. However, the presence of such "flakes" is distinguished only by young mushrooms, whereas in older specimens they completely disappear.
Look also at the color of the plates under the cap: the real ones are white or creamy, and the false ones are yellow, and as they age they turn greenish. In addition, the cut-off area of false agarics instantly becomes brown-black, whereas in the edible it darkens, and gradually.
How to identify poisonous mushrooms mushrooms when cooking?
Is it possible to determine the poisonous mushrooms during cooking and how to do it? There are several ways, but it is not certain that they are all effective. For example, you can put in a silver water product. If it darkens, it means that the mushroom is poisonous. However, silver can darken from edible species.
There is also an opinion that you can put peeled onion or garlic head in a pan. In the presence of toxic substances, the product should acquire a brown or blue tint. Although it is noted that the shade can also change when exposed to edible fruit bodies.
Some add milk when boiling mushrooms, believing that toxic substances will cause the product to curl. However, this feature is not due to the presence of dangerous enzymes.
Types of false experiments can be divided into 3 groups:
- conditionally edible,
However, an aspiring mushroom picker must not forget the main rule: "Not sure - do not take it!", do not experiment, take care of yourself. Try to collect only real mushrooms, if you are 100% sure that they boldly put them in the basket.
Mushrooms false and edible photos how to distinguish them:
One of the most important signs of the difference between false experiences and real ones is the presence of a filmy ring on the leg (skirt).
This ring protects the fungus at a young age. Remember in real experiences there is such a ring, but not in the false ones!
In edible mushrooms you can see the ring on the leg.
In false experiments such rings on the legs are missing.
In the picture - edible autumn mushrooms.
A, B - young mushrooms, C - old mushrooms.
Another difference from the experience of false experiences:
1) The smell of edible mushrooms - Smell very nice, like other edible mushrooms. False mushrooms publish very much unpleasant smell of mold, earthy smell.
2) The inedible mushrooms have more bright colored caps than the edible ones. The variation of tone from sulfur yellow to brick red. These mushrooms have the usual, modest light brown color.
False mushrooms and their color:
A - sulfur-yellow, B - seroplastichnye, C - brick-red
3) Hat u edible mushrooms covered with small scales, у ложных таких чешуек нет, у них шляпка очень гладкая. Но не стоит забывать, что у настоящих опят в возрасте на шляпке чешуйки пропадают.
4) Ложные опята имеют желтые пластинки, at the age they are greenish, in edible they are yellowish-white or cream.
The plates of honey agaric and their color:
A - edible, B - seroplastinny, C - sulfur-yellow
5) It is also possible to distinguish between false and true honey from the bitter taste, but do not do it in any way! You will be enough signs that we have described above.
Seasoned mushroom picker notice the mentioned signs immediately, but beginners apply this knowledge with great care, because each person assesses individual characteristics (color, smell, etc.) differently and remember if not sure, don't take it.
Where and when to collect fungi, description of mushrooms“Honey” – This is a popular name that applies to different families and types of mushrooms, similar in appearance but growing in different places at different times. We can say that one or another variety of mushrooms can be met in almost any latitude, except, perhaps, only in the permafrost zone.
As the name suggests, these mushrooms usually grow in large groups on stumps and trees (living or dead), but there are also species that feel comfortable near some shrubs or weakened trees, on forest edges and even in a meadow.
The answer to the question, when the mushrooms grow, follows from the name of their most famous species, respectively, it is possible to collect mushrooms almost all year round: common honey agarics - from August to November, meadow meadow - from May to June and from September to October, summer - from August to October, autumn - from August to October, winter - from September to November.
In general, it is easy to recognize the honeydew. It is a mushroom with a flexible, thin and fairly long (sometimes up to 15 cm) stem, brown (from light honey to dark, depending on the age and place of growth) in color, usually decorated with a ringlet skirt.
The cap is lamellar, elegant, usually rounded down. The shape of the cap in an adult mushroom resembles a smooth umbrella; in the young, the hemisphere is covered with small scales. The tone of the cap in various species can be creamy, yellow or even reddish. This is a general description, characteristic of all species of honey agaric.
Why you need to be able to distinguish the mushrooms from the "twins"
For all its attractiveness, collecting mushrooms is fraught with serious risk, for these mushrooms have many "twins", which only a sufficiently experienced mushroom picker can recognize.
There are false and edible mushrooms, and although only one species is truly poisonous among the false mushrooms, the rest belong to inedible or conditionally edible mushrooms, however, in order to avoid a dubious specimen in your basket, it is better to know what you are collecting.To realize the danger of false mushrooms, it’s enough to ponder their very name. These are mushrooms, very similar to their edible counterparts, they grow in the same conditions and in the same period of time as the true mushrooms.
