Good day dear readers!
Onions are a popular vegetable in many countries and are used in many dishes. About 80 varieties of onions are known in Russia, one of which is Exhibichen. It is a mid-late Dutch variety.
In warm areas this onion is grown from seeds, in cool and cold from seedlings, sown for winter or early spring. In gardeners, this variety is popular because of its gigantic size and sweet taste.
Description of the variety Exhibition
Onion Exibishen is a large-fruited variety. Bulb weight ranges from 150 to 800 grams. Their size depends on the method of cultivation.
The head is rounded elongated shape. The neck is thick. Cover scales are thin, straw yellow. On the cut, the head is white, juicy, tender. The yield per square meter is 2.5-4.3 kilograms.
From a mass shoot of seeds to lodging of the leaves of this onion, 130 days pass.
The shelf life of onions is 4 months. After which it begins to germinate.
Bulbs tolerate transportation in small containers.
Onions can be grown from seed or seedlings. Due to the long growing season, it is mainly grown in the open field through seedlings.
Onions are not picky about the type of soil. The variety is characterized by the ability to quickly form heads. Bulbs grow superficially. When growing seedlings, onion reaches 550-800 grams, and in a seedless way - 150-250 grams.
How to plant onions on seedlings to grow in one season
In order to grow an onion in one season, you need to follow the rules of cultivation. Onions are demanding to care and without timely watering and feeding will not give a good harvest.
Onions grown by seedlings with the right care reaches 800, and sometimes more than a gram. Sown in open ground onions is smaller.
Land and Seed Preparation
You can buy soil for seedlings in the store or make your own from:
- 5 kilograms of leafy or soddy land
- briquette coconut substrate
- 3 kilograms of humus,
- 3 kilogram of peat,
- 200 grams of vermiculite
- 2 kilograms of coarse sand.
Coconut briquette soaked in 3 liters of water, added peat, humus, leaf soil and vermiculite (sand).
Instead of this composition, you can take a mixture of 2 parts of sand, parts of humus and parts of leafy ground.
The mixture is thoroughly mixed and spilled with hot water.
In addition to land, you need to prepare and seed.
Preparation of seeds purchased from a reliable manufacturer is not required. This nipper is calibrated, processed with fungicides and sprout well. It can be sown without treatment.
Collected independently and untreated seeds are kept for 8 hours in a purple solution of potassium permanganate (for 1 liter of warm water 1 gram of the product).
Then the seeds are transferred to a tight gauze bag and placed in warm water for 5 hours. After they are removed in a dark warm dark place for 3 days for swelling.
After the seeds have swelled, furrows are made in the ground with an interval of 2 centimeters from each other. Seeds are embedded in the ground to a depth of 1 centimeter. They are laid out one by one, 1-2.5 centimeters from each other.
Then they are sprinkled with a thin layer of soil and moistened from a spray bottle with water heated to 60 degrees.
Capacities are covered with a film or glass. This allows you to retain moisture and creates an optimal microclimate and exhibited in a warm place.
The first shoots appear in 3-5 days.
After the emergence of shoots shelter is removed. Sprouts are transferred to a well-lit place, for example, a window sill on the south side, a loggia. With a lack of light used phytolamp. The temperature of the content during the day should be equal to 20-25 degrees, at night - 10-15 degrees. The temperature difference hardens the bow, making the seedlings strong. For grown seedlings, the temperature of the content during the day drops to 15-20 degrees.
During the cultivation of seedlings, it is fertilized several times. The first feeding is carried out 10 days after germination of seedlings, then every 15 days. To do this, use organic and complex mineral fertilizers, which alternate.
With a dense planting grown plants are seated in separate containers.
2 weeks before transplantation, the plants are quenched. They are taken out to the balcony or an unheated greenhouse.
When and how to plant seedlings in open ground
Onion seedlings transplanted from April to mid-May (depending on the region and time of sowing). From the time of sowing to planting seedlings in the ground should be 45-60 days.
Sowing seeds in open ground is done in the same period.
The agrotechnical cultivation of this onion implies a high-quality preparation of the earth and intensive care. Garden beds are prepared in autumn. A well-lit place with a cultivated land is chosen. Onions grow best on light sandy soils rich in nutrients with neutral acidity.
Best of all, if pumpkin, boar, bean or grain crops grew in the garden before. In place of carrots, onions, garlic, beets, cucumbers and corn onions should not be planted.
In autumn, organic matter, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, and wood ash are added to the onion. The earth is dug up to the depth of a shovel.
Row spacing must be equal to 40 centimeters. For receiving large bulbs on a running meter 3 plants are located, on a square meter no more than 6 pieces are placed.
If the bow is not seated from the tank into individual pots, then the tank is placed in water. Soaking is required to remove the earth from the roots. The resulting seedlings are trimmed, leaving 10 centimeters of green feather and 5-6 centimeters of roots. This helps to stimulate the growth of bulbs. The depth of the pits should be equal to the length of the roots. Pits poured water. They spread out seedlings and powdered with earth. Arches are installed on the garden bed and the covering material is tensioned. Remove the greenhouse will be in 2 weeks.
How to plant onions without seedlings in open ground seeds
Sowing seeds in open ground is carried out at a depth of 1 centimeter. The grooves are filled with earth and well poured from the watering can with warm water. For large bulbs sowing is carried out at a width of 6-8 centimeters.
For convenience, the seeds can be glued to toilet paper with the help of paste (1 tablespoon of starch per 100 milliliters of water). The paper is cut into strips, a width of 3 centimeters and a length of 80 centimeters.
The distance between the droplets of the paste should be 5 centimeters. Drops are applied with a toothpick. Seeds are immersed in a drop of paste.
Dried paper is folded and laid out in a plastic bag.
In the prepared grooves neatly placed paper tape seeds up and lightly sprinkled with earth.
After the growth of the seedlings, the plantings are thinned out.
Onion care in summer
Onion Exhibit demanding irrigation, nutrition, growing conditions.
