When growing vines in the suburbs, one should pay attention to seedlings with high frost resistance and early fruit ripening. Currently, there are many grape varieties with suitable qualities for the climate in the Moscow region, which have excellent taste. In addition, many species do not need to cover for the winter.
This table grape has a reddish crimson hue. Its characteristic features are:
- frost resistance - up to twenty seven degrees below zero,
- high yield,
- disease resistance - gray rot, oidium and mildew,
- the speed of fruit ripening - up to one hundred twenty days after flowering,
- juicy, large berries - up to eight grams,
- after full ripening there is a nutmeg flavor,
- the vine does not need shelter for the winter.
The grape bush “Victoria” is not high with more than seventy percent of fruit-bearing shoots. The variety requires thinning, as it is prone to overload. A slight disadvantage of this form of grapevine is the need to plant a number of varieties for pollination.
Aleshenkin or №328
One of the most popular table varieties of white grapes grown in the middle lane. Distinctive qualities of the variety are:
- very early fruit ripening period - up to one hundred eighteen days,
- high level of productivity and quality of fruits,
- juicy and sweet berries weighing from three to five grams
- branched large clusters - up to two and a half kilograms.
The variety has high frost resistance, but still experienced gardeners recommend covering it for the winter. Aleshenkin is an unpretentious type of vine, which due to its excellent taste is used in various industries. The disadvantage of the variety is considered low protection against diseases.
Laura or Flora
Table grapes of early ripening with the fruits of light green. Primary parties of the variety are:
- high frost resistance - up to twenty three degrees below zero,
- ripening period - up to one hundred and ten days,
- dense berries with a pleasant taste weighing up to fifteen grams,
- bush does not require shelter for the winter.
The fruits of Laura grapes perfectly keep on the branches and when the final ripening berries do not crumble. Bushes of medium height. Propensity to diseases is average. Clusters are large, sometimes reaching two kilograms.
Grapes table white fruits. It is popular with gardeners in the Moscow region due to its excellent properties:
- ripening period - up to one hundred twenty days,
- high resistance to frost - up to twenty-five degrees below zero,
- when fully matured there is a nutmeg taste,
- berries are large with a mass of up to twelve grams.
The grape variety Nadezhda Aksayskaya does not require keeping in greenhouse conditions of seedlings - it develops beautifully from the first years of life in the open field. The clusters of this type of fruit vine are very large. Sometimes they reach a mass of two kilograms. The variety has an average resistance to diseases and therefore requires preventive treatments from gray rot and powdery mildew.
Table grape with high yield. It is distributed in the zones of the middle band, as it meets all the necessary characteristics for growing under these conditions:
- increased resistance to frost - up to twenty-four degrees below zero,
- good resistance to various diseases
- very early fruit ripening,
- delicious berries weighing up to ten grams.
Super Extra - is one of the earliest grape varieties. It has strong large bushes with large clusters. With one bush can be collected for the season more than sixteen pounds of fruit. This type of grape perfectly transports.
All varieties of these grape varieties are well established for growing in the Moscow region due to the rapid maturation. They tolerate cold winters without shelter. But still, even the most frost-resistant bush will be better to winter with a little warmth.
Technical grapes for Moscow region
In the Moscow region, many varieties are well developed, intended for the preparation of wines, marinade juices, various beverages, cognac products and concentrates. A feature of these varieties is an increased percentage of sugar in the berries. Also, many technical varieties have a special aroma and specific taste. Appearance for growing industrial varieties does not matter.
A variety of early ripening for technical purposes. The main characteristics of the form:
- ripening over ninety percent of shoots
- resistance to fungal diseases
- very high frost resistance - up to twenty-nine degrees below zero,
- oval yellow-green berries with strong skin, harmonious taste weighing up to two grams,
- the ripening period is up to one hundred and fifteen days.
The bush is quite strong, medium tall. Crystal grapes are widely used for making sherry and table wines.
Technical grade of a grapevine with an average ripening period. But with high frost resistance. It has a number of good properties:
- matures over one hundred thirty-five days from bud break,
- frost resistance - up to twenty five degrees below zero,
- high disease resistance
- fruits are small in size, have juicy flesh and harmonious pleasant taste.
Harmony grape berries in dark blue. Apply them to dessert and dry ruby wines.
Wine mid-season grape vine with a period of ripening of the crop to one hundred and forty days. Not bad caught in the suburbs. Characteristic qualities of the variety:
- disease resistance
- possibility of growing without shelter due to high frost resistance - up to twenty-three degrees below zero,
- good yield
- tolerates drought.
Medium sized fruits have a dark blue skin and a harmonious taste. Use this type of grape for the preparation of table wines and juices.
