Many have heard that conifers are often grown in gardens. Usually it is spruce or fir. But many gardeners have not heard about such a tree as a pseudo-tesga, and only wonder what kind of a curiosity such is. The fact is that many can see a pseudo-hull in parks, it is practically indistinguishable from fir. Therefore, passing by this wonderful tree, people think that this is an ordinary coniferous plant, typical of our edges.
However, the power and luxury of the crown of a pseudo-hemlock far exceed spruce or fir. It is easier to grow, the tree is unpretentious and grows twice as fast. Its distinguishing feature is the amazing beauty of the cones and juicy, lush crown. Despite the simplicity, psevdotsugu need to be able to grow and care for her. This short gardening tool will help plant, grow and leave one of the most luxurious and attractive conifers.
Features of the tree structure:
- The pseudo-hemlock belongs to the pine family and is a powerful tree with a dense cone-shaped crown. As it grows, the shape of the tree changes and becomes rounded, it happens at about the age of 50 years.
- Psevdotsuga can reach a length of 100 meters in the strip of our country 50 meters.
- Branches or paws of a tree extend perpendicularly from the trunk, and delicate shoots hang down. Very similar to spruce or fir.
- The cones of the tree are very peculiar - hanging with bent scales. Reach sizes up to 12 cm.
- Some types of pseudo-hemlock have lumps with a purple tinge in their mouths - an impressive beauty sight.
- The crown of the tree is gray below due to the resin evolving.
- Needles psevdotsugi resemble fir, but they are narrower and bluish. If you grind a sprig of a tree, you can feel the delicate pine aroma.
For the first time an unusual tree was found in North America. The discoverer was the doctor Archibald Menchise from Scotland. But due consideration was not given to the new species. Repeated acquaintance with an amazing bung occurred later. Brave and courageous traveler, botanist David Douglas rediscovered the tree, but did not leave him without attention. It was he who managed to get the seeds of pseudo-tosuga in England and initiate its breeding in the conditions of Europe.
At first there was a real confusion in the assignment of a tree to childbirth. At first she was given the title of a kind of fir, then they decided that it was wrong. And they began to attribute it to the genus of tsugi. Later it was already allocated absolutely in a separate sort and began to dignify pseudo-leopard or false sugary. However, many botanists out of habit call it Douglas or Douglas fir in honor of the discoverer.
An interesting fact is the possible period of growth of pseudo-hemlock - up to 1000 years.
For example, in America, a tree of this species was found at the age of 700 years! The diameter of the trunk reached 4 meters, and the length of more than 100 meters. Unfortunately, such relics are cut down and used for commercial purposes.
Growing a luxury pseudo-hull is much more interesting than slowly growing. Already in the second year, the gardener will see a small tree formed. Approximate growth per year will be 40-50 cm, and this is in our harsh climate. It is safe to replace the spruce in this genus, as it is well tolerated by frost and poorly affected by toxic waste, which is a frequent phenomenon in the cities.
Around the world, four types of false spills are widespread and known. They grow wild in North America, China and Japan. In general, taking into account all the collected data of nerds, there are about 18 species of tree.
In Europe, only one species is grown and takes root - the pseudo-leopard Menzies or Menziz.
Breeders brought a sufficient number of varieties of this species. Gardeners prefer to breed varieties of medium or low altitude, as they prefer to see soft paws and bumps at eye level, rather than bird's-eye view.
Among the many varieties emit:
- "Blue Vander" - reaches a length of five meters, has a bluish crown, conical. It grows rather slowly when compared with the wild pseudo-duck.
- "Mayerheym" - reaches a length of 10 meters. The crown is like a cylinder, the branches are short, the color of the needles is bluish.
- "Pendula" - this variety is interesting in that the shoots of the branches fall. The tree resembles a weeping willow. Crown color is gray or bright green.
- "Holmstrup" - the tree reaches a length of from three to eight meters. The shape of the crown is conical, thick, the color of the needles is bright green.
- "Serpentine" - a variety bred in Germany and is a tree with curved branches. They meander and form a very interesting crown, slightly hanging. The barrel itself also winds.