Care is watering, making dressings, loosening between the rows, fighting diseases, pests and weeds. For very large bulbs, plants require regular watering. Watering is especially important at the beginning of growth and during bulb formation.
Onions during hot weather, watered once a week. The soil should be saturated with moisture to a depth of 20-30 centimeters. After each watering, weeding and loosening of the rows are carried out
Also an important factor in a good harvest is the timely introduction of dressings. Fertilizers are applied several times per season. First, nitrogen fertilizers are used, which contribute to the growth of green mass, then phosphorus-potassium supplements are applied.
In the first half of June, fertilizing is carried out with a mullein extract, diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 and urea (25 grams per bucket of water). On June 20, the onions are fertilized with mineral dressing, in a fortnight: with Organavite, biohumus, Baikal Em or Radiance. All dressings are carried out after watering.
Diseases and pests
Seedlings during the growing season may be affected by onions. Mature plants are subject to powdery mildew. Harvest is affected by gray cervical and white bottom rot. In addition, the bow strikes a stem nematode and such a pest as an onion fly.
Mealy dew appears in wet weather. The manifestation of the disease can be identified by yellow oval spots on the leaves, which later lead to a complete yellowing of the feathers and coating them with a wax coating. Damaged leaves dry, fold down and die. At the first signs of the disease, plants are treated with a fungicide against peronosporoza.
Rot can occur due to excessive moisture or thickened plantings. When storing, a gray patina appears on the bow. Rot formed inside the bulb. It softens and rots. In case of frequent precipitations, a canopy will help protect the beds, protecting the beds from moisture and letting in free air. Sick plants must be removed from the beds immediately.
The stem nematode is caused by a worm, the size of which does not exceed 0.5 millimeters. Light and twisted onion feathers are the first sign of illness. The bulbs rot and crack when damaged, the worm breeds inside. Diseased plants must be removed immediately, as the disease spreads quickly. Crop rotation, liming of the land and healthy seeds allow you to avoid illness.
Most often the onion strikes an onion fly. She lays her eggs in the bottom of the bulb. Onion fly is activated when the cherry blossoms. Planting onions during this period should be covered with a film, spunbond. Next to the onions in between the rows you can plant carrots, parsley. Their smell repels insects.
From time to time the beds are sprinkled with wood ash. It protects against pests and is a good feeding.
From diseases and pests it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment of planting poisons against diseases and pests. For this purpose, Bordeaux liquid, copper oxychloride, Arceride and Polycarbacin are used.
Onions need to be removed when yellowing, lodging the pen and softening the neck. Onions are pulled out by hands or dug out by pitchforks. Cleaning is done in dry weather. The bulbs are spread on the floor and dried for several days under a canopy. Then they are clipped, leaving a high neck. In most of the bulbs, it remains juicy even after complete formation and does not dry for a long time. After cleaning for quick drying, the neck can be tied up with a thin rope.
Onion Exhibition is stored no more than 4 months. It is used both in the first and second courses. Gardeners, planting this onion just once planted it in his garden all the time.
What onion to plant on seedlings
Failure will necessarily comprehend the gardener if the variety of onions for planting was chosen incorrectly. To achieve good yields, it is important to correctly select varieties and hybrids of onions for growing through seedlings.
What to look for when choosing a grade:
1. Term maturation of culture. Early hybrid varieties ripen in three months, but it is not suitable for storage. Such varieties are suitable for summer consumption and for greens. Middle and late varieties are designed for growing turnips, which is characterized by good keeping quality. But it will take from 110 to 130 days to ripen the head,
2. The number of rudiments. Multi-seed varieties are not suitable for growing turnips, as they provide an abundance of greenery and many small heads. For the formation of high-quality turnips choose low-grade varieties, which form one head,
3. Head Size Here everyone is guided by his own taste, but remember that it will take more time to form large heads.
In addition, when choosing a variety, they take into account the purpose of the onion, for example, salad onions, it has a sweet, sharp-sour taste.
Such varieties of onions as Kaba, Exhibition, Mayachkovsky, Red Baron, Annual Siberian, Skvirsky, Tsitaus and others have proven themselves well.
Growing onion seedlings: technology, soil and seed preparation
In regions with a harsh climate, onion seedlings make it possible to get a good turnip harvest in one season, whereas this can not be achieved without a seedling method. However, experienced gardeners have their own secrets of growing onions through seedlings.
How to choose a primer for onions
Best of all onion seedlings grow on turfy ground, which is mixed with humus in equal parts. Before using the soil must be disinfected so that the seedlings are not sick. You can simply shed the soil with an antiseptic or heat it in the oven at a temperature of 180-200 C. Then the substrate is covered with a film and cleaned in a warm place until the time of landing.
How to plant onion seeds in seedlings
Sowing start in mid-February, as the seeds sprout for a long time. The seedlings are transferred to a permanent place at the age of 50-60 days. In each region, the dates can shift, so they are calculated based on their seedling age.
Important! Seeds of onions quickly deteriorate and slowly germinate. Be sure to look at the expiration date on the package with seeds.
Immediately before sowing the seeds are processed. To do this, they are placed in a bag and kept in a weak solution of manganese for 15-20 minutes, then in a growth biostimulator for 12 hours and dried to a friable state. Such processing significantly reduces the waiting time for germination.
Seeds are planted in boxes or cassettes for seedlings, which are filled with pre-prepared soil. Several seeds are placed in each cell and lightly sprinkled with earth, the soil is moistened with a spray bottle. Boxes covered with film and cleaned in a dark, but warm place. At a temperature of 20-25 C shoots appear after 7 days. After the emergence of seedlings film gradually removed.
How to care for onion seedlings from germination to planting in the ground
Growing onion seedlings is easy, but some gardeners do not always succeed. Onion shoots need constant care and care.
As soon as the shoots hatch, seedlings are removed to a cool place where the temperature does not rise above 15 ° C, the film from the boxes is removed. After a week, the seedlings will get stronger and can be moved to a well-lit and warm place.
