Seeds of carrots germinate for a long time and by nature have a low germination rate. The shoots of carrots are small, weak, slowly growing and damaged by pests. Under such conditions, sowing carrots before winter seems insane.
Experienced growers annually practice podzymny sowing, getting a very early harvest. This technology accelerates the collection of carrots for 15-20 days and reduces the tension of the spring planting season. Growing "winter" carrots is possible, but you need to approach the matter skillfully. The hardest part is finding the right time for planting.
Carrots planted before winter are good for the body. It will improve eyesight and strengthen immunity.
When to plant carrots before winter
To understand when it is better to plant carrots before winter, you need to know the biological characteristics of the culture. Carrot is a cold-resistant plant that can tolerate frosts down to -5 ° C. Seeds germinate at a temperature of + 1 ... + 4. For the formation and growth of the root crop, the optimum temperature is + 18 ... + 21.
High temperatures combined with lack of moisture do not contribute to growth. Carrots get deformed, tasteless, rough. Vegetable loves moisture from germination to germination.
The best varieties of carrots for winter planting
In each region there are zoned carrot varieties, among which you can choose suitable ones for underwinter sowing. Since the carrots planted in the autumn ripen early and are poorly stored in the cellar, it is necessary to select early ripe varieties that can be processed or eaten fresh in the summer.
- Parisian carrot 443 - suitable for puchkovoy products, you can start harvesting 50 days after emergence, the root length is 5 cm, the shape is round and oval, the color is orange.
- Moscow winter - beam production is obtained in 55 days, full-fledged root crops in 120 days. The carrot is elongated, conical, obtuse, orange-red. Variety resistant to tsvetushnosti.
- Lagoon f1 - an early ripe hybrid with cylindrical fruits up to 20 cm long.
Resistant to bolting:
Planting carrots in the winter
To get beautiful roots without curvature and bifurcation, it is necessary to prepare the soil. The bed must be deeply digged, having achieved that the earth becomes loose without lumps, and the roots can grow without encountering obstacles.
Fertilizer should be applied to the garden bed. It is very important that they are inorganic. Manure, even introduced last year, will disfigure a carrot beyond recognition. Receiving in excess nitrogen from organic matter, roots grow and become multi-terminal.
Under the carrot make phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen can be added later - in the spring, when shoots appear. Do not use organics, and urea or ammonium nitrate.
On sandy soil carrots can be sown on flat ridges. Clay soil is better formed in the form of a ridge - then in spring the earth warms up and dries faster, and the harvest will turn out earlier.
Ridge planting allows you to get long roots on heavy soils.
By winter, it is better to sow the coated carrots. The seeds inside the granules are calibrated, that is selective, large and viable. The coated seeds have high germination capacity and are convenient for sowing.
Carrots can be returned to their original location at least 3 years later, ideally after 5 years.
To root were homogeneous, it is important to distribute the seeds at a uniform distance from each other. When sub-wintering, the optimal spacing between adjacent seeds is 2 cm. Frequent planting will lead to an over-expenditure of the seed, since spring shoots will have to be thinned. Rare will not allow rational use of the area of the beds.
Sowing carrots for the winter you need to consider that the germination of seeds in the soil will decrease faster than when stored in a room. The seeding rate is increased by 10%. On average, 50 pills should be consumed per meter.
For sowing choose a flat area, quickly released in the spring of snow and water. The beds begin to cook in mid-October. The grooves are cut immediately, since later, when the soil freezes, it will be difficult to do.
Seeds are buried smaller than in spring sowing. The optimum depth is 1-1,5 cm. Sowed grooves are not covered by soil, but by loose mulch composed of peat and small-cloveted earth. The mixture should be made up in advance and stored in a warm room so that it does not get wet and not frozen.
Choosing a deadline for podzimnii carrots sowing, it is better to be late than hurry. It is important that the seeds are not only not sprouted, but not swollen. Sowing is carried out when stable cold weather sets in, and the soil temperature will not rise above zero.
Usually, the sowing period coincides with the onset of strong morning frost, when the surface of the earth is covered with a frozen crust. Tentatively, we can say that, depending on the climatic conditions of the region, carrots in the Russian Federation are sown from late October to mid-November.