Grapes with dark purple fruits that have a wonderful aroma. Features of a grade:
- early ripening - up to one hundred twenty-five days,
- very high frost resistance - up to thirty degrees below zero,
- small juicy fruits have a high sugar content with medium acidity,
- good yield - up to five kilograms from the bush.
Marshal Foch grapes prepare red and rosé table wines with a light fruity flavor and a characteristic pleasant aroma.
One of the most cold-resistant medium ripening varieties of grapes with ink fruits of small size. This type of vine has special characteristics:
- frost tolerance - up to forty three degrees below zero,
- ability to adapt to any conditions
- excellent taste,
- high yield
- excellent resistance to pests and diseases.
Amur grape is a very tall shrub that can reach more than ten meters in height. Fruits contain a high percentage of sugars, as well as a variety of vitamin and trace elements. Use this grade for preparation of juice, wines, jams, vinegar. They also make compotes, jellies, fruit drinks and jelly. The berries have a sweet, slightly sour taste. Especially tasty fruits grown in the sun.
Reviews about growing grapes in the Moscow region
Hope, 53 years:
I grow grapes in the Moscow region for many years. I tried many varieties. Today I prefer Nadezhda Aksayskaya. This grape variety does not require insulation in winter and always has time to ripen by autumn. The fruits are large and very tasty. Moreover, such a vine is almost not exposed to diseases.
Ivan Andreevich, 64 years:
For many years, cultivated a variety of Alesha in the suburbs. With proper care, this variety brings a bountiful harvest. The berries are very tasty and juicy. But a couple of years ago I planted a sapling Super Extra. Variety is consistent with the name. These are super grapes! The fruits are large, always have time to ripen during the season. Unlike Alyoshka, Super Extra bushes do not need shelter for the winter.
Long chose a variety that tolerates severe frosts and is suitable for the climate of the Moscow region. Stopped on a grade Amur Triumph. Such grapes are completely unpretentious. For the fourth year, it pleases us with its beautiful fruits. Perfect for both wine and jams and preserves for the winter. Very tasty jam is made from it. The only drawback is the height of the bushes that grow up whiter than five meters. Sometimes fails to harvest at the top.
I grow grapes for making wine. The most delicious drink is obtained from Saperavi Severny. He grows well in my country house in the Moscow region. Caring for a vine is simple, as it winters beautifully and is completely unpretentious. By the end of September, you can harvest and prepare wine that has a special delicate taste.
To get a good harvest of grapes in the suburbs, you should choose the right grade of vine for the climate. The main condition for growing vines in central Russia is high resistance to low temperatures and speed of fruit ripening.
If you do not know what kind of grape is better to plant in the suburbs, pay attention to the uncovered varieties. They withstand severe frosts (some of them are up to minus 30 degrees) due to the cooling resistance inherent in them by breeders. They do not need to cover for the winter and open in the spring.
A feature of such varieties is that in the first year the sapling must be covered. The young plant is not able to cope with the severe frost. Do not rely only on its characteristics.
The best grapes for Moscow region, which do not need to cover for the winter, are:
- Aleshenkin. Among gardeners you can hear about him the name Alesha or number 328. A variety of early ripening (110-118 days). Clusters have a conical shape, large. Their weight varies in the range of 0.7-2.5 kg. Large oval berries of amber color are covered with light patina. The weight of one berry is about 3-5 g. About 25-40% of berries do not have seeds. The berries are juicy, sweet, crunchy.
- Harmony. The bush is able to withstand temperatures down to minus 25 degrees. It takes about 135 days from blooming buds to full maturity of the berries. Clusters of conical shape of medium size. Loose or medium density. Berries are dark blue, blue, round.
- Valiant allows you to enjoy the harvest at the end of August. Frost-resistant grade (up to minus 46 degrees). Clusters of medium size. Small blue berries with large bones have a pleasant strawberry flavor.
- Agat Donskoy. Clusters of conical shape of large size, moderately dense. Their weight is in the range of 400-600 g. Large berries (up to 2.4 mm in diameter) weigh about 4-5 g. Their shape is round, the color is dark blue. Resistant grade frost minus 26 degrees.
- Laura (it is also called Flora). Ripens in 110-115 days. Bunches tight hold of shoots. This protects the berries from falling down even after full ripeness or large yields. Berries are very beautiful. They are amber in color with a touch of wax. The bush is not damaged at a temperature of minus 23 degrees.
- Super Extra differs in that it is capable of producing good yields even when grown in the shade. Ripening occurs by the end of the first decade of August (7-8). The vine forms very early. Each of them can collect up to 20 kg of berries. Fruits remain on the bush even after full ripening.