Mushroom pickers argue that there are no uniform rules by which an edible mushroom can be distinguished from a poisonous one, you just need to clearly learn the signs of both, and learn to recognize them on the spot.
Carefully read the description of the edible mushroom and its twin in the catalog or on a specialized website, review the drawings and photographs of both, make sure that all the differences and characteristic features are clear to you, and only after that go hunting.
Do not forget the immutable rule of the mushroom picker about the presumption of guilt: any doubt means that the mushroom must be thrown away immediately.
How to distinguish ordinary mushrooms from falseFor novice mushroom pickers, an important question is how to distinguish edible mushrooms from false ones.
This can be done by various characteristics - both by external (shape, color, etc.), and by smell and even taste.
The most characteristic feature, which allows to distinguish edible garlic from false, is the presence of the so-called "skirt" (membranous ring on the leg), which is absent in false specimens.
Inedible mushrooms are usually brighter, “causing” caps than edible ones. There are possible and brick-red, and sulfur-yellow tones, while edible shade is modest and undefeated.In false agaric honey, unlike edible, there are no characteristic scales on the hat. Although we said above that the scales have the ability to fade with the age of honeydew, and thus, you will not see this distinctive feature in old mushrooms.
But, firstly, the mushrooms grow in large quantities, and in the general “bouquet” you can always find younger individuals, secondly, it is better when the edible fungus is distinguished by the presence of one or another trait rather than its absence (there are scales - to take) for it is better to mistakenly throw away the true shade than to inadvertently feast on the false
Look at the hat under the hat. In false honey agarics, the plates are yellow or dark olive, in edible ones they are of a pleasant yellowish-white or cream color.
Mushroom smellInedible and poisonous mushrooms have a disgusting earthy smell, the true smell of mushrooms is pleasant.
Finally, the pulp of edible honey agaric is pleasant to the taste, while the false agarics are distinctly bitter.
However, recognizing poisonous mushrooms to taste is quite a risky exercise, it is better not to resort to it.
In essence, a careful study of the findings in all the parameters described above will avoid errors. And yet it must be borne in mind that if an experienced lover of a quiet hunt easily notices the differences between two outwardly similar mushrooms, then the novice collector should be especially careful, because concepts like color, smell and taste are perceived differently by different people.To avoid such problems, before going on the “hunt”, very carefully study the question of exactly which mushrooms you intend to collect at this time of year and in this particular forest, when and how such mushrooms grow.
As mentioned above, various edible species of mushrooms grow in different places and at different times, the same applies to twins.
For example, winter garland belongs to very late mushrooms, its fruiting begins at the end of autumn and can last all winter, therefore, let's say, in January (honey agarics appear after a little warming) in almost dead forest such mushroom is quite recognizable.
But the only truly dangerous poisonous mushroom mentioned by us among the false mushrooms is the sulfur-yellow shade, which can be mistaken for an autumn shade. But in fact, the differences between these mushrooms are quite significant, you just need to be careful, careful and common sense.
Most of the mushroom encyclopedias put maximum emphasis on the description of a mushroom, say, open mushroom, at best accompanying it with a color pattern. To read such literature is not enough.It is necessary to see the mushroom "alive" or at least consider the maximum number of its photos, both professional and amateur. The appearance of the fungus varies greatly with age; representatives of the same species vary quite significantly depending on the place of growth.
Peculiarities of drinking experience, how many boiled collected mushrooms
Edible mushrooms are an excellent delicacy, but the preparation of these mushrooms for food has some peculiarities.
First of all, you need to keep in mind that the leg of the mushroom, especially its lower part, is quite tough, so gourmets eat only the cap of this mushroom. Mushrooms can be used to make soups, fry, pickle or salt.Freshly harvested mushrooms quickly darken, so they need to be processed immediately. If you want to make harvesting, mushrooms after clearing forest debris and removing old, wormy or damaged specimens, you can send to freezer (better to use fast deep freeze), where they can be stored for a year.
The second method is the simplest workpiece - drying. You can dry the mushrooms in the open air, either to speed up the process - with the help of a special dryer, or in an ajar oven on minimal heat.
In all other cases, the mushrooms are thoroughly washed under running water. Next, go down to boiling salted water and cook for five minutes. The resulting foam, which is a coagulated protein, must be removed with a slotted spoon.
Then the water is drained, a new one is collected, again brought to a boil, and in it the mushrooms are boiled for about half an hour, until the mushrooms settle to the bottom of the pan. After that, they are thrown into a colander, freed from excess water and only then used to prepare various dishes.
