Kolonovidny juniper - is one of the oldest plants, surprising not only for its unpretentiousness, but also unique healing properties. This coniferous creature belongs to the cypress family and grows predominantly in temperate climates. There are many varieties in North America, Europe and Asia. Varieties are varied in height and shape of the crown. In Russia, juniper can be found mainly in the forest-steppe belt, in the eastern and western parts of Siberia.
Colony-shaped juniper grows on different soil, but mostly it can be found on dry soils of hills or on mountain slopes, along river banks and on limestone. The Ephedra loves moderately moist sandy soil, although it can often be found in swampy areas. Celled juniper is an evergreen plant, its height varies from 1 to 3 m, the average annual increase is 15 cm. By the age of 10, it grows up to 2 m in height.
Small needles with pointed tips have a pleasant pine aroma, so the branches are often used for the preparation of bath brooms. The name of this representative received because of its columnar shape. His shoots do not hang, like most brothers, the root system grows superficially. Colonious juniper looks amazing on lawns and in a variety of group plantings.
Planting colloid juniper on its own site
It is recommended to plant juniper only in fully lit areas, wherever the sun penetrates constantly. If the bush grows in the shade, then you should not expect much from it: it will not acquire the conical shape of the crown familiar to juniper, the branches will begin to grow in all directions.
Kolonovidny juniper is very unpretentious, that he loved by many owners of sites. In order for the plant to be pleasantly decorative, it should be planted after preliminary preparation of the site. For example, if the juniper is planned to be planted in open ground, then it is better to do it in the spring. You should not wait for full warming, you can proceed to landing as soon as the snow melts and the frozen ground thaws. You can organize planting work at a later time, but there is a risk of burning needles.
It is not recommended to engage in planting in the autumn, as there is a risk that the ephedra does not take root in the ground before the onset of cold weather. If the plant was purchased in a container, then it can be planted at any time of year, even in the hot summer season. The only condition is to close the sapling from the scorching sunlight.
Sour soil is favorable for the growth of young cattle; for acidification of the soil, sand and peat can be added to the planting pit. Peat and wood chips are suitable for mulching of the root circle. Layer poured into 10-15 cm, to eliminate the excessive evaporation of moisture in hot weather and weed growth. If groundwater flows in a garden plot close to the ground surface, then drainage should be arranged.
At the bottom of the landing pit, you can pour pebbles, gravel or sand with a layer of 15-25 cm.
Gardening recommendations for planting
Connoisseurs of gardening affirm that plants that have previously grown in small containers with a capacity of no more than 5 liters are best established. Should be planted with a lump of earth, shake the roots off the ground should not be. If you need to transplant a large plant, and before that carry it, then you need to carefully dig it out of the soil and wrap a clod of earth with the root system in sackcloth. It is even better to place the bush in a special shipping container.
It is not recommended to replant an adult copy. This is explained by the fact that an adult columnar juniper has a complex root system that grows extensively over the surface, therefore, it is impossible to dig out a bush without damaging the root system. Such a procedure will inevitably destroy the plant.
- 2 hours before planting a juniper bush, the lump with roots must be moistened with water.
- The landing pit should be 3 times more than the root system. It is more convenient to make a recess of 0.5 m square shape.
- At the bottom of the landing pit must be equipped with drainage.
- Juniper is planted, paying particular attention to the roots. The root neck of a seedling should be located at the very surface of the soil, and in an adult plant - on an elevation of 5-10 cm.
- As soon as the landing is over, the basal circle should be poured abundantly, and the place around the trunk should be mulched.
- If you have to plant not one plant, but several at once, then the distance between them should be from 0.5 to 2.5 m.
There are no obstacles to planting juniper brought from the forest. Experts tend to believe that this option is even more reliable, since the material for planting in this case is chosen independently. It is better to take a young plant from the forest, since its root system is still very small. Before digging, it should be noted what part of the bush was on the sunny side. During subsequent planting, this factor must be taken into account in order to ensure a better adaptation of the seedling. Digging is recommended with a sufficient lump of earth, it should be wrapped with a bag for safe transportation. Forest juniper is planted in compliance with the above rules.
Cultivating a columnar juniper from seeds and cuttings
You shouldn’t hope that a whole juniper tree can grow from a seed, it will be better to do this by cutting, however, the seeds sprout. Therefore, they must be harvested from young plants about 2 years old at a time when their berries are at the peak of ripening (they must be dark). The collected seeds must be placed in a prepared substrate of peat, moss and sand. The container with plantings for the winter period is carried out outside to create natural conditions for further germination. In May, it will be possible to replant the seedlings in the prepared soil.