- Phenomenon (you can hear such names as Augustine or Pleven steady). One of the best options, which has a good taste, large beautiful berries and disease resistance. Clusters weigh about 700-800 g. Withstands cold to minus 24 degrees.
- Early TAA (i.e. Northern or Pineapple). It is frost-resistant (to minus 30 degrees). Clusters are small and medium. Round berries of medium size have a blue color with a purple bloom. Light pineapple flavor characteristic of juicy pulp.
- Marshal Foch. Round-shaped berries of small size (1.1 g). Dense cylindrical clusters of medium size have a weight of 100-120 g. Berries with thin skin and juicy pulp have a slight taste of fruit. Fruits can be removed from early September to October. The ripening period is 125 days. Frost resistance to minus 32 degrees.
- Amber. Frost minus 34 degrees. Medium-sized sweet berries gradually turn yellow. In addition, they have a nutmeg flavor.
The list can only get the best grapes for the region of the Nepal variety. But these will be enough to make your choice.
Next, we consider which grape varieties are best planted in the Moscow region, choosing from the dining group:
- Agadai ripens in 150 days. Differs in high yields. Large clusters have a conical shape. Oval berries of the big sizes differ in dense pulp. Average resistance to frost. The bush is prone to disease. But the harvest is well kept.
- Asma. The ripening period is 170 days. Clusters of medium size reach 300 g. Violet berries are quite large. In each of them is a pair of seeds.
- Late maturity Isabella. Medium sized clusters (their weight is up to 150 g). Small black fruit with a pleasant smell, reminiscent of strawberries. Resistant bush to fungal diseases.
- Cardinal different short growing season (120 days). Bulk clusters weigh up to half a kilogram. Big berries have a pleasant nutmeg flavor. Not resistant to diseases and frost.
- Queen of the vineyards It has a good yield. Round berries form clusters of medium length.
- Odessa early as you might guess from the name, has a short growing season. The mass of a bunch can reach 300 g. Berries with a pleasant nutmeg taste.
- Magaracha early with large clusters (up to half a kilo). Round dark blue fruit with a few seeds inside.
- Timur. Ripens quickly, in just 110 days. Large clusters weigh half a kilo. Fruits grow to 10 g. They have dense pulp, nutmeg taste. Frost resistance - up to minus 25 degrees.
- Beautiful girl. Good early variety with oval pink berries. Juicy pulp has a pleasant taste. Clusters grow to 400 g.
These are the best table grapes for the Moscow region. Their fruits are eaten most often in the original state, without various preparations.
To the list of the best grapes for the Moscow region, you can add varieties related to technical:
- Rkatsitelifrom which wine is obtained with excellent aroma and taste. The grade concerns late-ripening. Clusters of medium size. By weight reach 180 g.
- Furmint. Mid-season variety bred by Hungarian breeders. Small clusters weigh up to 120 g. So-called Tokyo wines are made from small berries.
- Traminer pink. This is a well-known Austrian variety for many years, which is one of the best for the production of wine so far. Medium early variety. Round berries are also medium sized. Juice in them has no color. Dense clusters do not grow to large sizes. Their weight does not exceed 100 g. Partially resistant to diseases.
- Riesling. This variety is bred on the banks of the Rhine in Germany. His clusters are small (up to 100 g), but dense. Peel on small berries thin. Non-resistant to diseases.
These varieties are perfect for making compotes or wine.
Before you decide which grape varieties are best for the Moscow region, you need to decide on their cultivation. Those who wish to decorate with the help of grapes their plots, gazebos or pergolas, can choose from decorative varieties. These include Saperavi North, Crystal, Platovsky. Plants of these varieties will delight the eye with its beauty.
Winegrowers have compiled a list of the best grapes for Moscow region, resistant to severe frosts:
- Juodupe. This is the earliest variety. Ripening occurs by the end of July. Its ripening period is 95-100 days. Clusters are small (up to 140 g), dense, have a conical shape. Rounded berries of dark purple color reach a weight of 3.2 g.
- Buffalo, which is characterized by high yield, excellent taste and attractive clusters of large sizes.
- Pineapple early. Loose clusters reach 250 g. The fruits are large (5 g). Sweet to taste, with a pineapple flavor. Fruits can be collected by the end of August.
- Rogachevsky. Universal variety, the growing season of which is 110 days. Beautiful clusters in the shape of a cylinder grow up to 300 g. Dark blue fruits weighing 5 g have a sweet taste and isabel flavor.
- K-878 or otherwise Gentle. Elegant clusters large (400 g). The berries are pink-purple. They have a nutmeg taste.
- Lucillewhich is characterized by dense clusters. They grow to 200 g. Pink fruits (about 3 g) taste sweet. The average crop variety, the berries of which ripen in late August. Medium-sized conical bunches.