Thinning seedlings carried out 10 days after germination, leaving 2-3 cm between plants. Seedlings are watered very carefully, not allowing excessive soil moisture or dryness.
Before transplanting into open ground, you need to conduct 2 feedings of seedlings with an interval of 2-3 weeks. For fertilizer onions use complex mineral mixtures. The first dressing contribute 15 days after germination.
If you are going to grow onion seedlings, be sure to take care of the backlight, as the seedlings need 12 hours of light day. Without additional lighting to achieve such illumination at the end of winter will not work, the seedlings will begin to stretch.
The secret from experienced gardeners: To seedlings did not break and did not go to bed, you need to prune or nip after the third feather. To do this, the feather is shortened by 2/3 of the height.
How to plant onion seedlings in the ground
In open ground seedlings transferred at the age of 55-60 days. Tightening with transplantation is impossible, since it has a bad effect on the further growth of the onion: seedlings do not take root well, the root system develops worse.
It is better to plant seedlings on a bed with an earthy clod, trying not to injure the root system of plants. Feather shortened by a third, which contributes to a better survival of plants. The depth of planting seedlings - about 2 cm, the distance between them can withstand 25-30 cm.
The work is carried out in dry and warm weather, and after planting the bed is well watered and mulched with humus. The first few days, seedlings do not bother. After 3-4 days, the soil is loosened to provide oxygen access to the roots.
If the seedlings landed correctly, then after 7-10 days it will start to grow. After a few more days, you can feed the onion with a solution of mullein or bird droppings. In the middle of summer, onions are fed with potassium phosphate fertilizers.
Caring for onions after planting is simple, it is enough to water the garden in time, regularly loosen the soil and periodically feed the seedlings.
What are the advantages of planting onions from seed?
Most summer residents and villagers are accustomed to using onion sets for planting, since the harvest from it is very good, and you don’t have to bother with seedlings. However, planting seeds with onions has many advantages:
- Using Sevka very often leads to the fact that gardeners personally pests of different crops are brought to their beds, as well as pathogens. For this reason, it is recommended to soak the seedlings in a solution of potassium permanganate before planting; however, even it is not capable of killing all the pests that may be inside the set. As for the seeds, their disinfection gives one hundred percent disposal of pests.
Как выбрать лук для выращивания: какой сорт выбрать
Planting onions and how to do it in a right way depends on the selected variety, because it is the variety that affects the way of cultivation, as well as the time it takes to add seeds to the soil. So, all 60 varieties of onions are divided into two main types:
- South. These varieties are more heat-loving, they require about 17 hours of daylight, otherwise the quality of the crop will decline. This type of onion includes so-called sweet varieties, which have a short shelf life. It is their most rational to grow through seeds.
- North. These are more acute varieties of onions, which are grown mainly from seedlings, and which require less hours of daylight hours. These varieties are perfectly preserved, which is why it is not difficult to get and keep seedlings from them.
Among the varieties of domestic breeding for growing from seeds are suitable:
- Danilovsky 301,
- Myachkovsky 300,
- Chavsky one-year,
- Siberian one-year,
- Pink early
When to sow onion seedlings
The answer to the question of when to sow onion seeds depends on the method of planting onions with seeds, which are just three:
How to prepare the seeds before sowingPlanting onions on the head begins with the preparation of seeds. First of all, they should be checked for germination, which is important to do another month before sowing. For this, only 15-20 seeds are taken from the pack, which are wrapped in a damp cloth and left in a warm place for 2 weeks. According to the result, it will be possible to predict your future harvest of onions.
However, even if the seeds showed a good shoot, they also need to be treated for fungal diseases. To do this, all the seeds are poured into a cloth bag and dipped for 15 minutes in boiling water, and then another 1 minute in cold water. In the same pouch or piece of cloth, the seeds must be kept for another day at room temperature, constantly moistening with water.
When and how to transplant onions: landing scheme
During sowing, onion seeds are placed in furrows, between which it is worth keeping a distance of 5 cm. At the same time, it is necessary to retreat 10 cm from the edge of the bed. Seeds are buried to a depth of 2 cm.Seeds in the furrows should be located at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from each other. After sowing, they are covered with soil, which needs to be slightly tamped and watered well. Top bed is covered with polyethylene, which will contribute to seed germination. When germinating, you should remove the cotyledons, which appear in the form of roots, and not loops, as they still die.
When the seedlings grow, it should be thinned out. This should be done in such a way that there is a space of 2 cm between the plants. In the same way, it is recommended to plant the seedlings that were grown at home.
Do I need care for onions, and how does it manifest itself
How to grow onions from seed without care? Of course, a certain attention to the bow is needed, although it requires very little of it. The main care for onions is manifested in three main directions.
Watering onion seedlings in the period from May to June can be done only once a week, if the weather is very dry - you can take it up to two times a week.At the same meter of beds, it is necessary to pour out up to 10 liters of water. But the excess moisture in July can damage the bulbs, which during this period begin their formation, so watering should stop. The only exception will be a very hot summer, when you still have to carry small portions of moisture on the beds with plants, while trying not to damage the feathers of green onions.
Weed removal from the beds
Weed beds with onions should be regularly, because when you pull out a large weed, you can pull out or damage the bulbs themselves. That weeds were pulled out easily, beds can be previously watered. It should be remembered that when removing weeds, loosening of the soil should be partial, since deep loosening can also harm the bulbs, especially in the early stages of growth.
Fight against diseases and pests
The most effective pest control is to strengthen the plant itself through additional supplements. To do this, you can use a solution of urea, a spoon which is diluted in a bucket of water. This solution can be used to water the beds instead of water, while consuming approximately 4 liters of feed per meter of the beds.
When to start harvesting and how to prepare onions for storageOnion harvest is going to be practically the very first in the garden, unless, of course, you count berries and greens. The fact that the annual onion is time to collect, you will tell faded and yellowed feathers. Usually this period falls on the last weeks of July - the beginning of August.