Juniper (Cypress family) is a widely used coniferous plant in landscape design. Due to the presence of various shapes and sizes (from narrow and pyramidal giants to creeping dwarfs), it is suitable for the realization of any idea gardener. Kolonovidnye junipers are used as an accent in landscape composition, as well as suitable for laying a hedge. Creeping varieties look great in rock gardens and rockeries in the vicinity of various ground covers and hosts. With the help of haircuts and moldings that the shrub tolerates well, it can be given almost any shape.
The air of the area where juniper grows is saturated with a unique aroma: the plant produces a large amount of phytoncides.
The noble colors of evergreen needles range from bright green to bluish steel, with some varieties adding shades of yellow and gold.
The remarkable advantages of juniper are:
- low soil fertility
- shade tolerance
- drought tolerance
- frost resistance (-40gr)
- high decorativeness regardless of the season
Types and varieties
The largest species of distribution under natural conditions in our country are the following types of juniper: ordinary, Siberian and Cossack.
Juniper ordinary - has creeping (up to 50 cm), bush (1-3 meters) and tree (up to 12 meters) forms. The bark of various shades of gray. It is distributed not only in Russia, but everywhere in our latitudes, from Canada to Japan.
For planting should choose open, well-lit places. The soil fertility is undemanding, but it develops poorly on clayey dense soils.
Common juniper does not tolerate transplantation, so specimens taken from the forest rarely take root.
Possesses high frost resistance.
Juniper common cones are widely used in the form of spices, for making wine, smoking various products, as medicinal raw materials.
Siberian juniper differs from ordinary finer needles and low height of the creeping bush. It grows in mountainous areas. More decorative than ordinary juniper, thanks to the two-color needles - green with white shades.
Juniper Cossack - widely distributed shrub of the European part of Russia, South Ural, Altai, mountains of Central Asia. Creeping forms predominate. Very unpretentious and drought-resistant, grows dense cover due to the light rooting of the branches. As it grows, it can occupy a large area, so perennial flowers and shrubs next to it should be planted with caution. Good for shearing and shaping. It has good endurance - it tolerates both drought and frost. Favorably looks against a lawn, in rock gardens. It differs from juniper ordinary poisonous lumps and specific odor. Upon contact with the ground, the branches root themselves. In addition to decorative functions, it can also be practical: its roots strengthen slopes well.
Juniper scaly - shrub with dense branches and dark brown bark. Growing area - China, Taiwan, Himalayas. Differs from other types of less frost resistance. It has a dense, decorative crown. Needles sharply needle, very tough.
Juniper horizontal (prostrate) in nature inhabits mainly in the United States and Canada. Creeping shrub with long branches. Poor tolerates low humidity. It is characterized by slow growth.
Juniper Chinese in nature it grows in China and other Asian countries. It has tree and creeping forms. Hardy enough, but in a dry climate can suffer from a lack of humidity. Slow-growing, at a young age does not tolerate frosts.
Red cedar. The most common are high columnar forms. It can be used for the device of a live fence. In nature, it grows in Canada and the USA, and in Russia it is widely represented in parks, thanks to its stability and high decoration. Shade-tolerant, winter-hardy, drought-resistant. Poor tolerates transplant. In places of natural growth its wood is used for the manufacture of pencils. The planting is well combined with deciduous trees and shrubs. Not capricious in relation to the soil, grows well on loams and clay soils.
Juniper rocky. In nature, it grows in the United States. There are both tree and shrub forms. Close to the juniper virgin. Poorly tolerated shading, spreading branches suffer from snowfall, they must be tied up.
Plants with a closed root system, acquired in the nursery, can be planted at any time of the year. Enough to ensure the first time a good seedling seedling. Planting rooted cuttings and seedlings to a permanent place is held in spring or autumn.
Place for landing choose sunny. In the shade of a plant with variegated needles will inevitably lose their decorative effect.
Although the plant is undemanding to the soil, during planting it is necessary to proceed from its habitat in the natural environment. Soil for juniper Cossack and ordinary necessary slightly alkaline (in the fall on the site for planting make lime or dolmitic flour). Some species feel good on rocky soils. Juniper virginsky prefers loam and black soil. It is necessary to choose a place and neighbors taking into account the growth of a plant
How to plant juniper:
- Prepare a landing pit size of 1 to 1 m.