- Ontario. Distinguished variety bisexual flowers, medium cylindrical clusters. Крупные ягоды имеют бело-зеленоватый окрас, который по мере созревания приобретает золотистый оттенок.
Studying reviews of the best grapes for Moscow region, "left by amateur gardeners, you can make the following list:
- Kishmish radiant which is known for all the lack of pits. Differs in high productivity. Large clusters reach 1 kg. The fruits have a rich nutmeg taste. Requires careful maintenance. Able to withstand cold only to minus 15 degrees.
- Novocherkassk anniversary, which is characterized by a short growing season. Fruits of pink color form large clusters. Frost-resistant
- Beauty of the north, possessing a short growing season. Included in the group of table varieties, but has a tart taste.
- Kristina. A variety with a short growing season, sweet berries. Requires little maintenance.
- Tasonwith beautiful pink berries with white barrels. It has a nutmeg flavor. Clusters are big.
The best wine varieties
The best grapes for Moscow region, suitable for making wine:
- Isabelsuitable for making dessert wines,
- Aligotefrom which they prepare white wines and champagne,
- Muscatwhich is used to prepare wines with muscat flavor.
These technical varieties, which can confidently be called the best grapes for the Moscow region, are difficult to grow. But probably. All expended efforts will more than pay off a great harvest. And this will allow you to enjoy a pleasant tasty drink of its own making.
For open ground
Growing grapes is possible not only in the greenhouse. Some species are able to grow in the usual garden beds.
The best grapes for the Moscow region for open ground:
- Muscat summer with excellent taste. Short growing season. Resistance to frost is ensured by good vine ripening.
- Victoria (some people mistakenly call him Uehara). Treats table varieties with a short growing season. Frost resistance to minus 30 degrees. The clusters are large, weighing up to 800 g. The crimson-red berries are shaped like an egg. Fruits are sweet with a nutmeg flavor. Differs in high productivity.
- Nadezhda Aksayskaya. It is characterized by large clusters and berries. It tastes like Arkady berries. Differs in shorter term of maturing. Harvest can be collected from mid-August.
- Shunwhich is one of the best options. Resistant to winter cold. Berries are large (up to 6-7 g). Clusters are red, as they ripen turn into dark pink. Berries ripen by the end of August. The variety is resistant to diseases.
Tips for beginners
Having decided what are the best grapes for Moscow region, you can begin to grow them. But here, too, there are several key points that need to be taken into account.
The most important thing for a good harvest is to provide the plant with the right amount of water and nutrients. In Moscow, groundwater is close to the soil surface. Therefore, it is very rare to water the grapes. As for fertilizing, it is necessary to exclude nitrogen fertilizers. The fact is that nitrogen stimulates the rapid growth of the vine. She does not have time to ripen until the fall and the onset of the first frost. This leads to the freezing of the entire bush and lower yields. All other types of fertilizers are applied in accordance with the selected variety.
It is best to plant grapes on light sandy soil. The first spring rays of the sun easily heat it. And in the fall the soil cools, allowing the plant to prepare for cold weather.
If the selected best grape variety for the Moscow region is characterized by poor frost resistance, the bush must be covered from frost. This applies not only to the winter period, but also to spring frosts. At the time of cold weather, all shoots are removed from the mount and placed on the ground. If this is not done, the plant will definitely freeze. The base of the trunk is covered with a special garden film. But the usual methods are fine. For example, mulching with a thick layer of sawdust. Do not use fallen leaves. They can be carriers of various diseases. They are recommended to burn.
As can be seen from the article, the answer to the question of which grape varieties are best planted in the Moscow region is not so difficult to find. Winegrowers took care of creating a wide variety of varieties that are suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region (and other regions with a similar climate). Due to the difficult growing conditions of the plant resistant to fungal diseases. And thanks to this, the yield increases.
It is important to remember one more thing: even the best grape variety selected for the Moscow region will not be able to produce a good crop without proper attention and care. In addition to making nutrients, the bush requires regular pruning, treatment from diseases and pests, shelter for the winter period.
Features of the climatic conditions of the Moscow region
Grapes are a heat-loving crop, but thanks to the efforts of breeders, it was grown in the South, North and Central Region. The climate near Moscow is not the best for grapes, but more suitable than the northern one. The first half of summer is hot, and the second is often rainy. Rains during the ripening period of grapes are not desirable, because the fruits crack and rot.
The sooner the grapes ripen in the suburbs, the better. It is for this reason that early varieties are chosen for the region. Despite the adverse weather conditions, the Moscow region has advantages for grapes over the South, namely:
- good yield varieties
- a small number of diseases
- low pest activity
- easier vineyard care,
- many varieties.