All dried feathers should be completely removed from the dried onions, and the bulbs should be dried additionally near the heating appliances. This simple manipulation will help you keep the crop longer in winter, as well as protect it from the development of rot and powdery mildew.
Well dried onions are necessarily sorted: small bulbs are selected for subwinter seeding, while large ones are sent to boxes or canvas bags for storage. It is recommended to keep onions in a dark place with a temperature in the region of + 18 ° С. Periodically onions should be shifted to determine sprouted and rotted heads that need to be immediately removed. If all these rules are observed, the onions can be stored up to the new season, but it is worth understanding that this factor directly depends on the variety used.
Adding an article to a new collection
Onion planting seeds practiced not all gardeners, but in vain. This simple method allows you to establish a continuous onion "production" and be confident in the health of planting material and its varietal qualities.
The main advantage of this method is that you can save a lot of money, even if you buy seeds instead of sevka, even if you collect them on your own plot or from your neighbors.
How to grow onion sets from seed
Good onion seeds are a guarantee of a quality result, so you need to choose them very carefully. Seeds of any variety that you like will fit, provided that they have ripened, were properly collected and stored in a dry place. If the seeds are the same size, dry, black, shiny, free from impurities and mold, feel free to use them for sowing.
Preparing the soil for sowing onions
Before sowing onion seeds in the ground, you need to choose the best place for this. The best seedlings succeed where last year grew zucchini, cucumbers, tomatoes or cabbage. But on the onion bed and next to it could remain pathogenic bacteria and onion fly.
Choose a well-lit, well-ventilated place, dig up the earth and start fertilizing about a week before sowing. In a loose breathable soil, add half a bucket of rotted manure or compost and 1 tbsp. nitrofoski, Kemira Universal, Rastvorina or other complex mineral fertilizer per 1 sq. m.
On heavy clay soils, add 1 bucket of sand and rotted sawdust to this complex, and sour in advance mix with a half cup of ash or dolomite flour per 1 sq. M.
Preparation of onion seeds for sowing
Seeds of black onions are covered with a hard shell, so they need to be soaked in advance. Place the entire volume in a damp cloth and regularly spray it with warm water, preventing it from drying out. When the first seeds hatch (1-3 days), you can start planting.
If you doubt the quality of the seeds, for example, they are stored not for the first year, check them for germination in advance. Soak the chernushka with water and place it in a warm place - after a few days, more than half should slip. If this does not happen, the seeds should be replaced or just sow thicker.
Sowing yourself is simple and will not take you much time. It is possible to start it in the middle lane in the penultimate or last week of April. But residents of other regions will have to decide when to plant onions with seeds, depending on the weather. In any case, you need to be guided not by return frost (the onions can cope with them), but by the average daily temperature - it should be above 15-18 ° С.
Many gardeners are wondering whether it is possible to plant onion seeds before winter. It is possible, but this method has its own nuances. First, the ridges should be prepared the same way as in spring, but not earlier than October. And secondly, the onion seed planting itself before winter begins only on frozen ground, or even on the first snow, when the thaw is no longer foreseen. Seeds are sown a little thicker than in the spring, necessarily dry, immediately covered with previously harvested earth or peat, and the ridge itself is covered with a thick layer of spruce branches.
On the chosen day, the prepared ridges are shed with warm water, and then they are grooved on them. Their depth should be no more than 3 cm, the distance from each other should be about 15 cm. The bottom of the grooves is powdered with ashes and set about laying out the seeds. Yes, they are precisely laid out at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other, and not sown in the conventional way. Although the rate of sowing onion 4 g per 1 meter, sow it like dill is not worth it - the shoots will be uneven, and the onions will interfere with each other.
Sown seeds sprinkled with a thin layer of earth, peat or sand, ridge mulch. If the seeds were germinated, additional watering is not necessary - they will appear on the surface in a week. But the dry seeds need to be watered gently, and they do not grow up earlier than in 10 days.
Although the bow is not too thermophilic, a strong frost can beat the tender shoots, so cover the ridge with a spanbond or film for the night.
Cleaning and storage of onion sets
In the second half of July, the leaves of the seed roll begin to turn yellow and lie down. Do not be afraid and strive to "water" fading plants. In fact, these signs indicate that the set is ripe and ready for harvesting.
Pull out the bulbs, lay them right on the ground (if the weather is dry) and leave for 3 days. Then take to the hottest place (in the attic or veranda) and dry for another 5-7 days. Before removing the onion sets for storage, sort it. The best bulbs are obtained from a seam with a diameter of 1.5–2 cm, a larger arrow is used, and a smaller one dries.
It is not necessary to throw away the culling - you can easily plant it before winter to get an early harvest in the spring.
Store sevka in fabric or mesh bags in a cool and dry place. A barn, a glassed-in balcony or a storage room in the apartment will do.
Growing onion seedlings
Onions are perhaps the most common crop in our household farms, so we will not dwell on the cultivation of turnips from the plantation, we will repeat only the main points.
So, if you decide to experiment with a podzimny planting onions on a feather or on a head, prepare the ridge in early September, adding the same fertilizer to the ground as when sowing seeds. At the end of the first month of autumn or the beginning of the second, you can start planting.
Disinfect the discarded (too small) onions in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes, dry and place them along the grooves 4 cm deep at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other. Uncircumcised neck of an onion should disappear under a layer of earth at a depth of 3-5 cm, sprinkled with a layer of soil or peat. Ridges do not water, mulch, cover with spruce leaves, and when snow appears, they actively throw it on top.
In the spring, the shelter is removed, and when 2 true leaves appear, the onions are fed with urea (2 tsp per 10 liters of water). Then care is carried out in the same way as for spring planting onions.
If you buy onion sets, choose nurseries, garden centers, specialty shops for this, as there is a high probability of buying infected seed in the market.
Before planting, the seedlings are sorted, discarding rotten or sprouted, dried on the window for 3-4 days, disinfected in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes and then planted. The soil for planting onions is prepared in the same way as for sowing seeds. But lay out sevka at a distance of 15 cm from each other and to a depth of 4 cm. Then they are sprinkled with a layer of soil 2 cm thick, slightly pressed and watered abundantly.