Now it is easy to "predict" the weather for a week or two ahead. The forecast is very likely to be published on the Internet.
Landing in the Leningrad region
The climate of St. Petersburg is moderately cold. The temperature steadily drops below zero not earlier than mid-November.
November temperatures in the Leningrad Region:
- average: -2, 0,
- minimum: -2, 1,
- maximum: -1, 7.
The situation is complicated by the dampness of the seaside climate. In any month of the year a lot of rain falls, and carrots need to be sown in dry soil. If the prepared bed was covered with snow at the time of sowing, it should be swept away with a hard broom and cleaned the grooves.
But it is safer to close the bed immediately after digging moisture-proof material. It will not get wet under the autumn rains, and you can sow without problems.
Caring for the podzimney carrot will begin in the spring. If the bed was closed by lapice leaves, foliage or sawdust, remove the shelter as soon as possible. Topsoil gently gingerly with a small rake to get rid of the seedlings of annual weeds and break the crust that could appear during the winter.
In the future, carrot care standard, consists of thinning, irrigation and weed.
The best winter varieties
Picking the right grade is of paramount importance. Preference should be given to mid-season and early ripening varieties resistant to frost.
According to the experience of gardeners, the best varieties of carrots for the winter landing are such:
- Vitamin Great for fresh use in salads, appetizers. Fruits are bright orange, juicy, with a pronounced sweet taste. The variety is characterized by good keeping quality, does not crack, when planting is completely covered with a layer of earth, therefore there are no green or purple markings on the top of the root crops.
- Shantane Among the advantages of the variety: does not crack, shows high resistance to drought, perfectly preserved, has large fruits. However, the taste of the variety is somewhat worse than that of the vitamin. In addition, the fruit has a large core.
- Nantes. Very popular sredneranny grade of carrots for podzimny landing. Fruits are medium sized, cylindrical, with a small core and juicy orange flesh. Other advantages of a grade consist in good keeping quality and unpretentiousness.
- Losinoostrovskaya. The main advantages of the variety are high resistance to severe frosts. Fruits can be stored for a long time, without losing in taste and useful substances. They have a cylindrical shape, a small core, painted in bright orange, even a reddish color.
- Moscow winter. Unpretentious to the conditions of the mid-season variety of carrots. Well preserved, can be used for consumption in fresh, heat-treated and canned species.
- Beauty maiden. Medium early, color-resistant grade. It has high taste qualities: sweet, sugar, juicy and tender, the heart is small. The root crop is medium-sized, conical, has a bright orange shade.
- Our nanny. Versatile grade in use: suitable for fresh consumption, for preparing juices and canned food. Fruits are large, cylindrical or conical, with a small core, red-orange saturated color. Carrots of this variety are characterized by excellent sweet taste, juiciness and increased level of carotene.
When to plant carrots in the fall
Determining planting dates is the second key condition for a good harvest. If you make a mistake with the planting date, the seeds will either come up earlier and will not survive the frost, or they will not be able to sow at all. Difficulties in determining the timing lie in the fact that in different regions climatic conditions differ, and the weather can be unpredictable and changeable. Because guided only by calendar recommendations will not work.
Calendar dates and weather
Usually, seed producers indicate on packages recommended dates for sowing, including for sowing before winter. Depending on the variety, this period lasts from late October to early December. However, remember that during the autumn planting it is impossible to be guided by calendar dates - you need to be guided mainly by weather forecasts.
It is necessary to choose a period when frosts occur, and frost follows immediately after them. To do this, you have to carefully monitor the weather forecasts. Ground temperature must sink to 2-3 ° С, but average temperature air must be in range 0-2 ° C.
Root crops should not be planted after precipitation, since seeds may begin to germinate in humid soil at a positive temperature. And if you still use the technique when planting (a large area of the site), then wet earthen clods will stick and clog devices, which will extremely complicate the process. After the rain you need to wait for the land to dry. It is quite acceptable if on the eve of landing a small amount of snow falls.
Features of the region
The timing of the disembarkation of root crops will vary depending on the region and its climate:
- Moscow region. Landing is carried out from late October to mid-November.