Since spring in the Moscow region can be long and winter is harsh, only frost-resistant varieties are chosen. There are frost-resistant varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests and easily tolerate spring frosts. For Siberia and the Urals, ideal varieties are wine, for example Lydia.
5 best grape varieties for the Moscow region
Despite the changeable climate, the grapes in the Moscow region gives a good harvest, even better than in the South. New varieties do not get sick and are not afraid of the cold. There are many varieties of grapes, but there are only four flavors: sweet, nutmeg, sweet-sour and nightshade.
We offer a rating of varieties:
In addition to the varieties listed above, Super Extra, Rusven, Agat Don and Kristall are popular. Among the variety of varieties only grapes Kishmish seedless. When grown in the suburbs Kishmish needs shelter before the onset of autumn frosts. Before the onset of frost cover the vine with agrofibre.
Popular early and mid-season varieties
Only early and middle varieties are suitable for the Moscow region, and not all mid-season vineyards have time to ripen before the onset of frost. We offer in the table popular varieties of different ripening terms.
Not all varieties are frost resistant, so they need shelter for the winter. The fruits of the variety Tason ripen in 100-110 days. The mass of bunches is 600 g, and in some cases 1.2 kg. More than half of the shoots bear fruit, due to this, a good harvest is gathered from the bush. Harvest in the first half of August. The variety is frost-resistant, withstands temperatures up to -23 ºС, resistant to mildew, gray rot and powdery mildew.
Agat Donskoy attributed to mid-season varieties. The harvest ripens in 120 days. The disadvantages include sour taste and unsuitability for transportation. The advantages of the variety include:
- large clusters up to 600 g
- up to 80% of fruitful shoots
- frost resistance to -26 ºС,
- good survival rate in adverse climatic conditions.
Other varieties are also popular:
- Super Extra refers to the early varieties. The fruits ripen in the first half of August.
- Variety Augustin refers to mid-season. The fruits ripen by the end of August, the vine has time to ripen to frost. Variety resistant to frost. The fruits are oval and sweet.
- Summer Muscat - an early variety. Clusters weighing up to 1 kg, the fruits are large, yellow. Summer Muscat is resistant to frost down to -25 ° C.
- Variety of raisins Asian miracle is a mid-season variety. It is frost-resistant, with shelter with agrofiber it can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° С.
- Seedless Kishmish white, radiant and golden varieties are popular among gardeners.
The grapes in the Moscow region are grown not only in the open field, but also in greenhouses. For open ground choose frost-resistant varieties. One of the indicators of frost resistance of the bush is the rapid maturation of the vine. These varieties include:
- Summer muscat,
- Nadezhda Aksayskaya,
- Northern Early
- Moscow steady.
Resistant to frost and technical varieties such as Isabella, Alpha, Crystal and Rusven. Consider some frost resistant varieties.
- Shun Vine fully matured. Fruits are large, up to 7 g, red. Harvest in late August.
- Nadezhda Aksayskaya taste is similar to Arcadia. Clusters and berries are large, ripen in late August.
- Early European varieties are grown in unheated greenhouses: Arcadia, Cardinal, Krasa Dona, Aleshenkin and the Queen of Vineyards.
Tip # 2. When choosing cold frost resistant varieties, be guided by the lowest temperature values characteristic of your region. In this case, the grapes do not need shelter.
Planting and care of grapes in the suburbs
In the suburbs, it is necessary to provide the bush with such conditions that the buds bloom faster, the vine has ripened and prepared for frost.
Before planting, the seedling is prepared to take root in harsh climatic conditions, namely:
- Soak the stalk in water for 15-10 hours.
- Upper roots are removed to develop the main root deep into the soil.
- After planting, the seedling is hardened. The first week the landing site is covered with a film to create a shadow, then the greenhouse is opened.
Seedlings are planted in autumn or spring, the survival rate does not change. They are planted in the spring from mid-April to May, and in the fall from October until frost. For planting grapes choose black earth or sand, but the latter option is better. It warms up and freezes faster, and this is an important condition for growing grapes in the Moscow region.
A dimple of 80x80x100 cm is made on the sandy soil, and 80x80x80 cm on the chernozem. After planting, the soil is moistened every two weeks, poured 30 liters of water until the grapes take root. Then reduce watering, because moisture in the Moscow region, and so enough.
Answers to frequently asked questions
Question number 1. What is not ukryvnye varieties for the Moscow region?
These are frost resistant varieties. These include Alpha (withstands up to - 40 ºС), Fox berry (up to - 35 ºС), Kei Gray (up to - 42 ºС), Mure Early, and Valiant.