Watering is first carried out every week, then a little less, focusing on the weather, and 2 weeks before cleaning, watering is completely stopped. A month after the appearance of the leaves, the onions are fed with urea (1.5 tbsp per 10 liters of water) - this solution is enough for 2 sq. M, after 2 weeks the feeding is repeated, and after two more they are fertilized with a solution of potassium sulfate (1.5 tablespoons) and superphosphate (1 tablespoons) in a bucket of water.
It is important not to forget about loosening, which is often called dry watering. Soil peel on the onion ridge should not be. And do not forget to break out the emerging arrows, otherwise the bulbs will stop developing and will not be stored.
How to get onion seeds
Do you want to completely switch to your own seed production, but do not know how to collect onion seeds? It's pretty simple, although some skills will still be needed.
- Choose 5-7 large and healthy bulbs of the same variety.
- In May, plant them in the ground, putting 150 g of compost under each and placing them at a distance of 50 cm from each other.
- Regularly loosen and spud plantings, apply nitrogen fertilizer to the soil twice.
- Tie the bow arrow to the peg and protect it from birds.
- After the onset of yellowing onion flower stalks, cut them off and hang in a warm dry place to ripen.
- Shake the ripe seeds out of the flower cap, fold into a paper bag and sign.
Growing onion turnips from seeds in one season
For those who do not want to mess around for a long time and want to grow a full-fledged onion from seed in one season, there is a very real, albeit rather troublesome technology. Not all varieties are suitable for the implementation of such a plan, but only the early ones, such as Borodkovsky, Zolotnik, Carmen, Odintsovo, Early Pink, Red Baron, Siberian etc.
Growing seedlings of onion seed on the windowsill
Seeds of onion seedlings are sown in boxes 10 cm deep until March 5-12. For germination using peat soil with trace elements or independently enrich it with wood ash at the rate of 0.5 cups per 5 kg. Germinated seeds sown to a depth of 1 cm and leave the container at room temperature, slightly moistening. After the emergence of seedlings, the temperature is reduced to 14-16 ° C, and the seedlings are thinned out, so that 2-3 cm are left between them.
Watered the seedlings every other day with warm water, twice fed with complex mineral fertilizer according to the instructions. By the time of landing on each plant should be 3-4 true leaf.
Planting onions in the ground
In mid-May, seedlings are usually ready to move to a permanent place. To transplant onions are prepared as follows:
- plenty of water,
- taken out of the box
- leaves and roots are cut by a third
- Dip the roots in the clay talker.
Onions are planted, not deeply buried, at a distance of 8 cm in a row and 20 cm between rows. Further care is carried out, as for ordinary onions, but they are not harvested before mid-August and try not to store for a long time.
As you can see, planting onion seeds in the ground and growing it through seedlings is a very simple task. Try to master this "grandmother's" method, and onions will annually please you with abundant crops and high quality.
How to grow onions from seed in one season
It is widely believed that growing seedlings is extremely difficult, and this process takes a lot of time. However, you can be convinced by personal experience of the opposite, if you become familiar with the basic rules and follow them throughout the whole process.
Many gardeners resort to the seedling method, as this is a guarantee of a high yield. And you can do this even in indoor conditions. But first you need to prepare everything you need for this:
- Onion seeds for sowing,
- High quality soil mix.
- Tanks, which are recommended to use flower pots or boxes,
- Polyethylene film.
Рассчитывать на получение хорошего урожая можно лишь при условии, если вы будете соблюдать следующие рекомендации, которые являются универсальными, а поэтому могут быть использованы при выращивании любого сорта.
- Специалисты рекомендуют использовать для посева полуострые и сладкие сорта,
- Наиболее подходящее время для посева семян — конец февраля. However, sometimes in the literature there is an indication that it can be carried out in early spring,
- Before you begin to sow the seeds, they are soaked: for this they are placed in water heated to a temperature of 35 degrees Celsius, and left for 8-10 hours,
- Next, the seeds are pulled out and left to dry,
- It is very important to observe the recommended norms of planting - 20 g per square meter. So that after sowing the seeds could germinate much earlier, it is recommended to cover the containers with plantings with plastic wrap. From time to time it is necessary to open the boxes for access to fresh air,
- Waiting for the emergence of the first shoots, it is necessary to ensure the seedlings regular watering and weeding,
- Usually the seedlings reach the required state after 2 months. At this time, you can carry out its transplant to a permanent place,
- Before sending the plant to the garden, it is picked. To do this, the root system and the upper part of the stem need to be slightly trimmed.
I would like to repeat once again that you can grow seedlings in boxes or pots. In accordance with the rules of agricultural engineering, it is necessary to consider the following nuances when sowing seeds in boxes:
- Seeds should be placed at a distance of 4-6 cm between the rows,
- Depending on the type of onion used, the seed rate can vary, but on average it is about 15-20 g per square meter,
- Further, the boxes are taken out to the room where a favorable thermal regime is created - approximately + 18-25 degrees Celsius,
- Waiting for the emergence of the first shoots, it is important to immediately lower the temperature to + 14-16 degrees. If you do not, then you will encounter such an unpleasant phenomenon as stretching,
- Until the seedlings reach the required condition for transplantation, they need to be fed regularly. For example, you can use the infusion of chicken manure, which is taken in a diluted state, mixing with water in a ratio of 1:10.
Usually from the emergence of seedlings until the seedlings reach the state required for transplanting to a permanent place, need about 50-60 days. This time is enough for the plant to grow 3-4 true leaves.
The variety Chalcedony, for example, can be grown not only in the containers available at home. A sufficiently effective method is use of greenhouses. In this case, consider the following:
- Preparation begins with the creation of a steam bed. It will require biofuels, which need to be laid on a bed and covered with a layer of earth 10 cm. Such a layer thickness will be enough so that the heat generated does not leave the bed. Then, a specially prepared greenhouse soil is placed directly on the ground. For this mixture take the following components: rotted sawdust (1 part), greenhouse humus (4 parts), peat crumb (1 part) and sod land (4 parts). After that, take a bucket of this mixture, where you need to add one teaspoon of superphosphate, the same amount of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate and half a glass of wood ash.