- For plants that do not like stagnant moisture, arrange drainage: at the bottom of the pit we pour rubble, broken bricks.
- Carefully remove the sapling from the container and drop it into the pit (without deepening).
- We cover it with earth and water it abundantly.
Planted plants need more careful regular watering than any top dressing. In winter, their needles can suffer from heavy snowfall, so tall and medium-sized shrubs need to tie up the branches. To prevent burning, creeping forms are covered with spunbond, but usually only young plants need it in the 1st and 2nd years after planting.
Important! Juniper transplantation is undesirable: it is very difficult to dig a plant without damaging the taproot.
Choosing the type of shrubs, focus on the place of its growth in nature. For regions with hot climates, the Cossack and virgin juniper will be the most suitable. For the middle latitudes of Russia - Chinese, horizontal, scaly, ordinary.
The plant propagates by seeds rooted with layering and cuttings. Before planting, the seeds must be stratified (about a month to stand in the refrigerator), and before planting scarify - cut a hard shell. For better germination at the place of sowing, soil is added from under adult bushes. Shoots appear after 1-3 years.
The easiest way of reproduction is rooted layering. In creeping forms, branches are often rooted in contact with the ground. Such a branch can be carefully cut and transplanted to a new place with a lump of earth.
Green cuttings for breeding are taken only from young plants, cut them "with a heel" and soaked in a solution of root formation stimulator. The cuttings of columnar varieties are planted straight, creeping - obliquely. The emergence of new buds suggests that the stump has taken root.
1. The physiological drying of the needles.
It occurs in winter, especially on the sunny side. In the needles under the influence of the sun begins to occur active photosynthesis, for which the roots do not provide food, as the ground is frozen. Particularly affected columnar crowns. Prevention - wrapping covering material, spilling the roots with warm water.
A fungal disease that looks like orange growths on branches. Sick branches must be cut and burned. Prevention - treatment with fungicides (“Tilt”, “Skor”, “Bayleton”, “Vectra”), separation of plantings with fruit trees (apple, pear), since it is from them that the junipers are infected.
A fungal disease manifests itself in early summer: last year's needles turn yellow, then black dots appear on it. Dried branches must be cut and burned. Prevention: treatment with fungicidal drugs (“Skor”, “Ridomil Gold”, “Strobe”, “Quadris”).
4. Shrinking branches.
Can affect juniper of all kinds. Manifested in the spring: first, small twigs turn yellow, then the disease covers a large area of the bush. Dark spots appear on the needles and bark. Caused by several types of fungi. The reason for the appearance is the improper planting of the plant: thickened, heavy soils, stagnant water. Patients with withered branches must be cut out and burned, and the fallen down needles should be collected. With a large area of destruction, the bush is uprooted. For prevention, you must follow the rules of planting and handle juniper in the spring and autumn of fungicidal drugs.
Junipers in landscape design
Junipers are widely used in landscape design. Especially beautiful evergreen conifers in the winter landscape, and in summer they favorably set off flowering plants. Shrubs dwarf creeping forms indispensable for rockeries and alpine slides. Tall specimens will create a beautiful accent in compositions with a circular view, and a number of column-like junipers will close the fence in the background. Trimming juniper and shaping can give it almost any shape.
Examples of finished compositions using junipers:
1. For illuminated places.
The basis of the composition are decorative conifers. In the spring, primroses will begin flowering, in the summer it will continue with spirea and daylilies. This composition will look beautiful on the background of lawn grass, it includes:
- Spirea Japanese Little Princess
- Thuja western Smaragd
- Thuja western Danica
- Juniper Andorra
2. In lilac tones for lighted places and partial shade.
The purple leaves of the bubbleberry, barberry, and geyher are set off with white clusters of spirea and a lot of Potentilla flowers. Blue juniper needles give the composition a nobility and depth. Composition:
- Geicher’s Palace Purpl
- Barberry Atropurpurea Nana
- Potentilla Royal Flush
- Juniper rocky Blue Arrow
- Juniper scaly Blue Carpet
- Spirea Grefsheim
Features of juniper (bush)
Juniper shrub is more popular with gardeners, its height can reach 1-3 meters. But sometimes in the gardens there are also tree forms, the height of such a plant is 4–8 meters, but in some cases it is about 12 meters. Erect stem is branched. In young specimens, the bark has a brownish-red color, and in the old plant it is brown. Acicular or scaly leaves are collected in several pieces into whorls. Such a shrub is dioecious. Душистые с приятным пряным вкусом женские овальные шишки в диаметре достигают 0,5–0,9 сантиметров, они окрашены в зеленый цвет. Мужские шишки схожи с удлиненными колосками овальной формы, имеющие насыщенно-желтый окрас и размещающиеся в листовых пазухах. Созревание данных шишкоягод происходит на второй год. Внутри у них находится десяток семян, при этом на поверхности имеются плотно сомкнутые мясистые чешуйки.