Question number 2. What varieties are near Moscow suitable for storage and transportation?
Kishmish radiant despite the juicy flesh, suitable for transportation and has a good lying. Suitable for storing the variety Muscat summer and Tason.
Question number 3. How to increase the stability of grapes in the Moscow region?
For the processing of grapes in the fall using the bacterial drug Mizorin. It increases resistance to drought and frost, accelerates ripening by two weeks and increases yield. The tool protects the bush from rot.
Question number 4. What varieties have high taste characteristics?
In the first place in terms of taste is Kishmish Radiant, then Cardinal Lux, Shunya, Laura, Arcadia and Nadezhda Aksayskaya. The fruits are sweet and juicy.
Question number 5. What are the high-yielding varieties?
In the climatic conditions of the Moscow region a good harvest gives Tason, Kishmish Radiant, Rusven, Crystal and Agat Don.
Errors gardeners on the choice of grapes
We offer mistakes gardeners to care for grapes in the suburbs:
- The yield and growth of grapes in the Moscow region are influenced by two factors: water and batteries. Since groundwater is located close to the soil surface, the grapes are practically not watered.
- Nitrogen fertilizers do not apply. They reduce the resistance to mildew and stimulate the growth of the vine, which does not ripen by the beginning of autumn frosts. This leads to the freezing of the bush and low yield.
- For grapes in the Moscow region, the best soil is light sandy sand. It quickly warms up in the spring and cools down in the fall. Due to this, the plant has time to ripen and prepare for frost.
- Grapes with poor frost resistance, such as Kishmish, cover not only for the winter, but also for the period of spring frosts.
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Good uncovered grapes for Moscow region
Cold resistant varieties Plants loved growers immediately after the appearance. It is not difficult to guess that it is much easier to care for them in the northern regions. They do not need to be sheltered and specially prepared for the onset of winter. Grow grapes with such characteristics is much more profitable for summer residents, and much less physical strength is required for cultivation. Often, these types of plants are chosen by novice gardeners, and rightly so, with a minimum of effort to take care of them, you can get the maximum result. Uncovered grapes It is immune not only to cold, but also to pests and diseases.
Breeders brought a lot of good varieties suitable for cultivation not only in the Moscow region, but also in more northern regions. Their yields are no worse than those of more capricious species. The grapes for the suburbs can be selected according to different criteria, such as immunity to diseases, ripening time and temperature conditions in which the plant can not be covered.
“Anniversary of Novocherkassk”
This variety is considered the most popular among non-roofed grape varieties. In any rating of frost-resistant varieties there is a place for it. It can be safely planted in the suburbs. The temperature to which this variety can adapt without shelter is in the range of -25 to -30 degrees. Its biggest advantages are earlier ripening and very large clusters, whose weight can reach 3.5 kilograms.
When eating its fruits as food, the skin does not feel at all, the taste is very pleasant, rather sweet. Oval berries are juicy and crunchy, pale pink in color with a tint. Novocherkassk’s Jubilee has a high immunity to various kinds of infections and diseases. It is very simple to care for him, the variety is unpretentious, and every year brings a great harvest. It does not need to specially prepare and fertilize the plot..
Novocherkassk’s Jubilee is well suited for propagation by cuttings that quickly root in almost any climatic conditions. They can also be grafted onto other bushes, while obtaining a plant with high yield and non-covering properties. It is necessary to care for seedlings only in the first 3 years of life until such time as a strong root system is formed.
This grape variety for Moscow region is known worldwide for its taste and high yield. On its basis, breeders derive more and more new plant species. Its frost resistance is not as high as that of Novocherkassk’s Jubilee, but this is not the main thing, for which it is chosen by beginners and experienced gardeners. In the northern regions still need to cover the bushes.
Clusters begin to ripen early, literally in 4-4.5 months, depending on weather conditions. The color of the berries is pink-purple, the taste is very rich and soft, moderately sweet. The berries are quite large, reach a diameter of 2 cm and weigh about 7 grams. Harvest usually begin from 15 to 25 August, and with one bunch you can collect up to 1 kilogram of the crop. It can be easily transported and stored..
The "Kishmish Radiant" has a number of shortcomings that need to be considered before landing in the suburbs:
- Low uncovered properties: the temperature that the bush can withstand without shelter is not lower than -15 degrees.
- It is not recommended to open it in early spring, the spring frost can harm the bush.
- Need careful care and the constant formation of the bush.
- The taste qualities of the berries depend on the fertilization of frequent irrigation, without them the taste is lost.
This table view is different from the rest of the active growth of vines in height. From one bush you can get a record number of berries. "Tason" refers to the early varieties, for the full ripening of grapes it takes only 95-110 days. Even in the coldest northern areas, you can get the first batch of the crop until mid-spring. Half shoots From around the bush - fertile branches, with each of which you can get up to 4 kilograms of berries.