- It is unacceptable to use to create a bed of land, where onion crops were growing before,
- Be sure to bed need to provide good lighting. Therefore, the most suitable place for it will be near the windows,
- Seeds can be sown only after their preparation: for this purpose, a complex of measures is carried out involving soaking, drying, sizing and treating the seeds with microelements. Also, with respect to planting material, it is necessary to carry out decontamination,
- When the time comes for sowing seeds into the ground, it is necessary to maintain the recommended rate of sowing: the seeds are placed in rows at a distance of 5 cm, and they themselves should be no closer than 1 cm from each other. It is recommended to deepen them by 1.5 cm,
- When the seeds are in the ground, they need to fall asleep with humus,
- Next you need to carefully conduct watering with warm water, using a small watering can with a sieve,
- After that, the soil surface should be rolled and covered with mulch, which can be used as a peat crumb. For reliable protection, it is necessary that its layer has a thickness of 1 cm.
In order to accelerate the germination of seedlings, you need to create a greenhouse favorable temperature within + 18-20 degrees. It must be maintained for several weeks. Then, after two weeks, you can wait for the first shoots to appear. It is important not to miss this moment and immediately lower the temperature to + 10-11 degrees, and after 4-5 days the temperature is raised to + 15-16 degrees during the daytime, and at night it is kept at + 10-12 degrees. If it becomes known about the approaching night frosts, then the landing can be protected with the help of a warming material. Due to this, it will be possible to avoid pulling seedlings. At this stage it is necessary to regularly air the greenhouse.
When the seedlings become stronger, it is necessary to choose a favorable day for hardening, so that the plant can better adapt to the open ground.
When using any of the described methods of cultivation do without picks. If it is necessary to thin the plants, then you need to consider that the neighboring plants should be located no closer than 1.5-2 cm from each other.
When two weeks remain until the day of disembarkation from sevka to a permanent place, it is necessary to create conditions for a shortened daylight period for sprouts, the duration of which should not be more than 10-12 hours. Such a measure will help to ripen the bulbs faster. At the same time, watering and feeding with nitrophosphate is carried out once every two to three days, which should be applied in a diluted form, following the scheme - 1.5 tablespoons of the substance into a bucket of water. It is better to carry out the disembarkation in the evening, be sure to shed a bed before transferring sprouts to it.
Landing in the ground
Waiting for the moment when seedlings sevka in a box or greenhouse will reach the age of 55-60 days, you can carry out its transplant to a permanent place. If this operation is carried out too sooner or later, the plants will need more time to adapt to new conditions. If the greenhouse method was used for cultivation, then when it is transferred to the flower bed, it is necessary to capture a small earthen room.
The transplantation process itself can be described in the form of the following steps:
- Sorting is performed first. Saplings with signs of damage, as well as underdeveloped specimens must be removed,
- Before planting, trim the roots and leaves 1/3,
- Next you need to prepare a talker of mullein and clay, and dip the seedlings in it.
It is recommended to plan transplanting seedlings on the garden bed on a warm and dry day. As a rule, such conditions are created in mid-April. After digging up the bed, it must be prepared by cutting the furrows. Next, the land must be thoroughly shed, after which you can land.
Sprouts put on a depth of 2 cm. Between rows it is necessary to maintain a distance of approximately 50-55 cm. The recommended planting pattern is 550 seedlings per 10 square meters. m. square.
After planting, the seedlings are watered properly - about 80 liters of water should be used for 40 seedlings. Then the ground must be compacted to remove internal voids. At the end of it is covered with a layer of mulch. After three days you can loosen.
To grow a good crop onion seed for one year can any summer resident. Many often use a seedling method that allows you to get a race in time. Most often gardeners use different capacities, like pots or boxes. However, you can also use greenhouses where you can grow onions, for example, Chalcedony. Although it is more troublesome, but this method allows you to get a stronger culture, moreover, you do not have to spend time and effort on the transportation of seedlings to the garden.
In any case, it is very important to create at the cultivation stage. favorable conditions, paying special attention to the temperature regime, not forgetting about regular watering.
Problems with onion seedlings and their solution ↑
Onions are disease resistant and do not attract pests, but occasionally problems arise. If the leaves of the onion seedlings turn yellow and dry, then the onion fly may be the cause; they are struggling with it with the help of special insecticides.
Signs of fungal diseases (blackleg, downy mildew) are feather bleaching and dying. They are provoked by increased humidity and insufficient tillage, they treat plants with Bordeaux liquid or other suitable preparations. But it is better to take preventive measures.
Onion seedling sometimes falls and dries due to various reasons, which are in violation of the agrotechnical recommendations:
- shallow planting (while the root system is very weak, it does not support the weight of the germ). Laying up the soil and also shortening the leaves will help to correct the situation.
- inappropriate soil composition, especially nitrogen deficiency,
- poor watering,
- high temperature content (it is cold-resistant culture),
- the height of the containers is too small - up to 10 cm (the roots have no place to grow),
- also the plants are too drawn out if there is not enough light.
The process of growing onions through seedlings is quite troublesome. But the results of their efforts can be seen already in the same season, having gathered a harvest of healing vegetables. One has only to decide on the experiment, to study the order of the correct implementation of all aspects of the new method, to consult with experienced vegetable growers.
Hello dear readers!
Continuing the conversation about growing onions and in this article I want to tell you about growing onions from seed.
There are three ways growing onions from seed:
- first - we grow onion sets, and already from it the following year - onion turnips,
- the second - in one year we get a turnip directly from the seeds, planting them either very early in the spring or seedlings,
- the third is podzimny sowing.
But first of all, before we start sowing seeds, let's decide which varieties we will plant.
