“Royal Bird” want to see private owners in the compound and breeders to breed on an industrial scale. Interest is shown not only to the exotic alongside and origin, but to a greater extent to the productive characteristics of the bird.
Guinea fowls stand winter maintenance well.
Hereditary simplicity causes uncomplicated birds in the winter. Product properties do not lose their usefulness for several years, with simple care for domestic birds cause an increased interest.
Growing guinea fowl in captivity is distinguished by low labor costs, ease of feeding and maintenance. Birds are non-conflict in nature and get along with chicken representatives in the same room. In summer and winter, guinea fowls are unpretentious and require a minimum of attention.
Guinea fowls are rarely found in rural farmsteads, and very rarely they are bred by more numerous herds in the agricultural industry.
They saved from wild ancestors fearfulness, endurance and high immunity. This distinguishes guinea fowl from distant relatives of turkeys and chickens. The body of an adult bird is warm to 42.5 ° C, in winter it can be lower, about 40 ° C.
It is possible to contain a chicken herd with guinea fowls. But you should avoid this if you do not want individuals to mate, which is quite likely. When breeding one breed of guinea fowl, to preserve individuality it is also wise to provide it with a separate room. If there is no separate area for care, it is necessary to separate the existing grid.
Guinea fowls fly perfectly and are able to overcome high obstacles and leave the place of congestion. For safety, the flight wing is constantly shortened.
Guinea fowls fly well and love to sit on the perch
Severe cold in the winter months are easily tolerated by birds. “Morozov are not afraid of guinea fowls, but their breeders,” they say. The herd is settled in a room closed to the winds. For non-insulated sheds used ordinary boards. The content of guinea fowls does not tolerate drafts. The young chickens, though they are naturally immune from colds, are not strong enough. Do not expose them to unnecessary tests. In the summer, additional ventilation and fresh air flow invigorates, in the cold it should be avoided. From the cracks in the barn should get rid of.
It is important to equip a home with comfortable feeders. Rodents in sufficient quantities will provide rest and rest to the birds. The crossbar set at a height of about half a meter. Cold floors are covered with a thick layer of natural materials: straw, dry peat or sawdust. The litter is not removed during the winter. It is cleared by adding the next layer, increasing the thermal component.
The premises must be dry. To save the floor from excess moisture, buildings are built on terrain with a small slope. Melt and industrial waters do not accumulate, dryness and the absence of mold in the house remain. We must be serious about these conditions of detention. Often, the weather presents surprises; in a humid environment, bacteria spread more easily, the body cools faster. In guinea fowers, the ability to trot is reduced.
At the entrance to the building, an obstacle-creating threshold is needed for the retention of nimble guinea fowls. The door opening outside will save from physical impact on birds.
Warm capital structures are used on industrial farms, agricultural subsidiary farms in order to create the conditions for laying eggs. The frosty periods up to -50 º C. Guinea fowls survive well, but they do not rush enough. To obtain high performance, it is necessary to keep the temperature in the winter in the premises -15º-17º.
Guinea fowls can be kept in a warm shed.
Poultry houses have access to the street enclosure with the height of the fence around the perimeter of up to two meters. Mating and comfortable existence is provided with an area of about 1 sq. M. on two individuals of guinea fowls for internal space and about 30 sq.m. for outdoor.
The importance of lighting
It is necessary to organize in the winter additional lighting for the bird's dwelling. Guinea fowls actively rush only during daylight hours.
An artificial source can prolong the laying of eggs. The duration of light time for an adult bird over 15 hours is required.
The use of lamps increases the output of eggs from guinea fowls for 12 months by 30 pieces on average.
Features fattening in the cold months
Regardless of what time of the year is outside, you need a place for walking “royal” birds. They love freedom and walk with pleasure in the near meadows, peck insects in the garden and the garden, without damaging the planting. In the winter of guinea fowls with their favorite delicacy, insects, you will not feed them, as they simply do not exist.
Feed must contain all missing elements. Aviaries are provided with ash and sand in an amount that satisfies the appetite and needs of the guinea flesh.
In the hen, calcium is intensively consumed. Its large amount is contained in the shell of eggs. This product is well absorbed by strengthening the bones and muscles of the bird. Ground shells are added to feed mixtures.
In winter, carrots replace the greens in the diet of guinea fowls.