On large clusters weighing from 0.5 to 1.3 kg, oval-shaped berries of white-red color grow. This is one of the sweetest grape berries among the non-roofing varieties. Winegrowers choose this variety for breeding for sale, the crop from it can be easily transported and conveniently stored.
As for frost resistance, it is considered one of the highest. Covering the bushes is only necessary if the temperature has dropped below -23 degrees. Tason has a high disease resistance, especially to powdery mildewhowever, there is no such high immunity against fungi.
Good technical grade, suitable for making juices, wines and other dishes and beverages. It is highly valued winemakers for the content of the right amount of sugar in the berries. Brushes of small size, up to 200 grams, oval berries are also small and equal in size. In the process of ripening gradually change color from green to pale yellow.
Vines "Crystal" does not grow very high, but it gives a lot of yield. Almost all shoots bear fruit and can grow from 50 to 60 eyes. For technical purposes, "Crystal" fits perfectly, despite the small size of the berries. Самое важное его качество - это количество урожая. Качественные и вкусные сухие вина This variety can be cooked even in the Moscow region.
Depending on the weather, the vegetative period of "Crystal" can last from 110 to 130 days, so it belongs to the early varieties. The temperature at which you can grow a grape bush "Crystal" without shelter, reaches -30 degrees, which favorably distinguishes it from unsopen grape varieties.
With all the undeniable advantages of "Crystal", he has a number of disadvantages:
- Leaves and shoots need to constantly cut to form a bush. If this is not done, the crop may fall off the branches until fully matured.
- Despite resistance to some diseases, the variety cannot boast of immunity to fungal infections, so it needs to be regularly processed.
- Wet and cold weather during the ripening of berries can lead to a deterioration in their taste. So the share of a harvest, suitable for production of drinks, decreases.
This is one of the most popular varieties of uncovered grapes suitable for the climate of the Moscow region. Winegrowers love it for good taste and moderate sweetness. At rather high frost resistance The plant does not require special care, even in the most capricious climate. It can withstand low temperatures up to -25 degrees.
The appearance of the berries "Christina" - This is one of the features for which everyone loves this look. On the vine there are no small clusters, they all have a large size and conical shape. Oval-shaped berries of bright pink color with a tint. Their only drawback is that the berries do not always have the same size on one bunch.
View "Saba Pearls" - the result of the hard work of Hungarian breeders. He quickly won an honorable place among all the favorite grape varieties for the Moscow region. Even beginners in gardening know him.
The reason for such popularity The ability to quickly get used to any climatic conditions and good frost resistance. In winter, you can not cover this variety, if the temperature in the region does not fall below -28 degrees. "Saba Pearls" is immune to the effects of pests.
On large clusters grow juicy berries, very sweet and fragrant. Bushes look very impressive due to bright green bunches.
The second name of this variety, known to many gardeners - "Lydia". Often used in winemaking for the manufacture of white wine due to the high tannin content.
"Isabella" has good qualities, therefore it is suitable not only for technical use, but also for the dining room. Small berries are very unusual in taste.When consumed, you can feel the strawberry aftertaste.
With careful care of the bush with one bunch you can get up to 2 kilograms of a good harvest. If you wait for ripening, you can also pick red and blue berries from the bush.
Due to its high frost resistance, "Isabella" is popular among Moscow region gardeners. The temperature, which the bush tolerates well without shelter, reaches -28 degrees. In addition to frost resistance, this species boasts a high immunity to pests common in the Moscow region: oidium and mildew.
"Transfiguration" is considered a new variety, but it has already managed to establish itself as grapes with the ability to quickly take root. It ripens very quickly - from 100 to 120 days.
Clusters large enough, can reach weights from 0.5 to 2 kg. Large berries grow on them. The weight of one grape is on average equal to 15 grams. The color of the cluster is pale pink, the bush at the expense of the fruit looks very beautiful.
Taste is not inferior appearance. It is very gentle, moderately sweet, but with a little sourness. Gardeners say a good yield of the grape bush: you can get up to 18 kilograms of sweet fruit from it.
The undoubted plus of the "Transformation" is its high frost resistance, up to -25 degrees without shelter. Immunity to fungal infections is average, so you need to periodically conduct activities for the prevention of diseases. The disadvantage of this variety is its attractiveness for wasps due to the sweetness of the fruit. Talso in regions with high humidity fruit quality may deteriorate dramatically.
