For the maintenance of additional "queens", as well as the barren queens, apiaries of a special construction - cores - are used in apiaries. Their distinctive feature is mainly small in size. The nucleus can be calculated on the content of one uterus or several.
Benefits of using
Previously, beekeepers used mostly ordinary hives to keep queens. The latter were simply divided into several sections, arranging in each of the tap holes. Over time, many apiary owners refused this method of keeping queens. The fact is that the use of a separate nucleus in this case gives a lot of advantages:
Uterus transfer wintering much better. After all, the cores are small, and therefore, the heat inside them is better preserved.
Uterus contained in the nucleus, are more productive. Such structures are usually well ventilated. And this, in turn, significantly reduces the risk of infection of bees by any diseases affecting development.
Nuclei are universal constructions. In addition to keeping queens, they are often used as cuttings or traps for swarms.
Nuclei for bees: which one is better?
If desired, the beekeeper can purchase such a special hive for queens, for example, via the Internet. Most often, beekeepers buy so-called micronuclei. These hives are relatively inexpensive - in the range of 650-700 p. Most often in the Russian market there are Polish products of this type.
Such mini-cores are made of polystyrene and consist of a feeder and four frames (collapsible and wooden). The advantages of such hives include primarily the fact that for their first settlement you need few bees. Also the advantages of these Polish constructions is the presence of the bottom entrance. With such an arrangement, honey theft by alien bees from the hive is practically impossible.
The main disadvantage of mini-nuclei is that the uterus cannot be held in them for too long. A queen should be taken from such a hive a few days after fertilization. The frames in the mini-cores are very small. And therefore the uterus quickly sows them and remains without "work". As a result, the "queen" can simply "fly off" from the hive.
In addition to the mini, there are large nuclei on the market today, designed for keeping several queens. Such structures have the advantage that they can be used if necessary and as a regular hive for the family. The disadvantage of large nukuleusov is primarily the fact that a lot of bees are required for their settlement.
How to make yourself: materials
So, we told what the nucleus is. What it is, now you know. Next, let's see how to build such a hive yourself. After all, specialized shops or mini-workshops engaged in the manufacture of equipment for apiaries, unfortunately, are not in every village. When ordering a nucleus via the Internet, it will most likely have to wait for it for a long time.
Since the design of such beehives are relatively simple, many beekeepers prefer not to suffer with shipments or searches for sold ready-made structures, but to assemble them themselves.
Materials for the manufacture of nuclei are usually used such:
timber 40x40 mm for the frame,
MDF for hull,
polystyrene or polystyrene foam,
plywood for partitions
a piece of galvanized iron to protect the cover from moisture,
slats and consumables.
Expanded polystyrene cores are made warm and comfortable for families. However, the material is fragile, and the bees sometimes begin to gnaw. In order to prevent this, a body of chipboard is used.
Making a core with your own hands is relatively easy. Such a hive can be designed for several queens or for one.
You can make a nucleus with your own hands, for example, using the following technology:
At the first stage, the marking of polystyrene foam sheets is made according to the preliminary drawing.
Next, cut polystyrene parts.
The ends of the expanded polystyrene in the necessary places are coated with glue.
Details tightly pressed to each other.
Holes are made for years.
Hive dimensions are selected depending on the expected number of queens. But the standard dimensions of the core - 570x450 mm. With the framework of this design in the future it will be more convenient to work.
Once the polystyrene base is ready, you can proceed to the manufacture of the body. First going frame. Then the bottom is stuffed bottom. On it you need to fix the slats under the partitions (two at a distance of several millimeters from each other). Next, the walls are packed. Pre-cut plywood walls are inserted between the slats on the bottom. The cover is made and fixed by a tin. Holes are made under the tap-hole.
The finished housing is installed in a polystyrene foam blank. The latter can simply be painted. But it is better to install a ready-made nucleus in a box brought down, for example, from plywood (with holes made under the tap-hole). In this case, the hive will turn out much more durable.