In the royal bird ration, about half is green. In private agriculture, it can be replaced in winter with various vegetable waste, peeling carrots and potatoes. On farmsteads or industrial farms, it is wise to add bone meal, fish oil, and sour milk products to food. Feeding involves legumes, silage, yeast, sprouted grains and other foods typical of poultry.
Guinea fowls with pleasure eat corn and wheat. Protein mixtures for laying hens are also used by egg-laying representatives of guinea fowls.
Before a night's sleep, it is better to feed, they maintain heat in the body of guinea fowl, provide energy for vital activity. The necessary elements are formed, and in the cold season the bird continues to lay eggs, slightly losing weight.
Characteristic features of the bird
An obligatory sign of a healthy herd is the fear of guinea fowls. Quiet behavior should alarm the host. Birds usually produce hubbub, constantly talking about something. The disturbed noise made by the herd is a natural sign of a healthy population. Increased excitement is noted with the approach of an unfamiliar, alien object.
High immunity guarantees maximum resistance to typical diseases of poultry.
The usefulness of products, its increased ability to remain without loss of unique substances and microelements, justifies the increased costs of its acquisition.
The body of a healthy adult guinea fowl provides the individual with productive and decorative functions:
- production of eggs with a full range of valuable substances
- Feeding tasty, dietary meat,
- decoration of the yard community with rare plumage.
Guinea fowl are beautiful feathers, tasty meat and healthy eggs.
Nuances of the correct content of guinea fowl during the cold period
Summarizing the peculiarities of the behavior of the tsarin herd, and the tricks of the content in the frosty season and in cold weather, we note the importance of:
- the presence of a dry room with a warm floor, the exclusion of drafts,
- providing space for walking,
- balanced vitamin and mineral nutrition to preserve and increase meat weight,
- additional light design poultry houses, increasing the time of egg production.
The cost of healty products of saric, obtained by manufacturers, is high. It is fully justified by the special high quality, which for a long time retains the ability not to lose the presence of useful components.
Features guinea fowls
These exotic birds look like turkeys and domestic chickens. Their homeland can be considered West and South Africa. In Russia, they appeared in the XVIII century. There are many breeds of guinea fowls. But they are all similar in their characteristics and methods of cultivation.
If earlier guinea fowls were diluted as decorative birds, now the main reason is tasty and healthy meat and nutritious eggs. The content of this species of birds does not require high financial and labor costs. Another plus is high productivity. With proper care, the hen-hen is able to produce 150 eggs per year. An amazing feature of the products obtained is that the guinea fowl egg can be stored for several years without losing its beneficial properties. The meat of these chickens is dietary, very tender, contains a lot of hemoglobin and vitamin A.
Guinea fowls rarely get sick, unlike other domestic birds, which makes them easier to care for. They have a peaceful nature, which allows the breeder to put them in the same room with other birds. But you need to know that guinea fowls are very shy. When they are afraid, they start shouting very loudly. Rats and mice, domestic animals, and even strangers can become frightened; therefore, it is important that one owner feed and care for guinea fowls, otherwise they will become slow-moving, may stop laying eggs and even die. These birds are extremely loyal to their poultry farmer and build a close emotional connection with him.
Proper care of guinea fries in the winter
One of the main features of guinea fowls is their adaptability to cold weather.
Every breeder knows that these unusual birds have a great stamina and strong immunity. The body temperature of an adult individual is 42.5 ° C for almost the entire year, and in winter it drops to 40 ° C.
Winter content of guinea fowl has several nuances. Because of their peculiarities, birds can even live in an unheated room in winter, but it is imperative to protect the house from winds and drafts, as well as to set roosts so that guinea fowls do not sit on the cold floor. This is done in order to prevent birds from catching a cold or other diseases. Even in spite of the fact that young chicks hatching in the winter have high immunity, they have not strengthened enough yet and can become sick or even die due to poor housing conditions.
The main conditions of guinea fowl in the winter:
- Convenient feeders. Proper nutrition is the key to a healthy bird, and therefore, tasty, harmless meat and a large number of eggs.
- The presence of a sufficient number of perches. They are needed in order for the fowls to have a place to rest and sleep. And each bird should have its perch. The creation of a comfortable living condition also guarantees a high level of productivity in the winter. The height of the crossbars must be no more than half a meter above the ground.