From this depends largely on the method of cultivation, and planting dates. Now in Russia there are more than 60 varieties of onions, which can be divided into two groups: varieties of northern origin and varieties of southern origin.
Northern varieties need a 16-17 hour longitude to form a full-fledged onion, while southern varieties need a 13-14 hour longitude.
Therefore, if we plant northern varieties in the south, we may not get bulbs. Southern varieties require more heat and have a longer growing season.
Also keep in mind that northern onion tastes sharper and is stored very well until the new harvest, if you follow the rules of storage.
Southern varieties have excellent taste, but they store much less time.
Most Russian onion varieties belong to long day bows. These are such varieties as: Strigunovsky, Bessonovsky, Arzamas, Myachkovsky, Danilovsky, Rostovsky, Odintsovets other.
From varieties of foreign selection recommend - Stuttgarter Risen, Globo, Densimore, F1 hybrid Bonus.
And if you want to grow lettuce, you can plant such southern varieties as: Spanish-313, Karatal, Lugansk, Krasnodar G-35, Cabo.
We grow onion sets
In the previous article, questions about the basic requirements for growing onions and preparing the site for onions were covered, so we will not return to them, but proceed directly to the pre-sowing preparation of seeds and their planting.
Terms of landing. First of all, we determine the landing date, this is one of the most important moments. Sowing is carried out as soon as the soil allows, because even with a slight (especially in dry years) being late with sowing, both field seed germination and yield and quality of seed plants are reduced. In this case, onion sets ripen very poorly and, most importantly, they are not stored for a long time.
In central Russia, landing is best carried out in the last decade of April, if the weather does not present any surprises.
And one more thing, although it is believed that the naglet (the onion seeds are also called) retains its germination without loss for 2 years, but I advise you to use annual seeds.
Seed preparation. First of all, let's check the seeds for germination, to do this, put a few pieces of seeds between layers of damp tissue and put them in a warm place. If after a while the sprouts appear, then you can start preparing for planting.
Next, we determine if our seeds need treatment: the seeds that we buy in specialized stores basically all have already been decontaminated (although there are exceptions), but the seeds that you yourself have grown are preferably treated with some fungicidal disinfectants.
Or you can use for this a weak solution of potassium permanganate and keep in it the seeds for one day. It is very good to warm the seeds for 30 minutes in hot water with a temperature of about 50 degrees, and to keep them in aloe juice for 30-40 minutes.
To speed up the emergence of seedlings (onion seeds germinate very slowly), soak the seeds in water at room temperature. This should be done 3-4 days before sowing.
We pour the seeds into a fabric bag, filling it in half, tie it up and drop it in water for 30-35 hours. During this period of time, we change the water 3-4 times.
Then we scatter the already swollen seeds in a thin layer onto a damp cloth, cover it with a second layer of damp cloth and leave them warm.
After two days, the seeds begin to spit up and you can start sowing, but after the chernushka is a little dry, so that it acquires flowability, and mix it with chalk so that the seeds are better visible on the dark ground.
Sowing seeds. Sowing is carried out by the belt method on a bed about 1 meter wide with very loose soil. Loose soil when sowing nippers is necessary because the onion sprout, which has the form of an eyelet, will be very difficult to break through to the surface if the soil is dense or we will deeply dig the seeds into the ground.
In connection with this, we sow seeds in the grooves with a depth of 1.5-2 cm. It is desirable to withstand the distance between the seeds of 1-1.5 cm.
The seeding rate is very important, since the growing season of the crop depends on it, as well as the quantity and quality of the crop.
If we rarely sow the seeds, large sevok (hauls) will grow, which will not have enough time for ripening.
If we sow the seeds often, then we get an unripe shallow seed (non-standard), which is poorly stored and begins to germinate early.
Then we carefully close up the grooves, compact the soil so that there are no air chambers between it and the seeds.
We mulch the beds with sown onion seeds with peat or humus layer of about 2 cm, and then carefully pour them, trying not to blur the planting.
After that, the bed is desirable to cover with plastic wrap to create a favorable water and air regime for the early germination of seeds. After the emergence of seedlings film must be removed.
Care of crops. First of all, it is necessary to carefully monitor that a soil crust does not form and promptly remove all weeds. If we have weeds on crops during the period of emergence, the yield of onions is reduced to 50%, and the ripening of the bulbs is very noticeably delayed.
When the soil crust is formed, the onion seedlings are thinned and uneven, which also leads to a decrease in yield and a deterioration in its quality.
Sometimes weeds appear before the emergence of onions and there may be a danger of the destruction of the onion seedlings when weeding and loosening.
To prevent this, it is very good to add some seeds of lettuce or radish to the seeds of chernushka when sowing. They will ascend first and show us the location of the onion rows, and after the emergence of onion shoots beacon plants can be removed.
When the shoots have 1-2 true leaves, we carry out the first thinning of the crops in heavily thickened areas, leaving 1.5–2 cm between plants. The second thinning is done after the formation of 3-4 leaves and leave a distance of 4-6 cm between the plants.
I want to draw your attention to the fact that it is impossible to delay in any way with both weeding and thinning, because otherwise the thickening accelerates the formation of the bulbs, the plants do not have time to form enough leaves and the bulbs are small.
We water the planting of onions 1-2 times a week, provided that the weather is dry, and only in the first half of the growing season (May - June). Then we stop watering as the onions mature.
And 1 week before harvesting, it is recommended to conduct foliar feeding of crops with potash fertilizer, as this contributes to better maturation of the plantation.
Harvesting, storage preparation and storage features. We start harvesting onion sets in the second half of July - August (depending on the weather), as soon as the leaves turn yellow by a third of the height.
On harvesting onions and preparing it for storage can be found in the previous article about onions.
Store grown onion sets must be differently depending on its size. Therefore, the first thing we do is sorting it into small ones up to 1.0 cm in diameter, medium - 1.5-2.5 cm and large - more than 3 cm.
Sevok best stored in cloth bags and in a dry well-ventilated area. For a small set, the optimal storage temperature is 0ºС, because, since it tends to dry out, at a higher temperature, such a bow can completely die.