- Siberia. In this harsh region, planting lasts from mid-October to mid-November. It is very important to choose suitable cold-resistant varieties.
- Ural Landing in the Urals takes place from late October to the first half of November.
- Ukraine. The more southerly, the later should be landing. In the southern regions, it falls on the beginning and middle of December, in the northern part of the country - in the middle of November.
Root grows well on sandy, loose soils with a neutral or slightly acidic level of Ph (5.5-7). It is important that good air exchange is maintained in the soil. Avoid areas with heavy, loamy or loamy soil. There should be a lot of light on the site, since its lack will lead to poor yields. It is also desirable that the land be flat or with a slight slope.
Ancestors: good and bad
Orange Root Vegetable Shows excellent germination and yields in areas where such crops were previously grown:
Especially good results will be, if the soil was fertilized with humus or compost under these crops.
You can not plant a root crop after beans and parsley, as there will be a high risk of damage to root crops by pests. Also, you can not plant an orange vegetable in the same place from year to year - you should take a break of 3-4 years. Consider that after harvesting in the beginning of summer, you will have a decent area, which can also be occupied with something. Therefore, it is important to know what crops are recommended to plant after carrots. Allowed to plant cabbage, peppers, tomatoes. In general, the rule of crop rotation can be summarized as follows: it is desirable to alternate the roots with above-ground fruits.
Preparation of beds
To prepare the site for planting seeds need to be in advance when the temperature of the soil and air is still above zero.
Stages of preparation:
- Loosen the ground, crush breasts and lumps, level the area.
- Eliminate weeds.
- Make trenches up to 3-4 cm deep with a width of about 20-25 cm between them.
- Thoroughly tamp the ground in trenches, if the soil is “heavy”, “oily” and clayey, you need to lay a layer of sand up to 2-3 cm and once again properly rammed.
At this, the preparation of beds ends and it remains to wait for the onset of frost for planting seeds.
Do I need preliminary preparation of seeds
In the classical planting of carrots in the spring, seeds must first be soak and germinateto increase germination. However, during the autumn planting of the root crop, these procedures are not recommended, since the seeds that have absorbed moisture can germinate prematurely and die from cold weather.
When choosing seeds, give preference to the freshest material that has been stored in proper conditions: when the air temperature is 14-16 ° C and humidity is not more than 75%. If the shelf life of seeds exceeds 3 years, such seed material should be discarded.
For autumn planting can not choose tape seeds, it should be traditional simple seeds.
The process, scheme and depth of sowing seeds
With the onset of frost you need to hurry with landing work:
- If snow falls, it should be carefully cleaned or swept away from the beds.
- Trenches can be a little sprinkled with ash to protect the crop from pests.
- Next, you need to scatter the seeds along the beds with a distance of 2.5 cm.
- Sprinkle about 2 cm with prepared soil.
- Top add a layer of peat or humus with a thickness of 2 cm.
- Soil need a little tamp.
- At the end of the beds can be sprinkled with snow, if it fell, or spruce branches.
It is important that the depth of the seeds is 3-4 cm. If the seeds are too close to the surface, they can be washed by melt water, and if they are too deep, the seedling process will be very protracted, since after the snow melts the seeds go deep.
In the spring, the shelter from the branches must be removed as soon as the snow melts. If the snow cover is too thick, it can also be slightly cleared to speed up the melting process. Next, over the area you need to stretch a dense fabric or film to a height of 20-30 cm to accelerate the shoots. When sprout appears, they, if necessary, need to thin out and weed.
If the spring is too dry, young plants sometimes do not have enough moisture, because the unformed root system still cannot extract moisture from the deep layers of the soil. Because carrots, if necessary, moisten with warm water.
Carrots sown from autumn are not suitable for long-term storage, because you need to plant a root crop so that you use the crop for 1-2 months. Useful orange fruits will come at the right time at the beginning of summer, when the body needs vitamins so much. But early harvest can also be used for harvesting and processing. For many gardeners, podzimny planting vegetable seems troublesome and impractical, but in fact, this is a fairly quick process, which as a result brings a good harvest.
The timing of planting carrots in the fall.