- Floor covering with natural materials: straw, dry peat or sawdust. In winter, it will help keep you warm in the barn or cage. Cleaning the floor is easy enough: you can simply fill up the dirty layer of the coating with a clean one. This will not only help maintain cleanliness, but also increase heat.
- Providing sufficient lighting, as guinea fowls rush only during the day, when the room is bright. Proper organization of additional lighting will help to increase the egg laying time, especially in winter, when the day is very short. The most suitable conditions are lighting up to 15 hours per day for an adult bird. An artificial source of light and heating will save the guinea fowl from diseases due to freezing.
Also, the correct content of guinea fowls provides for maintaining the dryness of the room in winter. A shed or an open-air cage should be at a slight inclination in order to avoid mold from accumulated moisture.
The increased level of humidity in the room leads to a decrease in body temperature of the guinea fowl and a low level of egg laying, which in turn negatively affects the financial profitability of the farm.
How to choose the temperature regime of guinea fowls in winter
These chickens can survive 50 degrees of frost, but they will be much smaller, so it is very important for chickens to be warm in winter. The room temperature must be at least 17 ° C.
Also, in order to maintain a high level of bird productivity, it is necessary to provide conditions not only for their comfort, but also for mating. To do this, the minimum area of the barn or cage should be 1 square. m for 2 guinea fowls indoors and not less than 30 square meters. m in open space.
Winter Feeding Rules
These poultry feed not only on plants and feed, but also on various insects. In winter, it is impossible to find fresh grass and small insects, so you need to create a feed ration for birds that provides them with all the necessary substances.
All winter it is impossible to feed the birds only with food, you need to give them sand and ashes that will satisfy their physiological needs. Laying birds should be given feed with added egg shells containing calcium, as they quickly consume it during gestation.
How to keep guinea fowls at home?
Dilution and maintenance of guinea fowls at home is directly related to the climatic conditions of the region where they are located. There are three main systems that are used for the cultivation and breeding of this bird:
- The free-standing. In the daytime, guinea fowls graze in fenced territories, for the night they are placed in poultry houses. Pasture equip roost and harbor canopy.
- Outdoor. Guinea fowls are contained in rooms without windows, with a floor covered with sawdust, equipped with artificial lighting, ventilation with filters. Special air exchangers maintain the summer temperature at + 18 ° С, winter temperature is not lower than + 12 ° С, a tanning bed is settled for walking birds.
- Cellular. The content of guinea fowls in the cells is a more preferential method over the other two, but less mastered. With its help it is easier to pass breeding work, artificial insemination, increases productivity.
Some scientists have concluded that the content of guinea fowls in the cells at home contributes to the faster puberty of layers, increased egg production, but a smaller mass of eggs. At cell dilution, the volume of live weight of guinea fowl increases and its better preservation is ensured. The cage used for guinea fowls is knitted from a metal mesh, its dimensions are as follows:
- length is 2000 mm
- width is 450-500 mm
- height is 500 mm.
The space inside can be divided into 4 separate sockets. At the front of the cage, fixed feeders and water grooves are equipped; the floor is made under a bias so that the eggs roll down into special trays. The vertical arrangement of the cells allows you to set them on each other, such blocks allow you to significantly save space.
The content of guinea fowls at home in winter
The guinea fowl, hardy and not afraid of frost, tolerate cold very well; in winter, this bird does not present any particular difficulties. Birds easily withstand great frosts, down to -40-50 ° C, even in unheated rooms, the main thing is to equip them to roost so that they do not sit on the cold floor. The content of guinea fowls in the winter, even with their high immunity, is still better organized as follows:
- to equip for them a room equipped with a small stove or heater, ventilation, lighting,
- set perches at a height of 60-80 cm from the floor,
- to equip in the dwelling place food and drink,
- in the diet include various "goodies" in the form of meat waste, dairy products, fish oil, grains and animal feed,
- to walk birds only at above zero temperature.
When rushing guinea fowl at home?
The guinea fowl, being a late-ripening type of bird, living in households, begins to rush after reaching eight months of age (this is the standard), but the beginning of this process can be affected by the conditions of the birds and the climate of your region. There are cases when egg production in guinea fowls appears from six months of age, this can be achieved by adding compound feed to the diet and keeping it in a warm room. Puberty of guinea fowl occurs closer to the winter, at the end of February the laying of eggs begins, but they begin to fully run in the spring.