Проблему хранения мелкого севка (нестандарта) можно решить, посадив его под зиму, потому что он не стрелкуется ни при каких условиях и может дать отличный урожай лука-репки.
Средний и крупный севок хорошо хранится при комнатной температуре (до 18ºС). При более высоких или низких значениях температуры хранения лук-севок может после посадки пойти в стрелку.
Лук-репка из семян за один год
Вырастить репчатый лук из семян за один год вполне реально. Our resourceful gardeners have learned to do this very successfully, using two methods: first, this is early spring thick seed sowing, and secondly, this is growing through seedlings.
The most suitable varieties for such cultivation of onions are considered Myachkovsky, Strigunovsky and Odintsovo. Also good varieties Russian size and Exibichenwhich have very large onions (350 g each, and sometimes up to 500 g) of a delicate, sweet taste.
And now let's take a closer look at each method.
Early spring landing. For the cultivation of onions in this way, early varieties are best suited and the onions grown in this way will not be stored for so long, therefore it is best to use it first.
It is recommended to start sowing around April 20-25 (depending on the weather). We warm the seeds, disinfect, germinate and sow very early on the beds prepared from autumn.
The beds should be covered with plastic wrap in advance so that the earth warms up well before planting seeds.
On the day of planting, we remove the film from the bed, make grooves and spill them with hot water. Then we lay out the seeds, sprinkle them with humus or compost, compact the soil and cover the bed again with a film.
We remove the film from the bed only when seedlings appear.
Further care for planting is the same as for onions, which we grow from the sevka. The only difference is the need for thinning the landings.
The first time should be thinned onions, when it reaches 7-10 cm. The second thinning is carried out after 3 weeks and the third - 2-3 weeks after the second.
As a result, the distance between the bulbs we should get about 10 cm. With this method of growing onions, it is very important that the bulbs have fully matured.
To speed up this process somehow, you can do the following:
- To spend in the second half of the growing season unraveling bulbs so that they are half above ground.
- Slightly pull the bulbs by the feather, as if lifting them in the ground or slightly cutting the roots with a shovel.
With these actions, the process of nutrients from the leaves in the bulbs is greatly accelerated and their maturation is faster.
Some summer residents, to speed up ripening, crush the onion leaves, but this method is dangerous in that pathogenic bacteria or pests can get into the neck of the bulb.
With this method of planting seeds, it is quite possible that not only a turnip onion will grow, but also sampling onions and onion sets. Therefore, after harvesting and drying onions, it must be sorted into large (more than 4 cm), medium (3-4 cm) and small (up to 3 cm).
Then large bulbs are left for winter storage, medium bulbs need to be consumed first, they are also suitable for forcing green onions, small bulbs (sevok) are left for storage for spring plantings.
Onions through seedlings. Growing onions through seedlings, of course, troublesome, but not difficult. But there are a lot of advantages: firstly, the onion matures perfectly by autumn, not at all worse than the one planted with a sevka, secondly, the crop is two times larger than when sown at once in open ground.
We sow seeds for seedlings at the end of February - the first half of March. Onion seedlings at home are grown in boxes, seedling pots or other containers with a height of at least 10 cm.
The main condition - the walls of the containers should not be transparent, since the light will interfere with the development of the root system.
Seeds can be sown in the grooves with a depth of 1 cm or simply densely planted over the entire area of the container.
Then from above we fall asleep with a layer of earth (1 cm), slightly compacted, gently water (preferably with a spray bottle so as not to wash the seeds from the soil) with warm water and place the container in a warm place (22-25ºС), covered with foil.
Approximately in 10-15 days shoots begin to appear and the film is removed. After the appearance of the shoots (loops), we place the containers with the seedlings to the brightest place, while it is desirable to maintain the air temperature of 9-12ºС for 3-5 days.
Then it is recommended to raise the temperature to 15-20ºС during the day and 10-12ºС at night. If the air temperature in the room is higher, then regular airing is necessary so that the seedlings do not stretch out and do not become ill with the black leg.
In addition, if the seedlings grew at elevated temperatures, then later, when landing in the ground, it does not take root well.
Onion seedlings are watered sparingly, and there is no need to re-moisten the soil. Before planting seedlings in the ground, we feed it two times, but if it grows strong and healthy, then we can feed it once.
We carry out the first top-dressing in a week after emergence of shoots, and the second - in two weeks after the first.
The solution for dressings can be prepared both from mineral fertilizers and from infusion of mullein by mixing in water in a ratio of 1: 6.
We feed very carefully - little by little.
At the age of about 60 days, seedlings can already be planted in the garden. By this time, it becomes strong, has a developed root system, 3-4 true leaves and a base thickness of 3-4 mm.
Usually onion seedlings are planted in the garden from May 1 to 10, depending on the weather in the region and the soil condition. It is not afraid of small frosts.
The best time for landing is the second half of the day, when the air temperature is already beginning to fall. Before transplanting the seedlings we water thoroughly, then each plant is carefully removed from the ground.
If the roots are long, they should be shortened slightly, by about one third. This is done to ensure that when planting the roots do not bend upwards, as this will decrease the survival rate of the plants.
We plant onions in rows with a distance between plants of 8-10 cm, between rows - 20-25 cm. If you plant onions of large varieties, then it is better to adhere to the 30x30 cm scheme. Immediately after planting, we plant the bed well.
Later in the first week, until the plants take root, we water every day, keeping the land moist. Then watering should be carried out as the soil dries.
The following agrotechnical measures are no different from those used in the cultivation of onions in other ways, namely: weeding, watering, loosening, feeding, cleaning.
On this, perhaps, the article will finish. In it I told you about growing onions from seeds in two ways: by a two-year crop - we grow onion sets, and from it the following year - onion turnip and one-year - in one year we get onion directly from seeds, planting them or very early spring or seedlings.
We will talk about the third method — the winter of sowing — in a subsequent article.SharePinTweetSendSendSend