Honey mushrooms - false and edible
At first glance, the false and edible mushrooms are extremely similar. They have approximately the same color of the cap, a similar arrangement of the plates on the inner side of it, and edible and poisonous species grow in the same places.
Note: Mushroom got its name due to the fact that its mycelium develops on old stumps or fallen tree trunks, and this feature is relevant for both poisonous and edible representatives.
The legs of these mushrooms are thin and hollow inside. The surface of the cap is in most cases smooth, but in edible species it can often be covered with scales. The color of the cap and the pulp directly depends on the type of wood on which the mushrooms grow. For example, on coniferous trees, they acquire a brick-red hue, on linden or aspen they turn bright yellow, and on oak they can be slightly reddish. In addition, the shade of the pulp may depend on the season and the type of fungus itself.Figure 1. This is what poison counterpart looks like.
Experienced mushroom pickers from the first time can distinguish a false garlic from an edible, whereas for beginners this can have certain difficulties. In order for you to acquire the necessary experience in identifying true and false specimens, we invite you to become familiar with the distinctive features of edible species and their poisonous counterpart. Photos of false copies you can see in Figure 1.
Distinctive signs of edible mushrooms
Despite the fact that at first glance, the false mushrooms look almost the same as edible, they have some very distinctive differences. Knowing them, you never put a poisonous mushroom in a basket.
Note: Experienced lovers of "quiet hunting" strongly advise to collect only well-known mushrooms. If you have even small doubts about the edibility of a particular specimen, it is better to bypass it, since poisonous twins can cause symptoms of severe poisoning.
To make sure that it is edible, you need to carefully examine it:
- Edible species are not bright, as opposed to false, which immediately catch the eye due to its rich brick-red, honey-brown or orange color.
- There is a special skirt on a leg on all real honey mushrooms, which is absent in all false species without exception. In fact, this skirt is a ring on the leg, and it is present in both young and old specimens. This feature is the main one in the identification of fungi.
- If you have any doubts, be sure to look under the hat. If the mushroom is edible, its plates will have a pleasant creamy, white or slightly yellowish color, whereas in poisonous species they will be dirty yellow, greenish or brown depending on age.
Another characteristic feature of edible species is the presence of scales on the surface of the cap (Figure 2). In false species, this feature is absent. However, it should be remembered that as the fungus ages, these scales disappear, so it is better to collect young specimens that correspond to all the above characteristics. The only exception to this rule is winter swell, which occurs only during the cold season and can grow even under a layer of snow. However, this type of edible mushrooms grows at a time when other species are not found, so you can safely eat them.
What do false mushrooms look like: photos and description
The group of false honey mushrooms includes several species at once, which are slightly different from each other in appearance, but generally very similar to edible species. Some of them are conditionally edible, but are suitable for human consumption only after a certain processing. Therefore, if you cannot say for sure whether an edible mushroom is edible or not, it is better not to put it in a basket (Figure 3).
Among the most common types of poisonous agarics are:
- Poppy: also called seroplastinchastym. It prefers to settle on fallen trunks and stumps of coniferous trees. You can meet such a mushroom in the forest from late summer until mid-autumn. The cap has the shape of a hemisphere, and can reach 7 cm in diameter. As they grow older, the cap straightens. If the fungus grows on a wet substrate, its flesh will be light brown, and on dry soil it becomes light yellow. If you break a mushroom and smell it, you will clearly smell the smell of dampness. On the inside of the cap there are plates that adhere tightly to the stem. In young specimens, these plates are pale yellow, but as they grow older they become similar to poppy seeds. This species belongs to conditionally edible species, but for beginners it is not recommended to collect them, as there is a high risk of confusing them with poisonous ones.
- Brick red: poisonous mushroom, which can be easily confused with edible. In young specimens, neat, rounded caps that become half-spread as they grow older. The color of the pulp can vary from red-brown to red-brown or brick hue. The flesh is yellow, as are the plates located under the bonnet: in young mushrooms, they are dirty yellow, but as they grow older, they turn olive or brown. It prefers to grow on tree hardwood residues. Occurs in forests from late summer to early fall.
- Sulfur Yellow: another poisonous species that should not be put in the basket. The diameter of the cap, depending on age, can be from 2 to 7 cm. In young specimens, its shape resembles a bell, and as it matures, it straightens and becomes prostrate. The name of the fungus corresponds exactly to its appearance: the color of the cap and pulp can vary from a yellowish-brown to a sulfur-yellow shade, and the color in the center of the cap is much darker than along its edges. Mushrooms also grow in groups, both on deciduous and coniferous trees.