The egg production of guinea fowls at home may depend on the location of the region in which they are breeding, this process can be influenced by the average daily temperature and how long the light day is. An important factor is a balanced diet, the amount of vitamins obtained by the guinea fowl. The average egg production of poultry ranges from 100 to 170 eggs per year. The intensity of egg laying in different months can fluctuate, and decreases with age.
Care for guinea fowls at home
Answering the frequently asked question of how to care for guinea fowls at home, one should immediately say that it is not difficult, practically, as usual chicken. Experienced poultry farmers consider the following to be the main rules for the care and maintenance of guinea fowls:
- maintaining a warm temperature in the house,
- equipping the homes of guinea fowls with lighting to maintain a 16-hour daylight hours,
- regular cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses or cages; changing of bedding is done at least once a month, and, if possible, more often. Грязь и паразиты негативно отражаются на здоровье птиц,
- каждодневное мытье кормушек и поилок, наличие свежего корма и воды для питья,
- периодическая подрезка крыльев. Пока цесарки являются птенцами, им следует подрезать фалангу (на одном крыле), взрослым особям подрезают маховые перья, эта манипуляция предотвратит полеты цесарок за ограждение.
Guinea fowl - breeding at home
To start breeding guinea fowls, select 4-6 females and, together with the selected male, provide them walking, birds will not mate in a poultry house or a cage. The best age of selected females ranges from 8 to 9 months, the male should be slightly older. The mating process takes place in the first decade of March, continuing until May, all this time you will have fertilized eggs. Most of the specialists, answering the question of how to breed guinea fowls at home, recommend the use of an incubator, the disadvantage of this species of birds is the lack of attachment of the hens to the nest.
Incubation of guinea fowl at home
For incubation, take eggs of the same size and place them in an incubator, heating it to + 38 ° C. If the unit is equipped with an egg turning mechanism, then lay them with the pointed end down, if you need to turn the eggs manually, arrange them horizontally, making a mark with a felt-tip pen on one side. The first turn of the eggs takes place in 10-12 hours, then 6-8 times a day, so their heating improves from all sides, the embryos do not stick to the shell and the shell. The output of guinea fowls in the incubator at home occurs in the following mode:
- the first 13-14 days - temperature + 37.8 ° С humidity 60%,
- the next 10 days - temperature + 37.5 ° С humidity - 50%,
- on the 25-26th day the chicks begin to peck at the shell, the temperature is + 37.5 ° C humidity - 96%,
- Chicks appear on the 27-28th day.
Diseases of guinea fowl
Diseases of guinea fowls and their treatment can adversely affect the productivity of birds, so it is very important to notice the onset of the disease in time. The most common diseases affecting guinea fowls include:
- viral (infectious) - develop when bacteria enter the body, as well as, in the presence of dirt, low-quality feed and drinking water,
- invasive - provoked by parasites,
- non-infectious - indigestion due to indigestion, rhinitis,
- leg diseases - gout, salt deposits, are observed due to the same type of diet.
Features of life guinea fowl
Once again, guinea fowl - albeit a royal, but still extremely unpretentious bird. She doesn’t need a lot of space at home, she easily gets along with chickens and ducks, she lives and thrives even in a cool room. But what guinea fowl categorically does not accept is:
- high humidity
- superfluous noise
- too much tightness.
The bird is characterized by increased timidity. Acutely reacts to external stimuli. He is afraid of rats, mice, cats, dogs, even strangers. In case of danger, he screams wildly. That is why they say that the guinea fowl can even replace the watchdog. And it's not a joke!
If possible, the same person should feed and generally care for the hens. Otherwise, the bird will fall into depression, will cease to rush or even die. Such cases are found, and, quite often. Guinea fowl devoted to the owner and comes into close emotional contact with him. So much for the usual, unusual bird!
Wintering is not scary
Feathery are not afraid of cold. She easily tolerates frosts, so you can let her out for a walk at minus 50 Celsius. That is why guinea fowls are bred today even in the Far North! But the bird should not live on the street, of course. In the winter for guinea fowls special equip the room. What are the features of such equipment:
- in the barn should be kept constant stable temperature not below minus 10 degrees Celsius,
- lack of even minimal humidity
- enough space for walking and sleeping,
- good lighting 24 hours a day,
- the presence of long and convenient feeders and drinkers.