These varieties are the most common and widely used by gardeners for spectacular gardening of gardens. Varieties of stunted pseudo-tosugi are planted along with other vertical plantations. It is also possible to divide the genus of the liar on the shape of the crown. Gardeners like cushion and weeping wood. They look very impressive, as if people are giants in fluffy clothes, walking in the garden.
Psevdotsuga unpretentious, but she has a favorite soil. She prefers well-drained and loamy soil. Does not like sand and heavy clay. Can tolerate podzolic and calcareous soils.
The best substrate for planting will be a mixture of leafy soil, peat and humus. The ratio of 3: 2: 2. If the land where the gardener is going to plant a seedling is very dense, it is necessary to lay layers of drainage on the bottom of the pit - broken brick, expanded clay and sand.
In wet, dense soils, the pseudo-hemlock will grow poorly.
As for lighting, you should pick up not too dark areas of the garden. The tree prefers open spaces, moderately illuminated. Young plants should not be exposed to direct sunlight. Slightly shaded areas, not raw, perfectly suited to this genus of coniferous trees. If the place is chosen correctly, caring for the tree will not cause any trouble. It will be great to grow and reach for the sun.
Experienced gardeners recommend breeding pseudo-hull with seeds. They are formed in the cones once every 2-3 years. Seeds are planted in the ground in November at a depth of 2 cm and grown at home.
It is common to plant a sapling on an open area, which has reached the age of 5 years.
Seed reproduction is a very laborious process, but it allows you to grow a large number of seedlings. They will be stronger and more resilient. Seedlings planted to a depth of one meter.
The second method of propagation is cutting:
- From a coniferous plant at the age of 3-4 years, cuttings are cut, preferably from side shoots.
- The trimming procedure is best done in the spring, after the tree wakes up.
- The stalk should be together with a piece of wood at the base - with a heel.
- If it is not immersed in a growth stimulator, the cutting is not likely to take root.
- Planted in a light, mulch substrate and grown at a temperature of 20 ° -23 °.
- It is necessary to monitor soil moisture and lighting.
- A sapling is best kept at home in a shaded place so that the sun's rays do not fall on it.
Gardeners prefer to propagate pseudo-seed by seeds. Let it be long, but reliably. The plant is strong and more resistant to Russian frosts.
Varieties and varieties
About 30 varieties of this type of pseudo-hemlock are known. But most of all four types are used.
PseudoHolmstrup bred in Denmark in 1962. This is a slender slow-growing tree, the maximum height of which can be a maximum of 8 (but more often 5) meters. Very dense conical crown, raised branches. Needles saturated green color.
Serpentine Pseudo - German variety. When describing a variety, a vertically twisted trunk with sinuous and penetrating branches is indicated, providing a spectacular and unusual appearance.
Pseudo-leopard Fastigiata - a tall tree with a dense crown in the shape of a narrow pyramid, raised branches, needles of a bluish color.
Pseudo leopard Glauca Pendula - variety bred in Germany in 1891. It is a small tree with a weeping crown. Dangling branches and apex look original, making the tree look like a weeping willow. Needles Glauki has a pronounced blue hue.
Features of growing and breeding
Psevdotsuga Menzies, like most conifers, is an unpretentious plant. But she still has certain moods.
This tree loves to grow on loamy and well-drained soils. Does not tolerate the addition of sand and clay in the ground. For its cultivation podzolic or carbonate lands are permissible. The best for pseudo-tosugi is a composition containing 3 parts of leafy ground, 2 parts of peat and 2 parts of humus. It is mandatory to lay a good drainage layer when planting a seedling at the bottom of the pit - it can be pieces of brick, expanded clay or sand. Raw and dense soils are strictly unacceptable.
The tree is light-loving enough. For his landing choose open areas with moderate lighting. This is especially true for young plantings: newly planted seedlings are recommended to shade from the bright sun.
Pseudo-creature is propagated in two ways: by sowing seeds and grafting.
Seeds ripen, as stated, during the growing season, but are formed in cones every three years. This conifer tree begins to grow at home, for which the seeds are buried in the soil to a depth of 2 cm. In the flowerpot, seedlings grow for five years. A sapling who has reached this age is buried in a hole about a meter deep.