All poisonous species have several features: they have no leathery ring on the leg, and the flesh has a pronounced unpleasant smell of damp.
How to distinguish false mushrooms from edible
Going to the forest, it is necessary to study the theoretical information about edible mushrooms and their poisonous twins, and carefully consider the photos of these species, so as not to accidentally confuse this shade and false. In fact, recognizing an edible mushroom is not so difficult if you know its main features (Figure 4).
You can distinguish an edible mushroom from a poisonous one by the following features:
- Hat: in real mushrooms, it is covered with small scales, which are slightly darker than the main skin color. Only old specimens lose this feature, but they should not be collected anyway, because such mushrooms lose their taste and can accumulate radionuclides and other harmful substances. The only edible seed, on the cap of which there are no scales, is winter, but it is found only in the cold season, when other mushrooms do not grow and it is impossible to confuse it with poisonous species.
- Leather skirt (ring): all edible species, except for very old copies, have a white film on the stem, directly under the cap, which eventually turns into a ring. This is the main feature that experienced mushroom pickers use, because of false species, this skirt is absent.
- The color of the skin on the cap: poisonous species are much brighter than edible and immediately catch the eye. Therefore, do not immediately pick bright mushrooms, it is better to carefully examine them in order to accurately verify their edibility. Remember that these mushrooms are a muted brown color, and in poisonous species, the skin color has reddish and yellow-gray tones.
- Smell: if you still doubt the edibility of the fungus, break it and smell the flesh. The real mushroom scent is experienced by the real ones, while the poisonous twins smell unpleasantly - by dampness, mildew or rotten earth.
- Records: under the head of all the mushrooms, both false and edible, are the plates. However, in these species they are light (beige or slightly yellowish), whereas in poisonous they are much brighter, darker and can be painted in green, yellow or olive tones.
There are significant differences in the taste of false and true species. Poisonous very bitter and unpleasant taste, but to distinguish between mushrooms in this way is strongly not recommended because of the risk of getting a strong food poisoning. It is better to use a safe method of identification by external signs, but if you have already prepared the mushrooms and felt bitterness, immediately throw away the dish and do not eat it.
Если вы все же случайно съели ложные опята, следует обратить внимание на основные признаки отравления ними. Первые симптомы начинают проявляться уже через час после употребления, но в некоторых случаях могут появиться и позже, через 12 часов. Toxic fungi contain toxins that gradually penetrate the bloodstream and cause stomach discomfort, dizziness, nausea, heartburn, and severe stomach rumbling. As the toxins spread, the symptoms increase: after 4-6 hours, apathy, general weakness and trembling in the limbs appear. To prevent other effects, such as diarrhea, vomiting and excessive sweating, you should immediately seek medical attention.
Meadow meadow false: difference from edible
In the understanding of the majority of all mushrooms, including agaric, grow in the forest. However, there are species that prefer open fields. This includes meadow meadow, which prefers well-lit glades, pastures or meadows.
Note: As a rule, meadow species grow in large families, forming distinct rows, but in some cases grow in a ring. People call this phenomenon the "witch circle."
These mushrooms prefer wet, but warm weather, and they begin to appear above the ground surface in spring and early summer. If the spring was rainy, it makes sense to stroll through the clearing in early June. It is possible that you will be able to harvest a rich crop of mushrooms. However, it should be remembered that meadow meadow has a poisonous twin, which cannot be eaten (Figure 5).
In order not to confuse an edible specimen with a false one, you need to learn to recognize them:
- Like other species of mushrooms, the edible meadow on the stem under the cap has a leathery ring. The height of the leg is no more than 6 cm, whereas for poisonous twins it can reach 10 or more centimeters in height.
- The plates under the cap of a true meadow have a creamy or slightly yellowish tint, whereas in the inedible they are bright yellow and become green and even black with aging.
- The cap of an edible meadow is never bright: it is predominantly dim brown and covered with scales of a darker shade. In a false mushroom, the peel on the cap is bright, with a pronounced reddish tinge, and the scales are completely absent.
In addition, if you have already picked a mushroom, you can determine its edibility and smell. These lugovikov very strong and rich mushroom flavor, while the poisonous twins smell unpleasant (mold or rotten soil). The last sign by which the edible meadow from the false can be distinguished is contact with water. If you soak these mushrooms, their flesh does not change color and will remain a pleasant cream color, whereas in poisonous species it may turn black or blue.
Some advise you to slightly bite or lick the pulp of honey. If it is bitter, then the mushroom is inedible. This is partly true, but using this method to identify fungi is not recommended, since even a small amount of toxins can cause severe poisoning and liver problems. The author of the video provides more secure ways to help distinguish the false agaric from the edible.