Planting carrots in the ground before winter is carried out under certain conditions. Planting time of carrots depends on the climate of the area and the autumn weather. In order to succeed in your work, sow the carrot only when there is a steady cold and the average daily temperature will be between 0-2 ºC. In 2018, the best to sow carrots in November 8, 9 and 16 numbers.
After what culture to plant carrots.
In order to grow a good crop of healthy root vegetables, you need to know, after which you can plant carrots. Such cultures as cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkins, watermelons, squash, potatoes and cabbage are considered the best predecessors for carrots, especially if humus or compost was introduced into the soil. But after such crops as beans and parsley, carrots are not grown. Readers ask if you can plant carrots after carrots. Absolutely not - re-carrots in the same place can be planted only four years later. And after introducing fresh manure into the soil, it will be possible to sow carrots in this area only after two years.
Carrots before planting - preparation.
Planting carrots in open ground begins with the acquisition of inoculum. What sorts of carrots are better to sow before winter? For this purpose, suitable early varieties, for example, Vitamin-6, Shantane-2461, Losinoostrovskaya-13, Moscow winter A-545, Nantes-4 or Incomparable. For podzimnogo sowing you need a quarter more seed than in spring sowing, but do not strive to purchase coated seeds or those that are pasted on the tape - you need ordinary fresh seeds that have not been pretreated.
Soil for carrots.
Bed under the carrot must be prepared in advance, before the cold. Loosen deeply dug up soil, make grooves 3 cm deep in it, compact the bottom in the grooves and wait for the frosts. Separately prepare dry ground in bags for embedding grooves and organic fertilizer - humus, compost or their mixture with peat at the rate of 4-5 buckets per 1 m². Bags with soil and fertilizers should be stored in a non-freezing shed.
How to plant carrots before winter.
Planting carrots in the autumn is made when the ground freezes to 5-8 cm.Even if by that time the snow falls, do not worry - clear the bed from the snow, sow the dry carrot seeds in the grooves, cover them with dry earth, grumble the area with a layer of harvested organic matter 3-4 cm thick, compact it so that the mulch does not swell with the wind, and again throw a bed of snow.
Caring for carrots after planting in the fall.
If the snow has not yet fallen by the time the seeds are sown, cover the garden bed with mulch with spruce or pine spruce branches, but do not forget, after the first snowfall, sketch a small snowdrift on the garden bed.
In the spring, when the snow begins to melt, remove the lap branches, and if the snow has fallen too much, then a part of the snow will make it melt faster. When the snow melts, install metal arches on the bed and pull polyethylene or nonwoven fabric on them - this measure will speed up the process of sprouting.
Where to plant?
Before choosing a plot for winter planting of carrots, it is important to remember that she loves loose soil. Therefore, beds should be made where the land is lighter and more fertile. It is desirable that it should be in a sunny place, so that in the spring snow should come off the beds as early as possible. It is best to plant carrots in the garden before winter, and not scallops, so that in the spring the seeds will not be washed away by melt water.
It is better to sow carrots after onions, potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers and tomatoes. After harvesting, remove all remaining weeds, various residues from the garden bed, and then plow the land well. When plowing mineral fertilizers must be applied. Organic fertilizers (fresh manure) will not work, since after them carrots cannot be planted in this place for two years. The soil should be ready by mid-October.
Shoots carrots. © Amelia
When to plant carrots?
It is necessary to sow carrots before the frosts, on frozen soil. Certain dates are very difficult to call, because the climate in Russia is unpredictable. It is necessary to guess that the seeds do not germinate before the onset of frost, because each year the cold comes in different ways. Sowing in October is very dangerous, since the seeds can germinate when a thaw occurs, and the subsequent frosts will destroy them. Therefore, it is necessary to sow the carrot by mid-November, but it is better to increase the seeding rate.
Shoots carrots. © gardeningtheorganicway
Sowing carrots for the winter should be dry seeds (no need to pre-soak them and germinate), since these seeds do not germinate before the prescribed time. Seeds of carrots are small, and so that the crop was neat, you can use a special seeder.
For the winter, the carrots should be sown according to the following scheme: prepare the grooves (1-2 cm deep), pour the seeds in there, top them up with dry, warm earth. After that, lay a layer of peat or humus (about 2 cm.) Slightly compact the soil from above. When the first snow falls, you need to podgresti it on the garden and press a spruce branches.