When conducting cuttings from a tree in spring, 3 or 4-year-old lateral branches are cut off. The stalk must have a small piece of wood at the base - the so-called heel. Cut branches immediately immersed in a solution of growth stimulant and planted with a light earthen substrate with a mulching component. Cuttings take root at a temperature of 20-25 degrees with sufficient humidity and light. A young seedling should not be kept in the sun - a half-shaded place is ideal for it.
It is believed that the seed method is more reliable, although it is quite long. But a tree grown from seed comes out stronger and more resilient.
Subtleties of care
Psevdotsuga from those plants, the care of which does not present any particular difficulties.
Careful attention to yourself requires just planted a young sapling. It is necessary to shade it from direct sunlight - still not strong needles can get a burn. To avoid frostbite, the trees are covered with nonwoven fabric. Such protection is removed only when resistant summer weather is established. This care requires only seedlings that grow in the first year in the open field. Older trees are no longer covered for winter, their spreading branches are tied up before winter so that the snow does not damage them.
When planting, pseudo-plants are supplemented with complex fertilizers, which are specially developed for coniferous trees. This is done in spring. After 5 or 6 years of growth, humus or peat is added to the soil under the tree to make the soil more nutritious.
The soil under the tree is regularly loosened to ensure the penetration of oxygen to the root of the tree.
Psevdotsuga well tolerated pruning. During the first few years of growth, they cut the side shoots of the tree, which stimulates a more dense and luxuriant growth in subsequent years.
Water the tree regularly, as soon as the soil dries. Water consumption rate - from 10 to 12 liters. Young saplings and mature trees in dry weather are sprayed with warm and soft water.
Psevdotsuga resistant to disease and has virtually no pests. Occasionally aphid or fungus may appear on it.
The optimal distance between individual instances, depending on the application in the design, is from one and a half to four meters. It is best to take root 5-8-year-old seedlings, planted in favorable penumbra before budding starts. The depth of planting is 0.8-1m inclusive with soil filling.
The best soil consists of a mixture of leafy soil, peat and humus. For drainage should lay out a layer of 15-20 cm of broken brick and 10 cm of coarse sand.
After planting, up to two buckets of organic and 200-250 g of mineral fertilizer are applied. Further feeding is carried out regularly a year after planting.
Cultivation and care
Grow and feel great this culture can where many coniferous plants suffer from a lack of lighting. At a young age, the abundance of the sun can even be dangerous for her, because gentle shoots are prone to sunburn.
The pseudo-hemlock develops well on moist, moderately dense nutrient soils. Ideal for her are drained loams with neutral acidity. Drought for psevdosugi is not destructive, but in this case it is better to carry out regular watering of 20-25 liters per tree.
She will be grateful to spraying, which will have a beneficial effect on the decorativeness of the crown, especially in the long absence of rain. In order for the soil not to be too dense, it is important to mulch the plant after planting and regularly loosen the ground.
Although the plant itself is resistant to winter, young specimens may suffer from severe frosts. To protect against the effects of cold, tree trunks should be mulched with spruce or foliage at 20 cm.
In order to form a compact crown, pseudo-snow can be trimmed with a young growth in the summer, as well as plucking central buds on lateral shoots in spring or autumn. She endures a thorough pruning every 3-4 years.
Use on site
Since there are not so many plants that feel perfectly in the shade, a pseudo-bow becomes a godsend for a gardener. Under natural conditions, it often grows near streams in a shady place, so in the garden it will stylishly set off the landscaping of the pond.
Due to its rapid growth and dense crown, which forms a dense evergreen fence, it is often used to create a hedge.
In addition, evergreen needles will advantageously cover the site, which in the garden can not be called adorning. And honorable taking a place near the entrance to the house, this culture will add to it a certain solemnity.