Культивируется множество различных видов такого растения, при этом его растят и на улице и в доме. Так, к примеру, большой популярностью пользуются бонсаи из можжевельника.
Можжевельник виргинский, или Можжевельник вирджинский (Juniperus virginiana)
Виргинский можжевельник, или карандашное дерево родом из Северной Америки. Once its wood was used to make pencils, hence the second name of the species. In Moscow suburbs well.
Sometimes under the weight of snow break off the branches, so it is desirable to tie the crown for the winter with twine. Not damaged by pests and diseases, shade-tolerant, drought-resistant. Juniper virginsky tolerates pruning, it is not very demanding to the soil, but it develops better on sandy loam.
Juniper virgin, or juniper virgin (Juniperus virginiana). © Forest & Kim Starr
It grows in the form of a tree with a height of 15-30 m and a trunk diameter of up to half a meter. By the age of 20 it reaches a height of 6 m. The crown is of conical shape with branches drooping down to the ground. Needles on perennial shoots are scaly, small, and on young needles. Especially this species of juniper is decorative at a young age, then the bottom of the crown can thin out. Grows rapidly and enters fruiting. Cone-berries with a diameter of up to 0.6 cm, dark blue with a bluish bloom, ripen in one season, usually in October, and remain on the stems for a long time. The plant covered with blue berries looks very beautiful in autumn.
A virgin juniper has many decorative forms. From trees with a pyramidal crown are especially good:
- Pyramidiformis (Pyramidiformis), is similar to a narrow 10-meter column with light green needles in summer and pastel-purple in winter,
- about the same height of Shotti (Shottii), with light green scaly needles,
- Polymorph (Polymorpha), with bluish needle-like needles below and green scaly-like above,
- Filifera, whose gray crown is wider,
- Chamberlain (Chamberlaynii), with drooping long sprigs in needle-shaped needles, forming a broad lush gray-green pyramid.
Among the virgin junipers there are shrubs.
- This is Dumosa (Dumosa) - with a rounded pyramidal crown and branches covered with thick needle-shaped needles,
- Albospikata (Albospicata) - up to 5 m high, the needles are whitish at the ends of shoots,
- Helle (Helle) - with a wide base of sprouted green shoots,
- Glauca (Glauca) - columnar shape, up to 5 m high, with bluish-green needles.
- Kosteri (Kosteri) - creeping shrubs, lawn decoration and rock garden.
Virginia junipers differ in unusual color of needles:
- Cinerascens (Cinerascens) - ash greenish,
- Aureospicata - with golden tips of young branches,
- Aureovariegata (Aureovariegata) - golden-motley.
Juniper Daurian (Juniperus davurica)
Dahur juniper lives on the mountain slopes, sandy banks of rivers in Eastern Siberia and the Far East. It is undemanding to the soil, winter-hardy, light-requiring, but can tolerate light shading, drought-resistant.
It is a creeping shrub, growing not more than 0.5 m in height and almost 3 m in width. On the shoots at the same time there may be differently shaped leaves, needles: scale-like and needle-shaped, 7-8 cm long. Bright green creeping branches raise the tips of the shoots, and the needle plumage gives the bush a special grace. Cone-berries up to 0.5 cm in diameter, very good for making tinctures. The decorative form of Expanza (Expanse) with light blue needles is in great demand.
Currently Juniper Daurian (Juniperus davurica) is classified as a subspecies of Cossack Juniper (Juniperus sabina var. Davurica)
Juniperus ordinary, or Veres (Juniperus communis). © H. Zell
Juniperus ordinary, or Veres (Juniperus communis)
Ordinary juniper can be found throughout Russia. The plant is inherently very plastic, adapted to different conditions of life and unpretentious. He is not afraid of frost and drought, growing on dry and wet soils. Withstands shading, but in sunny places it feels better. Very durable plant, it lasts up to 2 thousand years.