This is how approximately the nuclei for bees are made with their own hands. In order for warmth in winter not to leave the holes, just below them on the wall of the hive it is worth attaching rotating small planks with a thickness greater than the diameter of the hole itself.
How to form?
How to make a nucleus with your own hands, what it really is, is now clear. But how to properly form such a hive? Bees are colonized in the nucleus using the following technology:
cups with syrup are set in the feeding compartment of the nucleus (about 200 ml of the mixture prepared in a ratio of 1: 1 is needed for a family),
withdraw newly born queens from hives (in curlers),
close the taphole (ventilation must remain open)
bees are poured from the framework of the main beehive inside and watered with water (so that their wings get wet and they do not rise),
collect in a glass (about 350 grams) the required number of bees,
water the uterus (because it is barren, it can fly away),
poured out of the cup into the nucleus of bees.
At the final stage, the uterus is colonized into the nucleus. It is best to take bees from the hive in which the new queen was raised.
Inhabiting the nucleus with the uterus is best for young bees. They are in a hive, usually in the farthest corner. In a simple hive "queen" is usually settled in 2-3 hours. This is necessary so that the bees already feel themselves orphaned, but have not yet laid the queen cell.
At the same time, the “queen” is usually planted in the nucleus no earlier than 6-8 hours after the colonization of the bees themselves. Such a large gap is necessary for all old insects to fly back to the main hive. After 6-8 hours, only young bees will remain in the nucleus.
Sometimes bees are planted in the cores and indiscriminately. That is, both young and old. In this case, the uterus is desirable to settle in the nucleus before the bees. To prevent the old insects from returning to their former place of residence, the nucleus should be brought to a cool place for a while.
The core population is relatively simple. Getting spare queens for an apiary is somewhat more difficult. Such bees are usually removed in 12-frame hives (at least 8 frames with brood). At the same time using this technology:
remove from the family the old uterus together with a certain number of bees (2-3 frames),
transfer a new hive for a few days to the basement so that the bees forget the old place,
the queen cells laid by the bees are transferred to the “cell”,
"Cells" are moved back to the hive.
The uterus is cut out neatly with a wide knife in the adjacent cells. Cut through the honeycomb almost through, so as not to damage the bottom. In the “cells”, the queen cells are arranged in a natural way — that is, vertically or at a slight angle. In the first three days, the released uterus feeds on its own. Later, working bees begin feeding her. Therefore, in each "cell" should be placed and some honey.
As described above, fistulous uteri are obtained. There are other, somewhat more complex technologies for breeding such bees. Fistulous queens are the easiest to get, but they are usually not too large in size and not particularly high productivity.
Transplanting bees to the hive
We found out how to make a nucleus and how to form it. Now let's see how to properly transplant bees from this hive into the main one. This operation is usually performed as follows:
a stern frame with perga and nectar is set at the edge,
a dryer is installed nearby,
a transition is set under the frame,
between the dryer and the stern frame are established framework of the nucleus.
Thus fill the hive completely. The remaining bees are driven from the nucleus through the lower opening.
Most often four "queens" are kept in the cores. The uterus from such a hive is used as follows. Three "krolyev" spend as planned. That is, relocate to other hives or sell. One bee is left in the nucleus itself. At the same time, the partitions are removed and three orphaned families are attached to the remaining uterus.
Instead of conclusion
Well, hopefully, we answered the main question of the article about what the nucleus is. What it is, how to do it and how to use this device is understandable. And now you know that a special hive of such a purpose can be either purchased at a specialty store or made independently. The design of the nucleus is not particularly complicated. The main thing is to warm the hive well and provide the bees with good nutrition at first. And of course, you should carefully monitor the uterus in such a hive. The first time the nucleus is inspected is inspected the next day. Further inspections are carried out every 2-3 days. Uterus fertilization usually occurs on the 10th day.
What is a nucleus hive
The term “nucleus” itself is translated to our language as a core. Beekeepers associate this word with a small family of melliferous insects in which the barren or fertilized uterus lives. By design, the nucleuses for bees are designed for a female and 700-1000 working individuals.