The pseudo-league can be identified by the following characteristics:
- abnormal height. In North America, the tree reaches a height of 100 m, in conditions of European climatic zones it rarely grows above 50 meters, but it is already significantly higher than the common fir,
- crown shape and color. A young liar possesses a cone-shaped crown characteristic of the Pine family, which, as it grows, turns into a round, spherical. The lower part, with time, takes on a gray tint due to the resin released by the tree,
- bumps. Fruits stretched in length (up to 12 cm) with folded scales hang from the branches, immediately attracting attention. In some species, the base of the cones is purple, which gives them additional charm, Pseudo-cones
- needles. At first glance, they resemble fir, but it’s clear that they are no longer of such a bright color. If you rub a needle with your fingers, a light pine aroma will immediately appear.
Basically, pseudo-hull is confused with fir, spruce due to similar branches: in her, they also grow perpendicular to the trunk.
Psevdotsugi have a number of advantages for which gardeners love it. These include:
- fast growth. Each year, the plant is pulled out by 40-50 cm, so within a few years already a rather impressive “resident” will appear on the site,
- frost resistance. It is impossible to meet a pseudo-hull in Northern Europe, but in the Central territory it is well tolerated by frost and cold, and thanks to a powerful trunk, it does not care about the winds,
- not afraid of bad ecology. This tree feels great in urban environments where the level of toxic waste is off the scale.
North America is traditionally considered the birthplace of the pseudo-hemlock, where botanists first drew attention to this tree. However, in the world there are about 18 kinds of false sacks, some of them grow only in Japan, China, and after the appearance of a tree in England in the 19th century, it began to spread throughout Europe. The original liar today is found only in the wild, near rivers, in shady meadows. And for decorative needs, mainly breeding varieties are used.
They are not so high, their crown is usually located at the level of a person's eyes of medium height, giving the opportunity to admire spreading fluffy paws and beautiful cones.
All 18 varieties are quite similar to each other, so we separately select only those that have special characteristics.The international name of the variety sounds like this - Pseudotsuga japonica. A representative of this species can only be met on the Japanese island of Honshu at an altitude of over 500 m above sea level. The tree comfortably feels closer to the rivers, deep wet holes, surrounded by other conifers. The local mild climate and soil from volcanic rocks have created good conditions for growth and reproduction.
Японская псевдотсуга редко достигает высоты в 30 м, а диаметр ее ствола не больше 150 см.
Крона на дереве сосредотачивается в верхней половине, отливая изумрудно-зелеными оттенками на самой верхушке и слегка сероватым низом. The yellow-brown branches spiral upward, becoming covered in color in April and seed cones in October. Outside the island, the tree is found only in the arboretums, where it rarely takes root well.
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, or large-sized, got its name due to the largest fruits among all types of pseudo-sutsug: they can reach a length of 15-18 cm. Seeds in such cones are quite large, they are not capable of movement themselves, therefore the distribution of false eggs is provided by birds.
Despite such outstanding bumps, the growth of the tree itself is small - 15-30 meters. It also differs in ribbed bark, in which thin woody and thick cork layers alternate. It is this unique bark that regularly rescues a pseudo-hull from fires that flare up in California, where a tree grows. You can meet him on the western and northern slopes of the mountains, in the gorges and in the shade on the banks of the rivers.
Although large-sized pseudo-leopard and loves humidity, it grows well in arid, desert regions, so that their populations are not at risk.
In difficult times, the tree sheds needles and is in a sleeping state for up to 2 years, and after a change of circumstances it develops with a new force.
Pseudotsuga menziesii, or the liar of Menzies - the only original type of pseudo-cuts growing in Europe. This powerful evergreen tree with a conical crown has about 10 varieties. Young specimens differ in orange-red color of branches, slightly raised up, and smooth bark on the trunk. The older members of the species have dark horizontal paws, and the bark over time acquires hillocks and wrinkles. Cones in Mensez's pseudo-tosugi are ovoid, and the needles are rather short, only 2-3 cm long.
This species is also called Douglas fir.since it was he who first met David Douglas during an expedition to North America. The appearance of Menzies became the basis for breeding varieties, among which the most popular are the flat-top Compacta, the miniature Densa and the drooping Glauca Pendula.
But the special love of gardeners and decorators won "Glauca", resembling a luxurious blue spruce.
Pseudotsuga sinensis common in China, Taiwan and Vietnam. Here she often conquers peaks at the level of 3300 m above sea level, however, unlike other types of pseudo-tosug, she prefers to stay among deciduous trees.
Perhaps that is why the Chinese variety has a wide crown, the shape of which resembles deciduous trees. On the basis of thin needles, two white stripes appear, and their tips are bright green. Mature seed buds are pleased with pale purple, purple-brown shades near the end of October. Earlier, while the ancient giants with a trunk diameter up to 2 m were still available, the pseudo-hull was used for the construction of buildings and bridges, but today this era has ended.
Cultivation of this tree is not justified from the point of view of the Chinese economy, therefore, it is only possible to meet a fool in the wilds in the depths of the country, in reserves or in arboretums.
Choosing a place
Although the adult is quite hardy, the young cuttings will need thorough care. Choose for their landing areas that are in light shade.
The shoots cannot be in the bright sun, which will damage their sensitive skin, but the complete absence of light is detrimental to the growth of the future tree.
The pseudo-hemlock is able to grow on virtually any soil, except wet marsh. If you want to stimulate the growth of a future tree, then use its favorite options:
- oxygen rich loamy soil, but avoid dense clay and clean sand,
- podzolic carbonate soil
- substrate of leafy land (3 parts), peat and humus (2 parts each).
How best to propagate pseudo
Both methods have their pros and cons, but experts prefer to work with seeds rather than cuttings. Although this method is more durable, its seedlings are more resistant to frost, pests, and poor soil.
Cuttings are used in cases where there is a need to quickly grow a tree.
Features care for young seedlings
Whatever way of landing you choose, young shoots will need the same care:
- watch the weather. In late spring - early summer, when there is a chance of frost, do not forget to cover the seedling with nonwoven fabric at night: the cold in this period of its growth is destructive. And at the end of the autumn you will muffle the stalk with leaves or spruce branches so that it will spend the winter warm,
- remember the sun. The morning and evening rays are good for the young runaway, but during the day it should be kept in the shade, especially in the summer. Otherwise there will be burns on the bark
- watering. If no precipitation has been observed for a long time and the ground under the sapling starts to become covered with cracks, water the sprout once a week (25 liters of water will be enough for once). With extreme heat, increase the frequency of watering. The plant will also gratefully accept morning and evening sprays,
- loosening. In order for the moisture to better nourish the soil, as well as access of oxygen to the roots, do not forget to periodically loosen the soil around the tree,
- trimming. It is strongly recommended to pull out the buds that appear in spring and autumn, but trimming the crown is not necessary for a young pseudo-shade. It is usually carried out only with the purpose of giving the tree a decorative shape,
- top dressing. Sapling without it will not be easy to manage in the first 2 years of growth, so periodically fertilize the soil around it with peat or humus.
Watering and soil care
Although a liar is not against moderate humidity, it calmly tolerates drought. For quite a long time, it goes without rain, but if you want to make life easier for the tree during droughty periods, then we will allow regular watering. At times enough 10-12 liters of water. As long as the pseudo-leopard is young and of short stature, crown sprays will also be helpful.
Adult specimens absolutely do not need pruning, but it is well tolerated if necessary. Due to this ability, trees are used in decorating areas, because on their crown it is easy to form the desired shape.
After the 4th-5th year of life, a liar is already a rather large tree that does not need additional feeding. The older it gets, the larger the carpet of fallen needles under it, which, rotting, and feed the pseudo-hull.
Diseases and pests
In addition to the lush crown, gardeners love their pseudo-hull for their resistance to diseases and pests. Only in extremely rare cases, it can suffer from fungus or aphids.
The fungus infects the roots and trunk. The reason for its appearance is excessive moisture or infection from another plant. If possible, this reason should be quickly established and eliminated. Treat the affected areas with anti-fungal medications (Baktofit, Vitaros). Aphid is rarely threatened with pseudo-soutines, it is deterred by a rather strong tarry smell. However, if, nevertheless, individuals resistant to it were found, then the tree should be sprayed with insecticides (“Aktara”, “Commander”, “Corado”).
Psevdotsuga - a great decoration for any site. This tree from Pine trees is undemanding to the soil and further care, however, it will please its owner with a luxurious crown. Therefore, it is not surprising that landscape designers are increasingly using it as a replacement for traditional pines and spruces.
Ornamental pseudo plant
Ornamental plant pseudo on photo
Psevdosug is an evergreen tree belonging to the Pine family. 18 species and a large number of species are known. They are all monoecious, hailing from North America, Japan and China. Most of them are characterized by rapid growth, shade tolerance, low soil requirements and drought tolerance. The conical shape of the crown and horizontal branches are similar to spruce and fir.
As seen in the photo, the pseudo-bow, unlike fir, has hanging cones and soft needles without “suckers”:
In adulthood, the crown of a tree becomes a flat-topped.
All types and forms of psevdotsugi show not only high frost resistance, but, which is very valuable in garden design, they do not suffer from the spring sun at all. They retain the natural color of the needles in all seasons of the year.
They are propagated by freshly harvested seeds and cuttings taken from young ornamental forms.
As a decorative breed with a beautiful cone-shaped crown and gray-pine needles it is used in the design of garden plots. Soil and moisture is undemanding. Cold and smoke resistant.
As well as spruce, decorative pseudo-cusps are suitable for single and group plantings, less often they are used in gardening of reservoirs and avenues. Artificially, the shape of the crown can be maintained by plucking out the buds in the spring before they dissolve or shortening young shoots.
When planting trees, be aware of their size in adulthood. Only then will the plants not interfere with each other. They will get enough sunlight and start branching from the earth itself.
Below is a description of the pseudo-leopard Menzies, sisolist and gray.
Psevdosug Menzies, sisolistnaya and gray: photo and description of varieties
Psevdosuga Menziesa photo
Pseudo-leopard Menzies is a beautiful large coniferous tree with thick, cracked bark. The lower branches of young trees are bent upward, the old ones are arranged horizontally.
Pay attention to the photo - the needles of Menzies's pseudo-leopard with a white stripe below are located on the twigs in two rows:
Cones ovoid, hanging, up to 10 cm long.
This mighty tree has several varieties and decorative forms, slowly growing, multi-stemmed and with gray and gray-green needles.
The most interesting are the following varieties of Menzies pseudo-leopard
Psevdosug "Compact" in the photo
"Compact" - multi-layered, flat-topped shape,
Psevdotsuga "Glauka" in the photo
blue - "Glauka"which in 20 years grows no higher than 5 m,
Psevdotsuga "Glauka Pendupa" in the photo
but Pendup's Glauka different hanging branches
"Densa" and Fletcher
- the shortest among pseudo-tosug. They do not exceed 1.5 m.
Psevdotsuga sisolistnaya on photo
Pseudo-hemlock sisolist to soils is undemanding. It is more resistant to air pollution than common spruce. Winter-hardy and light-loving. Sometimes the branches are damaged by wet snow and glaciation, but then the crown is resumed. It surpasses all conifers of temperate climate in energy growth. Close to a pseudo-southeast, by its decorative qualities and biological-ecological features are gray-gray pseudo-hemlock and its silver form.
Psevdotsuga gray on the photo
Gray pseudo - tree with brown or reddish bark, smooth at first, then fissured and flaking. Buds are brown, shiny. The needles are linear, 15-25 mm long, up to 3 mm wide, dull at the apex, markedly narrowed at the base, bluish-green from above, with two whitish stripes on the bottom. Cones are oval, 5-7 cm long, up to 2.5 cm thick. Covering scales longer than seed with a pointed, bent to the base of the cones. Seeds are wide-wedge with an ovoid wing. Ripen in the first year in October.
Use in the garden
Psevdotsuga serves as a wonderful decoration of any site. Tall monumental trees are planted in the central part of the courtyard. These evergreens will delight with blue or emerald needles in any weather for a year. Of the undersized specimens often create hedges. Thanks to the haircut, psevdotsugu can give any shape, as well as try your hand at creating green sculptures.