It is found in the form of a multi-stem tree up to 15 m tall or a bush from 2 to 6 m high. The branching of the shoots is chaotic, therefore the crown has no definite shape. It blooms in May, bright yellow spikelets on male plants and unobtrusive light green flowers on female. The cone-berries are fleshy, first green, the second year when ripe blue-black with a bluish bloom and resinous flesh.
Helpful advice: In folk medicine, the fruits of juniper ordinary (but not Cossack!) Are considered medicinal. It is recommended to brew them (1 tbsp. Spoon per cup of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes, then strain) and take an infusion of 1 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day for diseases of the liver, bladder, rheumatism. Raw berries are useful for stomach ulcers.
It has many decorative forms and varieties. Junipers ordinary, similar to candles are especially effective:
- Hibernika (Hibernica) - narrowly colonized, up to 4 m high,
- Goldcon (Goldcone) - columnar, with yellow needles,
- Meyer (Meyer) - columnar, up to 3 m high, with bluish needles.
Beautiful and juniper with a weeping crown Pendula (Pendula), growing up to 5 m, and like a ball Ehinoformis (Echinoformis). Lovers of stunted plants like Hornibrook (Hornibrookii) and Repanda (Repanda) - 30-50 cm tall, with flattened branches 1.5-2 m long, covered with silver-green needles, Nana Aurea (Nana Aurea) - up to 50 cm tall, with densely branching yellow-golden shoots.
Juniperus ordinary, or Veres (Juniperus communis). © Scoo
Siberian Juniper (Juniperus sibirica)
Siberian juniper is often found in Siberia and the Far East. Can grow on peaty and stony ground, very hardy and unpretentious look.
It is similar to juniper ordinary, but smaller and more decorative due to the colorful needles. It grows slowly, and for a long time its densely branched bushes look like velvet pillows. Cone-berries are almost spherical, with a diameter of up to 0.6 cm, ripen in the second year. It is recommended for registration of stony hills.
Currently, Siberian Juniper (Juniperus sibirica) is united in the Juniperus communis var. Saxatilis species.
Common juniper (Juniperus communis var. Saxatilis) was previously isolated as an independent species - Siberian Juniper (Juniperus sibirica). © Mariya Novikova
The distance between junipers is 0.5 to 4 m, given the size in adulthood. The place is picked up well illuminated by the sun. The landing pit is most often dug out 70 × 70 cm, but first of all it is necessary to focus on the size of the root system. 2 weeks before planting, two-thirds of the pit is filled with a nutrient mixture consisting of peat, turf clayey soil and river sand, taken in a 2: 1: 1 ratio.
But options are also possible here. For example, for planting a Siberian juniper, you should increase the amount of sand (2-3 parts), it is advisable to produce sand under the Cossack soil, and for virgin soil to add more clayey sod soil. Planted by placing the roots horizontally. Immediately after planting, the plant is watered, and the well is covered with peat, chips or sawdust (layer 5-8 cm).
Juniper rocky (Juniperus scopulorum). © KENPEI
Shelter for the winter
The recommended types of juniper in the middle lane do not need protection from winter frosts. Preparing for winter consists in tying the branches of the crown with a twine (in a spiral from bottom to top) to protect against snowbreak. Only novosadki in the first winter is covered with spruce leaves. And for the thermophilic ornamental plants it will be quite comfortable in the winter if in the fall you grind the tree trunk with a peat circle of 10-12 cm.
Juniper protection from pests and diseases
The cause of the curvature of the shoots, slow growth of juniper can be aphid. When it appears, treat the plants with the Spark, dissolving 1 tablet of the drug in 10 liters of water.
If you notice spider nests of the moth, remove them if possible, and sprinkle the juniper with Carbofos (70-80 g per 10 liters of water).
Sometimes damages shoots juniper sawfly. If the branches become brittle and there is a void inside, then this is his job. Sawman dare fufanon (20 ml per 10 liters of water).
Cossack and ordinary juniper should not be planted next to fruit trees and berry bushes, because from them it can become infected with fungal diseases that cause swelling of the shoots, the appearance of mucus on them. Sick branches should be cut, and the infected plant should be transplanted to another part of the garden.
In turn, juniper is a peddler of rust, which infects the inhabitants of the fruit of the berry garden. To stop the spread of the disease, brown branches are cut, and juniper is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture (100 g per 10 liters of water).
Author: Tatyana Dyakova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences