The anatomy of rabbits has much in common with the internal structure of other mammals, but there are also fundamental differences. In this article we will understand what the skeleton of a rabbit consists of, and also how its vital organs are located.
Performs supporting and protective functions. It includes 212 bones. In an adult pet, it takes 10% of body weight, in small rabbits it is 15%. Cartilage, tendons and muscles connect the bones to each other. It is divided into axial and peripheral.
Interestingly, rabbits of meat breeds have a smaller skeleton than their fellow pelts.
Includes bone limbs.
- Chest limbs (front paws). Presented by the shoulder blades (belt), humerus, forearm, brush. The latter, in turn, consists of 9 short carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones and 5 fingers consisting of phalanges (the first has 2 phalanxes, the rest 3),
- Pelvic limbs (hind legs). The pelvis, iliac bone, pubic and ischial bone, hips, legs, feet, 3 phalanxes of 4 fingers are included.
The clavicle binds the sternum and scapula together, allowing rodents to jump. The bones of their legs are thin, hollow inside, the rabbits are deprived of a strong spine. For these reasons, they often have broken legs, and in case of carelessness, spinal cord injuries are also possible.
Includes major bones, such as the skull and spine.
- Skull (brain and facial sections). Bones are mobile, connected by special sutures. The brain section includes 7 bones (occipital, parietal, temporal, and others). The facial includes maxillary, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, palatine bones, etc. The skull of an elongated rabbit looks similar to the skull of other mammals. Most of it (3/4) is occupied by the respiratory and digestive organs,
- Body (spine, brisket, ribs). The spinal column or spine consists of 5 parts, which will be discussed below. Flexibility of the spine give meniscus, fastening the vertebrae between themselves.
Wide vertebrae are characteristic of fleshy breeds. Knowing this property helps breeders select the desired species.
The cervical region includes 7 vertebrae. Thoracic region is represented 12-13. They are fastened with ribs, forming the chest where the heart and lungs are placed. The number of vertebrae in the lumbar region varies from 6 to 7, in the sacral their number is 4. The tail section is represented by 15 vertebrae.
The taste of meat and the appearance of pets are determined by the muscular system. Under the influence of impulses, muscles tend to contract.
- Musculature of the body. Represented by striated muscle tissue. This includes all the muscles
- Musculature of internal organs. Consists of smooth muscle tissue. For example, the walls of the respiratory, digestive, vascular walls.
The way of life of rabbits does not imply strong physical exertion, as a result of this, their muscles are not sufficiently saturated with myoglobin and sarcoplasm. The meat has a white and pink hue, on the paws the color is darker than on the rest of the body. At birth, the muscular system of babies is poorly developed, making up no more than 20% of the total weight. With age, this number increases to 40%.
Interestingly, the adult meat is caloric than the meat of a small rabbit.
- Central (brain and spinal cord),
- Peripheral (nerves of skeletal muscles, skin and blood vessels).
The brain is divided by the furrow into 2 hemispheres (left and right), located inside the rabbit's skull. Scientists conditionally divide it into the following departments (middle, posterior, oblong, etc.), each of which performs a separate function. For example, the medulla is responsible for the system of the respiratory and circulatory organs.
The spinal cord is located in the spinal canal, which begins in the brain and ends in the region of the seventh cervical vertebra. It weighs about 3.64 grams. It consists of gray matter, resembling the letter “H” in its outlines, and white matter surrounding gray.
The cranial and spinal nerves and nerve endings are usually referred to the peripheral section.
The cardiovascular system
It includes everything that is somehow connected with blood: blood-forming organs (spleen), lymphatic system, arteries, veins, capillaries, etc. Each of them performs its specific function: the spleen, whose weight does not exceed 1.5 grams, regulates blood pressure. The bone marrow is responsible for making red blood cells.
The thymus gland stimulates blood formation, its weight in newly born rabbits is only 2.3 grams, this volume decreases with time.
In the body of a mammal circulating up to 280 ml of blood. The body temperature of a healthy rodent in winter is 37 ° С, in summer it is 40-41 ° С. When the temperature rises to 44 ° C, the animal dies.
The anatomy of the rabbit's heart has been studied for a long time; it is four-chamber, divided into 2 ventricles and 2 atria (chambers), weighs about 6.5 grams, is located in the pericardiac serous cavity. Normally, the pulse rate is 110-160 beats per minute.
With its help, the crawl processes food, thus prolonging life itself. Products that it consumes go through the gastrointestinal tract for 72 hours.
The little rabbit has 16 teeth at birth. After two and a half weeks of life, the milk teeth are replaced by indigenous ones. In adult individuals, there are 28, in other mammals, their number is greater. They grow constantly throughout life. The crawls have large incisors that crush solid food, while the molar teeth, located below, grind their food to themselves.
Interestingly, rabbits do not have fangs.
The chewed food gets into the pharynx first, and then into the esophagus and stomach. The latter is a hollow organ, the volume of which reaches up to 200 cm3; it produces gastric juice. It must be said that the activity of gastric rabbit enzymes is higher compared with the enzymes of other animals. Cellulose consumed by ears, is not digested here, and in its unprocessed form, it immediately enters the intestine, which completes the digestion process. It in turn is divided into:
- Small intestine . It breaks down substances, some of which (for example, amino acids) are sent immediately to the blood,
- Colon . It is characterized by fermentation processes. Unsplit and undigested food is excreted in the form of feces (up to 0.2 grams per day). Moreover, during the day it has a solid form, and at night - soft. The chair secreted at night, individuals tend to eat, due to this property the body is saturated with essential proteins, vitamins B and K.
Nose, throat, trachea, lungs belong to the respiratory system. They provide the body with oxygen. The inhaled air during inhalation is warmed, filled with moisture, cleaned of dirt in the nasal cavity. From there he enters the pharynx, then into the trachea, and finally into the lungs.
It is important to know that the rabbits breathe more often than other mammals. Normally, an individual makes 282 breaths per minute. They have a fairly active gas exchange: when consuming 478 cm3 of oxygen, 451 cm3 of carbon dioxide is released.
In babies, the following sense organs are developed:
- Smell. It is carried out by receptor cells located deep in the nasal cavity. From 10 to 12 hairs are placed on their surface, which react to different flavors. With his help, the rabbit can find her young among strangers, easily finds food, chooses a male for mating, etc.
- Taste. It is carried out thanks to the taste buds located on the tongue
- Touch. It is realized with the help of sensitive skin in the eyelids, lips, back and forehead. It helps pets navigate in space, avoid temperature fluctuations, respond to painful stimulation,
The antennae help the animals to move in complete darkness, and the hairs above the eyes suggest at what point you should bend down to avoid a collision.
- Vision Rabbits see the world in color. The animal's eye is a globular eyeball that connects directly to the brain. Feature of view of baby rabbits - farsightedness and ability to see in the dark,
- Hearing A distinctive feature - large ears, thanks to which animals have a sensitive ear. Between themselves krol communicate with high frequency sounds. To catch the necessary sound signals, the animals turn their ears in different directions.
Represented by the genital and urinary organs. The latter excrete the products of decay. The volume of urine is directly proportional to the age and nutrition of the animal. Daily rate does not exceed 400 ml. The urinary canal itself is placed in close proximity to the sexual apparatus.
In mammals, 2 oval-shaped buds. They occupy a place in the lumbar region, contribute to the breakdown of proteins, mineral salts and other substances. Urine is formed continuously, it travels from the kidneys to the ureters, then into the bladder, which accumulates fluid for some time, and then reflexively brings it out. Normally, it has a yellow straw hue. A bright yellow or even brown color is a sign of a disease.
The genitals of males and females are different. In the first, the sexual apparatus is represented by paired testes, vas deferens, accessory glands, and penis. The uterus, ovaries, oviduct, vagina and genital opening constitute the reproductive system of females. Ovaries mature in the ovaries, and during ovulation they enter the oviducts. The shape of the uterus - two-horned. Ovulation occurs 10-12 hours after intercourse.
These include the thyroid gland, the pituitary gland, the epiphysis, the adrenal glands, the pancreas, the testes and the ovaries. Hormones enter directly into the blood because they have no excretory pathways.
Adrenal glands regulate water and fat metabolism. The pituitary gland produces the largest number of hormones and is involved in many vital processes. If the body glands for some reason becomes insufficient, it can lead to a deviation in growth and development.
The skeleton of a rabbit is identical to the description of the internal structure of other mammals. Knowledge in this area allows farm owners to properly care for their pets, recognize the disease in time, and if necessary, contact a veterinarian to prescribe appropriate treatment.
The cardiovascular system
This system covers all processes in the body of a rabbit that deal with blood, that is, the blood-forming organs, the lymphatic system, veins, arteries and capillaries. Each element is required to perform certain functions.
The rabbit's body contains an average of 250–300 ml of blood. In winter, the animal is characterized by low body temperature, which is +37 ° C, in summer it is +41 ° C.
The rabbit heart has 4 chambers consisting of two ventricles and two atria. Its weight is 7 g, the position is the pericardial serous cavity. Normal pulse for an animal - within 140 beats per minute.
Skeleton and organs of motion
Bone and muscle tissue are the basis of the structure of the animal and allow you to make movements. The basis for this, of course, is the skeleton. In a rabbit, it consists of 212 bones, not including the teeth, as well as the auditory bones. In adults, the skeleton occupies 10% of the mass of the whole organism, and in rabbits - 15%.
In its structure, the rabbit skeleton is similar to the skeleton of other mammals. Conventionally, it can be divided into two types: axial and peripheral. All major bones, that is, the head and the ridge, belong to the axial axis. The peripheral skeleton makes up the bones of the limbs.
If we consider the skull of rabbits, then it is not much different from the skull of other animals in its structure. Most, and this is about 3/4, occupies the front part. Here are some organs of the exercise of respiration and digestion. The individual parts of the skull determine the shape and size of the muzzle and differ from different breeds of rabbits.Head structure of the crawl head
The rabbit's ridge can be divided into five parts: neck, chest, loin, sacrum, and tail section. All of them have an unequal number of vertebrae. For example, the greatest number of them in the tail, and the smallest in the lumbar. Although the lumbar region is the longest in length, it has elongated vertebrae, which can be clearly seen in the photo below.
As for the peripheral skeleton, then, like in other domestic animals, in the rabbit it has a shoulder and pelvic section, as well as free limbs. But the difference is the presence of the clavicle. It connects the chest bones and scapula, which allows the animal to jump. Still it is necessary to talk about the muscular system, since its development indicates the exterior and meat qualities of the animal. This system includes the muscular part of the internal organs and the body itself.
In newborns, the rabbit's muscular system takes up about 20% of the total weight, and by five months of life it increases to 40%.Rabbit skeleton: 1 - skull bones, 2 - cervical vertebrae, 3 - thoracic, 4 - lumbar, 5 - sacral, 6 - caudal, 7 - scapula, 8 - ribs, 9 - bones of the thoracic limb, 10 - bones pelvic limb
Other hematopoietic organs
Also in this animal system are organs such as the spleen, appendix, bone marrow, lymph nodes and the thymus gland. Their role is to form additional blood elements. For example, the spleen weighs no more than 1.5 grams and is responsible for adjusting blood pressure. It forms lymphocytes and destroys the “old” outdated red blood cells. They, in turn, creates the bone marrow. The thymus gland stimulates the formation of blood in other organs. Its mass does not exceed 2.3 grams in a little rabbit, but with age it decreases.
The enrichment of the body with oxygen supports the respiratory organs, namely the nose and its cavity, pharynx, trachea and lungs. In the nose part, the air is warmed, moistened and cleaned of dust, is sent through the throat to the trachea and then to the lungs. It is important to note that rabbits are very sensitive to the purity of the air. The high content of ammonia in the air, dirt, dust, carbon dioxide adversely affects the condition and health of animals.
The lungs are paired organs that carry out gas exchange. Despite the very low weight (about 0.36% of the total mass), the frequency of respiration in rabbits is higher than that of other pets and depends on body temperature. Normal per minute, the rabbit takes up to 282 breaths, while it absorbs over 500 cm3 of oxygen. If, for example, the animal absorbed 478 cm3, then carbon dioxide will release 451 cm3, which characterizes a very active gas exchange.
Find out moreEffective methods for cutting the rabbit into piecesLearn to determine the age of the crawl
He or she: learn to distinguish the sex of rabbits
What does a bunny look like?
The anatomy of a rabbit is similar to the anatomy of any other animal that feeds its young milk. The rabbit body itself has the body itself, the head, as well as the limbs, each of which is attached to the sternum or pelvis. If we consider the structure of the rabbit as a whole, then one can notice a very short neck connecting the head and torso, as well as a short tail.
Usually, when selecting rabbits for the reproduction of offspring, great attention is paid to the proper constitution and quality of wool. Rabbit should be with strong bones and the correct shape of the head, developed back, as well as adopted by the standards of the length of the legs.
Rabbits have rather primitive anatomical development. This can be seen by some features, such as the spiral fold inside the cecum, the orbital salivary gland, the omentum is reduced, the pancreas has absent-mindedness, the inguinal passages are enlarged, the steam scrotum is rather simplified in its function and structure, the penis is directed backwards in the male half of individuals, and the female has a double uterus.
Internal structure of the urinary system
In the anatomy of decorative rabbits, the urinary system is no different from the urinary system of other mammals, except for the smoothed expression of certain parts of the left kidney and the distant location of the ureters from the bladder neck. Per day, an adult individual emits up to 400 milliliters of urine, which contains phosphoric, hippuric and lactic acids. Also, with the urine, the rabbit excretes up to 300 milligrams of nitrogen and up to 20 milligrams of sulfur.
According to biological research, the structure of the mouth and teeth is very important in the life of all mammals, since its future existence depends on proper development. According to the rabbit's anatomy, when he is just born, he already has sixteen teeth in his mouth. They are milky, so over time they change to permanent. It happens very quickly - on the eighteenth day after birth.
An interesting fact is that rabbits have two pairs of incisors - in front and behind, both on the upper part of the jaw and on the lower. Since they are rodents, their teeth are covered with enamel, but not like all rodents - on the one on the outside, but on the inside too. Moreover, its incisors grow throughout life. Fangs are missing, as the rabbit is a herbivore.
Строение скелета кролика выглядит в виде самого осевого скелета, который делится на две части - позвоночник и череп, скелета его передних и задних конечностей, а также свободные конечности, прикрепленные с помощью поясов. The weight of the rabbit skeleton is eight percent of the weight of the rest of the body, and this figure is much less than that of the other domesticated animals. But the skeleton of the newborn baby rabbits, on the contrary, weighs more than that of the mature individual and occupies almost fifteen percent of the total mass.
In total, according to the anatomy of the rabbit, the skeleton consists of two hundred and twelve bones, and its shape is very interesting. His spine is arched and loin extended, pelvis extended in length, neck straight and short, and pectoral limbs greatly shortened in comparison with the hind ones. Such a peculiar appearance is associated with its lifestyle and the need for a quick reaction in case of a threat from the outside. Many animals that dig holes have a similar structure.
The inner part of his skull is reduced, and enlarged orbits have a matching hole. The length of the ears is usually equal to the length of the head, taking into account that the latter is elongated. True, there are exceptions to the anatomy of ornamental rabbits, when the ears are twice as long as the skull, and this is due to mutations that led to the appearance of a new species. It is very difficult to notice the cervical spine, since it is short, and in the presence of thick hair, it seems that the neck is absent in principle. The knee joint on its back surface has an additional two bones, for more comfortable and quick movement in a jump.
Limbs and Torso
Despite the hunched waist and back, their bone structure is strong enough. At the end of the body there is a curved little tail, under which there is an anus, as well as urinogenital openings and organs (depending on what sex the rabbit is). Male genital organs are hidden skin and covered with fur, therefore, visible only protruding point.
The front paws attached to the sternum are weak, since their participation in movement is seventy percent lower than that of the rear ones. But the hind limbs, in particular the feet, are endowed with great strength and power. Anatomy of a rabbit in pictures will give a complete vision and understanding of the above. The front legs are only a support, and the rear legs are the main motor element. To perform the jump, the rabbit is repelled by two hind limbs at once.
In the anatomy and physiology of rabbits, they produce a sufficiently developed musculature, the weight of which is half the weight of his body. The muscles located in the lumbar spine are distinguished by special power, since they are under the greatest pressure and load. Rabbit muscles do not have large fatty layers, which are usually hidden in the intermuscular space, from which the meat of rabbits is considered tender and melting in the mouth after its preparation. Also, rabbit meat is usually white due to a similar muscle tone (pale red).
However, there are red muscles. They are in the larynx, oropharynx, and so on. Due to the muscular frame in rabbits, the dome-shaped diaphragm is well defined. About the shoulder blades are additional muscles, aimed at strengthening the spinal section. Naturally, the strongest muscles are located in the lower back and hind limbs, and the muscles of the lower jaw are well developed due to the ability to gnaw through their food.
The lungs, like other vital internal organs, are located in a small thoracic region, so they all have a small size. The frequency of inhalation and exhalation of a rabbit is usually equal to sixty cycles per minute, but with an increase in ambient temperature to thirty and higher, the rabbit begins to breathe up to two hundred and eighty times a minute. If ammonia appears in the air that the rabbit inhales, the animal becomes seriously ill, and if it is increased to about one and a half milligram, it dies.
If we consider the lungs in the complex, they are three-lobed, however, the third apical part of the left lung is almost invisible and merges with the heart tissue. This atrophy is associated with the displacement of the heart slightly forward. The right one is developed normally, and at its ends one can often find lapatiform growths or outgrowths, which means compression of the upper pulmonary part.
General characteristics. External structure
Mammals are common on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica, in terrestrial, marine and freshwater biocenoses. Some species actively fly in the air, others live in the soil. In connection with the adaptation to life in different conditions, the appearance of these animals is very different, but they differ sharply from all other features of the internal and external structure.
The surface of the body of mammals is covered with hair or hair, which is important for thermoregulation. In most animals, hair is developed over the entire surface of the body (absent on the lips, in some - and on the sole). Mammalian hair, as well as claws, horns and hooves, are composed of horny substance (like shields and scales of reptiles and feathers of birds). Mammalian hair is heterogeneous. Large, long, stiff, protruding hair is called vibris, it is located at the end of the muzzle, belly, limbs, serves as organs of touch, their bases are connected with nerve endings. In temperate and northern latitudes, most species change their hair twice a year, shedding in autumn and spring.
Digestive organs begin pre-oral cavity located between the fleshy lips and jaws. The sensitivity of the lips helps to determine the quality of the food. The fleshy tongue is at the bottom of the mouth, it participates in chewing and swallowing food. The surface of the tongue is covered with numerous taste buds. The ducts of three pairs of large salivary glands open into the oral cavity. Saliva not only moisturizes food - it contains enzymes that, during chewing food, break down starch to glucose. Thus, the processing of food begins in the mouth.
Next, the food enters the pharynx, esophagus, and from it into the stomach. In the walls of the stomach there are many glands. Gastric fluid secreted by the glands contains hydrochloric acid and enzymes. In the stomach, the digestive process continues. On the border between the small and large intestines in some mammals is the cecum. Undigested food residues enter the large intestine and are expelled through the rectum.
The mammalian circulatory system is birdlike. The heart of the four-chamber, large and small circles of blood circulation are completely divided. One left aortic arch moves away from the left ventricle of the heart (in birds, the right aortic arch).
The excretory system is represented by two kidneys located in the abdominal cavity on the sides of the lumbar spine. Urine flows through the two ureters into the bladder. Urea is excreted from the body of mammals as the main product of nitrogen metabolism.
Mammals are warm-blooded animals. Their body temperature is constant (in different species it ranges from 37 to 40 ° C), only in egg-laying bodies the temperature largely depends on the temperature of the external environment and ranges from 25-36 ° C. Perfect thermoregulation of most mammals is provided by the presence of sweat glands, hair, subcutaneous fat, and breathing is involved in thermoregulation.
The reproductive system of mammals is characterized by the greatest complexity. Breeding organs are located in the body cavity. In males, they are represented by two testes, seed tubes, and a collective organ. Breeding organs of females - two ovaries, oviducts, uterus and vagina. A fertilized egg develops in the maternal organism, growing to the wall of the oviduct. This lower division of the oviduct is transformed into a uterus - a muscular sac, lined with loose tissues and having a special blood supply. The wall of the uterus in the place where the egg has settled, swells and forms an extensive network of capillaries. The germinal membranes, also penetrated by capillaries, germinate in villi, like roots, deep into the wall of the uterus and braid its capillaries.
Thus, from the tissues of the mother and the embryo, a placenta, or a baby place, is formed — a plexus of blood vessels, through which the embryo receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother, and also gets rid of the excreta. The walls of the germinal bubbles where the vessels pass are transformed into the umbilical cord connecting the embryo with the placenta.
In the body of the mother, the cub goes through the same stages of development as the chick in the egg. In the end, under the influence of hormones, the muscles of the uterus contract and a baby is born into the world. Together with him, the amniotic fluid - the contents of the germinal bubbles, and then the placenta - flows away. Usually, the female eats the afterbirth, and the cub on the belly remains a scar from the ragged umbilical cord - the navel. A fully formed baby is born. The female feeds them with milk produced in special glands.
Milk in composition and method of separation is very different from all other secrets secreted by the body. It consists of a mixture of essential nutrients, combined in the most digestible form, and is an indispensable food of the cub. Although the ratio of substances in milk composition varies somewhat among different animals, it always contains protein, milk sugar, fat, a small amount of mineral salts, and a lot (about 90%) of water. In contrast to other glands, the milky glands begin to function only in the late stages of pregnancy, and the secretion of milk occurs under the influence of hormones, which are produced, apparently, in the body of the embryo and enter the mother’s blood.
Annual life cycle
Like other animals, the life of mammals varies according to the seasons of the year. This is due to seasonal changes in habitat conditions and the most important stages of the annual life cycle of animals: reproduction, raising offspring, wintering.
Preparation for reproduction is accompanied by the formation of couples, herds, harems. Mating is preceded by tournament battles between males, which are expressed in threat postures alone and attacks towards a competitor, and in others, true fighting.
The appearance of cubs is timed to the most favorable period for the breeding of offspring: mainly by the end of spring - the beginning of summer. By this time, animals move into thickets of bushes, ravines, heaps of stones and other shelters to arrange a hole, a den, prepare a nest. When cubs grow up, families move to the richest places in food: river valleys, meadows. Parents teach cubs to find food, to hunt, and to save themselves from enemies.
The period of preparation for winter in mammals is distinguished by intensive nutrition - they fatten (fat is deposited under the skin). Some also store dry food for the winter. At a certain time, the animals molt: they replace summer wool with winter, thick, and sometimes also dark coat with white. Some mammals are grouped together, which makes it easier for them to live in winter, to obtain food.
Wintering is the final stage of the annual life cycle. With a decrease in feed reserves and the deterioration of the conditions of its production, some mammals hibernate, others spend this time in various shelters eating autumn stocks.
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Rabbit body structure
1 - auricle, 2 - root of the ear, 3 - crown, 4 - forehead, 5 - eye, 6 - nose, 7 - nasal openings, 8 - upper lip, 9 - lower lip, 10 - whiskers (hair for touch), 11 - cheek, 12 - nape, 13 - throat, 14 - neck, 15 - dewlap, chest, 16 - back, 17 - loin (sacrum), 18 - thorax, 19 - abdomen, 20 - scapula, 21 - elbow, 22 - front leg, 23 - foot (with fingers and claws), 24 - croup, - thigh, 26 - knee, 27 - hock, 28 - tail
Head. It distinguishes the brain (skull) and facial (muzzle) parts.
This includes the forehead, nose, ears, teeth.
Neck. Here, the neck area and throat area are distinguished.
Torso. Presented by the scruff, back, lower back, thoracic region (chest), underdeeder, croup, right and left iliac region, right and left groin, umbilical region, breast area and prepuce, anal region, tail.
Limbs. The thoracic (anterior) limb is represented by the shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, and wrist, and the pelvic (posterior) - by the hip, knee, shin, heel, plusus.
Appearance of animals
Signs of quality appearance:
- the head should be proportionate to the body, the males are more massive and coarse,
- ears are straight, dense at the base,
- chest is wide and deep
- the back is flat, straight and wide,
- the lumbosacral part is long and wide,
- croup rounded
- limbs strong, correctly set in relation to the body.
Body defects include:
- irregular head shape
- excessively long neck
- drooping or widely spaced ears,
- pendulous belly
- underdeveloped chest.
Body defects include:
- weak and poorly developed bones,
- poorly developed chest
- humpbacked or sagging back,
- chopped or drooping croup,
- thin and crooked or improperly set in relation to the trunk limbs.
Rabbits with defects and defects in breeding breeding rejected from the common herd.
In rabbits, the degree of development of the skeleton, the width and depth of the chest, the length and shape of the back, the croup, strength and setting of the limbs are evaluated. So, the rabbit's head is less rounded than the males, it looks narrower, lighter and tender. If males-producers have too large basement, this is a sign of loose constitution and phlegmatic temperament. Narrow-chested individuals are weaker, they are easily exposed to diseases. Brokeback or sagging back - signs of rickets, and long and wide loin indicates a high meat content. A big defect is considered to be poor oblazost paws, since such rabbits are prone to the disease of Pododermatitis, especially with prolonged content on the net floor:
Upper back line: a - normal, b - humpbacked, in - sagging
The exterior determines the direction of the productivity of the animal, its state of health and degree of adaptation to environmental conditions.
In rabbit breeding, there are 4 types of constitution proposed by P. N. Kuleshov:
- rough type: rabbits have massive strong bones, thick skin, coarse hair, animals are unpretentious, few are prone to diseases,
- gentle type: rabbits have thin bones, thin skin, short and sparse hair, animals have an increased metabolism, easy excitability, are susceptible to diseases,
- tight, or strong, type: rabbits have strong, well-developed bones, dense elastic skin, long and thick hair, animals are most productive, have good vitality, perfectly adapt to changing conditions of housing and feeding, resistant to diseases,
- loose, or crude, type: Rabbits have light bones, thick skin, sparse hair, are well fed and fattened, have a low metabolism and are prone to illness.
Not only such economically useful signs as precocity, meatiness, quality of hair cover, vitality, but also a certain predisposition to certain diseases are closely related to the constitution.
For example, animals of a tender constitution are predisposed to tuberculosis, and animals of a loose constitution are predisposed to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
In determining the constitution of rabbits and assessing the exterior set the condition. Condition - this is a general view of the animal, external signs, fatness, condition of muscles, skin, which helps to determine whether the animal is healthy or in pain. Allocate factory, exhibition, fattening and starvation condition.
What color and color of hair do rabbits have?
Although coloring of hair is not the main distinguishing feature of the rabbit breed, it is characteristic for some breeds. Rabbit hair can be of the following color: wild (gray-brown), white, black, blue, squirrel (bluish-brown), ferruginous, chinchilla, yellow, red, light brown, havanna (brown), sand (orange) and turtle.
Coloring rabbits are monophonic, agouti (with a white belly), variegated and multi-colored.
What does rabbit hair cover?
Rabbit hair cover consists of three types of hair: coarse - guard, thinner - transitional or intermediate, and the thinnest - down. The nature of the hairline, i.e. the length, thickness, composition and position of the hair relative to the body, is the hallmark of the breed.
The rabbit is a close relative of the hare. The wild rabbit differs from the present hare by its smaller growth and more slender addition. His head, ears and hind legs are shorter. Body length does not exceed 40 centimeters. The weight of the old male comes to 2-3 kilograms. The fur of the wild rabbit is gray with a yellow-brown tinge, on the back, on the sides and hips - rusty, on the belly, throat and inside of the legs - white. Domestic rabbits have a variety of colors.
| Almost all naturalists recognize that Southern Europe was originally the birthplace of the rabbit. Во все страны к северу от Альп он был завезен человеком и быстро там размножился. В настоящее время дикий кролик распространен по всей Средней и Южной Европе. В странах, окружающих Средиземное море, он многочисленнее, чем где-либо, хотя его преследуют и охотники и враги из мира хищников. В различных местах Англии его развели специально для охоты.
Изучаем внутреннее строение кролика вместе
In the northern countries, the wild rabbit is not found, despite many attempts to breed it there. But he is acclimatized in America, New Zealand and Australia. In Australia, rabbits are extremely multiplied and severely harm agriculture.
Rabbits like to stay in hilly and sandy areas, where there are shin-holes, cracked rocks and low shrubs. They also willingly settle in young dry thickets of pine forest. Here they arrange, often in sunny places, fairly simple burrows. They live in large groups, often entire settlements. The hole of the wild rabbit consists of an underground chamber, lying quite deep. From the camera are galleries, each with several exits outside. Exits due to the constant climbing of a rabbit are quite wide, but the galleries are so narrow that through them the animal can only creep. Each pair of rabbits has a separate dwelling and does not tolerate any other animal in it. But the moves belonging to different homes often intersect with each other. The rabbit hides in the burrow almost all day, especially if the shrub around its home is not so thick as to cover its movement. With the onset of the evening he goes for food. He is very careful and leaves his hole only after a long inspection of the surroundings. Having noticed the enemy, he warns his kinsmen with a strong stomp on the hind legs, and all the rabbits instantly hide in their burrows.
The movements of the rabbit are different from the movements of the hare. Rabbit surpasses the hare in dexterity and skill in making loops. To hunt him you need good shooters and specially trained dogs. While the rabbit is grazing, it is rarely possible to sneak up on it. In case of danger, he almost always manages to hide somewhere. His eyesight, hearing and sense of smell are as sharp as those of a hare, and maybe even sharper. In any case, rabbits are better than rabbits, fleeing from enemies.
The breeding season in rabbits begins in February or in March. “Pregnancy,” says Winkel, “lasts thirty days with a female rabbit. After the baby is born, the female quickly becomes pregnant again. Up to October, every five weeks she gives birth to four to twelve cubs. She gives birth to them in a special hole, which is lined abundantly with wool from her belly. Cubs will be born naked and blind. They remain in a warm nest with the mother and suck it until the next generation. Mother is very gentle with them and leaves them only for a short time to eat. ” Full growth rabbit reach only by the end of the year, but they are able to multiply in warm countries already in the fifth month of life, and in colder ones in the eighth month. The fecundity of rabbits is amazing. The scientist Pennant identified it in numbers. Having accepted that each female gives birth six times a year and each time eight pups, he calculated that the offspring of one pair in four years can reach a huge number - 1,274,840 pieces. In countries where rabbits find favorable conditions for breeding, they quickly become the scourge of agriculture and harm agriculture more than locusts and other pests. In Australia, for example, they were divorced in such a huge amount that they sometimes completely eat pastures for livestock, grain crops, vegetable gardens and orchards.
They are struggling with all measures: they enclose meadows and arable land with high fences, dig ditches, set traps, loops, traps, throw poison, shoot them, poison them with dogs. The government of New Wales spent about fifteen million marks (eight million rubles in gold) in one decade to fight the rabbits. Recently, rabbits began to exterminate, infecting with bacteria, and yet these activities helped a little. The number of rabbits has decreased only now, when they began to be caught in abundance for meat and hides for export to Europe. Rabbit meat is like chicken and very tasty. Fur and skins are used, as well as hare.
We in the USSR have a wild rabbit in small amounts in places in the south.
Both the mammary glands themselves and their nipples are skin derivatives and develop only after the female begins to feed her young. At other times, they are in a reduced form and hidden under the fur in the abdominal cavity. The number of nipples depends on the anatomy and physiology of breeding rabbits, especially the difference is noticeable in heterogeneous individuals. On the female body, the nipples are distributed from the belly to the chest, grabbing the inguinal wall. Each nipple is supplied from one to fourteen milk passages, at the ends open out.
Until the little rabbit is twenty days old, the mother feeds them with her milk, and the lactation itself lasts up to forty days after the birth. The average consumption of milk per rabbit per day is up to thirty milliliters. The first three days, the milk contains immunoglobulin and bactericidal substances.
Book Rabbits: Cultivation, cultivation, feeding. Contents - Anatomy and physiology of rabbits
A rabbit is a mammal animal, its organism has much in common with the structure of the organism of a number of mammals, therefore, the inherent laws of mammalian organization are also characteristic of the rabbit. But there are specific features in the structure of organs and individual body systems.
Leather (skins) are the most important products of rabbit breeding. The total skin weight in rabbits is on average 350–450 g, or 12.0% of body weight. The outer layer of the skin - the epidermis - is about 2-3% of the total thickness of the skin. The epidermis is represented by the cornified cells, which are constantly dying off and disappearing.
The appearance of dandruff in rabbits on areas covered with hair outside the molting period indicates a metabolic disorder caused by illness or improper feeding. Deeper are the living, constantly dividing cells, they replace the cornified ones. The epidermis resembles the papillae, which are aimed at the base of the skin.
It protects the skin and the entire body from exposure to the external environment.
The middle layer - the skin itself, or the dermis - occupies about 70% of the skin thickness. The dermis consists of dense connective tissue. It consists of collagen, elastin and reticulin fibers.
Collagen fibers determine the strength of the skin, at temperatures above 30 ° C, they lose their strength, and when boiled in water they turn into glue.
Therefore, the skins should be dried at a temperature not higher than 25–28 ° C.
Elastin fibers have a branched form, they are short and thin, possess such properties as elasticity, elasticity and stretchability.
When drying, elastin fibers are reduced, therefore, the skins should be dried on the rules to give shape and uniform drying.
When moistening dried skins, elastin fibers regain their properties, this ability of theirs is used to give the pellets drying the correct shape.
Reticulin fibers are very short, delicate and thin, they do not form bundles, but they branch and grow together, weaving together collagen fibers.
The dermis is divided into two layers - the upper, papillary (thermostatic), and lower, reticular (reticular).
In addition to the root sheaths of the hair, pigment cells and sebaceous glands are located in the dermis, which are spread throughout the body of the rabbit and are connected with the hair sheaths.
The secret secreted by the sebaceous glands, lubricates the hair and the surface of the skin, giving them shine, softness and elasticity, but they are poorly developed in rabbits and sweaty are almost absent and are found only on the lips (they participate in water-salt metabolism).
The inner, loose, underdeveloped layer of the skin is the subcutaneous tissue that binds the skin to deeper tissues. It contains blood vessels, as well as a layer of fat and muscle tissue. The development of adipose tissue is influenced by many factors, such as breed, level and type of feeding, season of the year.
Due to the weakness of the spine and the thin tubular bones on the legs of the little rabbits can receive serious injuries from awkward sharp movements, so scare them is unacceptable.
The life expectancy of these rodents is 8 years, with the purpose of breeding they are kept no more than four years.
The female of the wild rabbit in front of the okolom pulls out a hole in a low dark place. Therefore, at home, you need to equip the maternity ward with deaf doors, and either to remove the floor grids or to rearrange them as low as possible.