In the spring, when the snow melts, the spruce branches need to be removed. And as soon as the snow from the bed completely disappears, you need to install low arcs on it and cover them with a film or non-woven material. So the carrot will ripen even faster. Further care is loosening, weeding and thinning.
What gives autumn sowing carrots
Podzimny sowing carrots has several advantages:
- scarce springtime is released,
- carrots sown in autumn reach maturity as early as the first half of June, about 15–20 days earlier than any early ripe spring variety,
- root crops grow large, even and very juicy, because the spring thawed waters maintain a constant soil moisture,
- in early spring, most pests have not yet intensified, therefore the risk of damage to their crops is significantly reduced (especially by carrot fly),
- On the site vacated at the beginning of summer, another crop can be planted (radish, lettuce, etc.).
From the minuses of the autumn planting of carrots, it can be noted that these fruits are not subject to long-term storage and spoil quickly enough.
Contrary to the general opinion, early-ripening carrot varieties are not suitable for under-winter sowing. They give quick and early shoots, which are often damaged by frost. In case of unexpected warming, sprouts may appear, their subsequent cooling will inevitably ruin them. The likelihood of spring shoots of carrots increases significantly, so it is better to focus on vegetable varieties that are less prone to tsvetushnosti.
Carrots planted in autumn may bloom in spring
For sowing for the winter, you can safely take the following varieties:
- Chantenay Royal,
- Losinoostrovskaya 13,
- Nandrin F1,
- Nantes improved
- Nectar F1,
- Baby sweet
- Moscow winter A 515,
- Krasa-maiden and others.
The bag of carrot seeds should indicate its suitability for under-winter planting.
When purchasing seed material, it is recommended to carefully read the instructions, where it is necessary to indicate the suitability for the wintering of the plant.
The technology of autumn sowing can be used in almost all regions of our vast country, excluding the regions of the Far North.
Instructions for autumn sowing carrots
Technology podzimnogo carrots seeding is not particularly difficult. But it is extremely important to take into account several important points of agrotechnology.
Planting carrots for the winter is easy, but you need to know some of the nuans
The exact dates of the sowing works cannot be foreseen in advance, since the autumn weather has a changeable temper. It is necessary to focus on the characteristics of the local climate and specific weather conditions. The most favorable is the period when the temperature is constantly kept around -2 ... 0 ° C, and the warm days are in the past. Late return warming can cause seed germination. From the subsequent cold weather, the sprouts are definitely frozen and all works will be in vain. It is best to sow about 7–10 days before the onset of these frosts.
Carrots sown when the ground is already podstnet
The land should podstat little, but not freeze. It is even allowed to plant carrots under the snow in the furrows prepared in advance on the bed.
Podzimny sowing carrots is also good because the vegetables of the usual varieties are larger and sweeter than when sown at the usual time. This is explained by the fact that the seeds begin to germinate in early spring, when the soil still contains a lot of moisture, so necessary for sprouts at first. As a result, carrots sprout together and grow rapidly. The only minus of sowing carrots for the winter is that such root crops are not suitable for long-term storage.The only minus of sowing carrots for the winter is that long-term storage of these roots are not suitable
Beginning gardeners fear that root crops planted before winter will not be able to ascend after frosts or, on the contrary, at the first thaw they will ascend and immediately freeze. Do not worry, carrots will rise in due time, and you will noticeably reduce spring troubles in the garden and you will get a harvest earlier. In addition, having learned how to sow carrots for the winter, you can later plant other vegetables as well.Video about podzimny carrot sowing
If you used a manual carrot seed drill when sowing seeds, thinning may not be necessary. When hand sowing, thinning of the seedlings will be necessary when real leaves appear, leaving two centimeters between the young plants. And after another twenty days, spend the second thinning, increasing the distance to four centimeters between shoots.
Sowing carrots for the winter will allow you to harvest the first harvest in mid-June, while the roots of carrots sown in spring will only begin to ripen. But even if you planted varieties with good ease, remember that when wintering, carrots are only suitable for summer consumption, it is not recommended to store them for winter storage.