In winter, the guinea foward really needs light. Without him, she begins to behave sluggishly, eats badly, sleeps little and refuses to walk. The bird is sun-loving. Therefore, the presence of a window, at least a small one, in the shed, where the guinea fowl will spend the winter, is welcome.
Winter walks are good!
If we talk about the winter maintenance of birds at home, then we can not fail to mention walking in the fresh air. It is not necessary to keep the Tsesarka locked up during the entire snow period. Birds are not afraid of frost and all sorts of diseases, and loves to walk very much. The main thing is to equip a place for walking in accordance with the rules. What does it mean?
- First, to fence the territory so that other pets could not penetrate it.
- Secondly, to clear the area from snow blockages and snow drifts. The bird can get stuck in them and crippled.
- Thirdly, make a small shed to protect from the sun is too scorching. Although the Gesarque and like the light, too bright rays can blind her.
The birds can walk for a whole day, for the night it is necessary to drive the guinea fowers into the shed, so that they should rest and warm themselves properly.
This summer, in terms of food, there are no problems with guinea fowls. They eat everything they find in the yard. Even the Colorado beetles. In winter, with beetles harder. What to feed the bird? Experienced breeders use compound feed. Guinea fowl such food for the soul. She tastes it with pleasure. At the same time, various grains and vitamins are often added to food. The latter at home feathered especially useful. Especially if the farmer contains birds not only for the sake of meat, but also in order to get eggs.
Guinea fowl in the winter you can feed potatoes, legumes, pumpkin and zucchini. But what the bird does not tolerate, it is spoiled and rotted products. The food should be perfectly fresh, then the guinea fowl will be vigorous.
Meals for guinea fowls must be strictly at the same time. Bird regime, quickly gets used to a certain routine. So, in winter, farmers feed guinea fowls three times a day with time intervals of 6 hours. It is not necessary to pour food at night, the birds have enough water in the drinking bowl.
Sad as it may sound, the guinea fowl is not a very good mother. She does not like to hatch eggs, and strives to leave the nest. Therefore, breeders and veterinarians generally do not recommend breeding guinea fowls in the winter. For the bird it is too difficult period, it is better to wait until the summer.
In principle, the guinea fowl will not hatch the chickens themselves. For these purposes it is necessary to use an incubator. For just born chicks, you need an eye and an eye. Perform the duties of a young mommy will be the owner himself. Guinea fowl to this occupation is indifferent. It is important to remember that chicks need as much light as possible. In the first few days of their life in no case be left in the dark. This can be disastrous.
Separate barn for winter maintenance - whim or need?
Guinea fowls easily tolerate winter and any neighborhood with chickens, ducks and geese. The bird does not suffer from arrogance and a cool temper, so other types of birds get along well with it. But some farmers still prefer to build a separate barn for the winter maintenance of guinea fowls. Is this necessary?
Yes, if there is such an opportunity. Why? Because, unlike chickens, for example, guinea fowls are not afraid of cold weather. It is not necessary to heat the room for them, it is good enough to warm it. In addition, guinea fowls are very freedom-loving. They need a lot of space to eat inside, sleep and even ... fly. A bird is capable of this if it is not cut its wings in time.
Experienced farmers say that at least one square meter of free space should fall on one bird. Then guinea fowls gain weight well and lay eggs excellently.
Unpretentious with good health, guinea fowl will be a real treasure for any farmer. Meat is in great demand, especially among people who suffer from diseases of the stomach, liver, kidneys and blood. On the hen's eggs never turn out. Therefore, breeding guinea fowls at home is profitable. They do not require complex care or unusual food, although they have ancestors in Africa. The bird is not afraid of winters, quite the contrary. All this makes the "royal" bird an indispensable lodger of any barnyard.
By the way, breeding guinea fowl has recently become increasingly popular. And even in the apartments they keep the bird! Although this is not entirely correct, of course. Kesarka need a place and freedom of movement, otherwise it will not be breeding and caring for the bird, but real torment for the feathered.
Reviews of poultry farmers about winter maintenance of guinea fowls
As can be seen, the content of guinea fowls in the winter period is quite simple and not troublesome. Birds are absolutely unpretentious in care, they are not afraid of frost, they have strong immunity and almost never get sick. Given all the tricks of the content, it is possible in winter to achieve high rates of productivity of guinea fowls.