The rabbits should occur when the female enters the hunting period, which lasts from 3 to 5 days with 8 - 9-day breaks throughout the year. Only healthy females are allowed to breed. If the animal was okol, then mating can be carried out a day after it.
Male can cover four females per day.
A male can cover four females a day, but every two days he must rest for at least a day.
How to determine that the female in the hunt? This can be done by a combination of signs:
- Loss of appetite.
- Increase and pink sex loop.
Should the female sit down to the male, but not vice versa. The cage is cleaned of any objects that can interfere with the movement of animals in it. As soon as the male covers the female, it beeps and falls on its side. After 5 minutes, he repeats sexual intercourse. After 7 days control check is required. If the female became pregnant after the first, then she will chase the male.
The case needs several females at the same time so that the babies of those mothers who have little milk to whom to transfer for feeding.
To determine the sex of the animal on his stomach next to the genitals, you need to pull the skin. If it is a male, then a tube with a hole will be visible, and if the female is, a triangle has a longitudinal section.
The first situation of the rabbit is not allowed before it reaches the age of four to six months, regardless of the season. In this case, the male must be older. For experienced rabbits males are chosen vice versa younger. Before mating, the animal should be fed intensively, but not brought to obesity.
In litter from 6 to 12 rabbits. The more newborns one mother has, the smaller and weaker they are.
The milk content of the rabbit is determined by the state of the newborn. If they are calm, round, have smooth skin, then they have enough milk. The highest level of lactation in the fifth calf.
Reduced milk secretion is possible in obese and sedentary rabbit
Keep rodents should be in dry and light insulated cages, standing outdoors, equipped with feed compartments, drinking bowls and nesting compartments.
It is necessary to clean the premises regularly. Healthy hardened rabbits can withstand twenty degrees of frost. However, upon the onset of sustained severe frosts, cells are better placed in the room.
The animals do not like drafts and excessive moisture.
When keeping rodents should follow a number of rules:
- Cleaning the cages, drinkers and feeders should be done every day.
- Disinfection of premises and equipment should be carried out every ten days.
- Provide a constant flow of fresh air.
- Avoid drafts.
- Regularly and carefully inspect each rabbit.
Adult rabbits and young animals under three months of age are kept separately. It is important to provide rabbits with constant access to clean water through special drinkers.
Cages for young
There are two compartments in a cage:
Between themselves, the branches are connected with pockets. In the cage should be nursery, feeders for concentrates and drinkers.
In the cage where the rabbit lives, in front of the hole, the mother liquor is placed, a box in which the rabbit will live the first 30 days of its life. Its dimensions: 500Х300Х270 mm, with a laser hole 180Х180 mm. It has a more stable temperature and is conveniently taken out in order to inspect the offspring.
They often suffer from myxomatosis and viral hemorrhagic disease, dangerous pathologies that only timely vaccinations of rabbits can protect against. Vaccinations are done by veterinarians both in clinics and at home.
If, however, an infection has appeared, then all diseased animals are isolated and caused by a veterinarian.
Rabbits eat almost all garden plants, as well as grain and grass. During the year, one rabbit with her offspring needs such a quantity of feed:
- Green herbs - 412 kg.
- Hay - 107 kg.
- Concentrated feed - 330 kg.
- Root vegetables - 120 kg.
Animals should eat regularly, have constant access to water and hay.
Without drinking a rabbit can live a maximum of three days.
Sterilization of animals
Rabbits with the sex glands removed gain mass faster, and their meat is of better quality. It is better to castrate rodents no later than 4 months of age. This is done in three ways:
The first method involves removing the testis without damaging its shell. This operation protects castrated animals from the development of inflammatory diseases and inguinal hernias.
The second method consists in dissecting the scrotum, making incisions on the shells of both testes and crossing the spermatic cord. Feeding the rabbit is stopped 15 hours before surgery. Wounds fall asleep with streptocid powder.
Castration of mature individuals
The third method is used for castration of mature individuals. The scrotum with the testes is tied at the base and after 4 to 6 days they fall off due to cessation of blood supply.
Expenses for setting up a rabbit breeding business
To organize the breeding of these funny animals, you should invest some amount, which consists of the cost of the acquisition:
- Ready-made cells or materials for their manufacture.
- Breeding rabbits.
- Feed for a year for the whole herd and the expected offspring.
- Payment for services veterinarian.
- Transportation of animals.
- Equipment for slaughtering, storing meat and dressing hides.
- Rent of premises and meadows (for a large business in the absence of a private house and land).
- Salary to employees.
In the presence of a stable sales investment pays off for 2 - 3 years.
Growing in a pit
This method involves arranging a pit with a depth of at least one meter and an arbitrary area within the walls of which the rabbits will dig their burrows. This method has a lot of positives:
- Minimum financial investment.
- In the pit of a small area can accommodate a lot of rabbits.
- Excellent ventilation with no drafts.
Among the shortcomings, it is possible to note a low growth rate due to frequent diseases, fights between males, difficulty in finding sick animals, more frequent deformities and stillbirths due to uncontrolled sexual relations between close relatives.