Features care neokravnym grapes in the suburbs
Before planting frost-resistant grape species, it is necessary to become familiar with all its features:
- For cultivation you need to select areas with good lighting. Especially this recommendation applies to gardeners who plant grapes in the northern regions of the country and in the suburbs. If the plant does not have enough sunlight, the growing season will be much longer. At the same time, the quality of the clusters, including their taste, may suffer.
- It is better to choose a site for landing on a hill to protect the bush from sewage, which can flood it after rains or melting snow. From excessive moisture, the root system may start to rot, leading to the death of the plant.
- Before landing, you need to dig a trench. Drainage and a layer of soil are poured into it and left for some time for the earth to be saturated with moisture and minerals.
- When planting seedlings between them need to retreat a sufficient distance. It is chosen depending on the grape variety, and it can be from 1 to 2 meters.
- Some gardeners use this trick: they dig a trench near the roots of the plant and put plastic bottles with holes in it. Through them then it is very convenient to introduce additional food and water.
- Regardless of the grape variety, the first 3 years old seedlings should be covered with plastic wrap or wooden flooring.
Grapes have such a unique property as vertical polarity. This means that the bush grows up and requires a garter. At the same time, fertile vines they are attached to horizontal crossbars so that the bush has the correct shape and evenly developed. If we confine ourselves only to vertical tying, this will adversely affect the shape of the main vine. It will become too long, stopping the growth of lateral and lower shoots.
With regard to watering you need to be as careful as possible. It is imperative that only young seedlings that are under two years old and all the bushes in the fall have to be moistened in the ground to saturate the soil with water before winter. It is strictly forbidden to water the vines one week before the end of the flowering period, otherwise the flowers may fall. This can cause very low yields and small and sour berries.
Some gardeners carry out the procedure of spraying the bushes, but it can not be done, because as a result of her infection and bacteria get a chance to multiply.
A wide variety of frost resistant varieties grapes allows you to grow it in all regions of Russia, which were previously unfavorable for this plant. Compliance with the rules of care for different varieties provides even novice gardeners a good harvest for many years.
The best grapes of wine grapes for the Moscow region
In the conditions of severe winters, not only table varieties are grown, but also good grapes for making wine.
A variety of Baltic grapes of early ripening. It tolerates frosts, can withstand temperatures as low as -30 degrees. Productivity is good, the fruits ripen in mid-July.
Bushes are well developed. Clusters and berries are large. The pulp of the fruit is dense, slimy. The color of the fruit is bluish-purple. Harvest tolerates transportation, if necessary, can be stored for a long time. Grapes of this variety are used primarily for processing. Juices and good wine are made from it.
Early ripe grapes of domestic breeding. The vines are vigorous, clusters are large, their weight reaches 500 grams. Productivity is good, needs rationing. Berry light, whitish shade with a characteristic waxy bloom. The pulp of the fruit is mucous, with a dense and thin skin. Fruits do not deteriorate during transportation and storage. The grapes are used to make white wine. Shrubs are resistant to various diseases.
Ukryvnye and nekryvnye varieties
In viticulture, there are no concepts of "covering and non-covering grapes," rather, it refers to one of the individual characteristics of any variety. For example, a vine grown in the Crimea or Krasnodar Territory as a non-roofing crop in the Moscow region needs a mandatory shelter for the winter.
Only the practitioner - the grower determines which species (covering or non-covering) include the cultivated variety. In the south of Russia, almost all varieties are grown without a winter shelter, but closer to the middle zone, some of the grape varieties need warming for the winter.
Although there are also frost-resistant grape varieties that tolerate short or long-term frosts perfectly. These varieties are very fertile even in the conditions of the Moscow region.
Video: winter hardy grapes
Unopen grape varieties include varieties obtained by breeders as a result of crossing cultivated grapes with the American variety Librusek. They have good frost resistance, early ripening, resistance to the main diseases of this culture, and care for them is simple and uncomplicated.
For non-growing cultivation such varieties are suitable:
- Nadezhda Aksayskaya,
- Sovering Tiara,
- first year - the vine is covered,
- second year - shelter required, too
- the third year - the plant is partially covered, one sleeve is left uncovered for the frost resistance test, and in spring (for the surviving buds) the result will be clear.
In addition to growing grapes in a covering or non-covering culture, it is practiced in the Moscow region to grow this heat-loving crop in greenhouses.
Frost winters are not so dangerous for a vine as thaws that replace each other and subzero temperatures. With established cold, plants can always be safely covered, and at unstable temperatures there is a danger that the well-covered vines will start to rot and become covered with mold under the shelter.
Frost-resistant grapes for the Moscow region, which can not cover for the winter
When choosing a variety for laying a vineyard in this region, you need to focus on the maximum subzero temperatures characteristic of this area. Also need to take into account the ripening time.
Early maturing varieties (early, early and mid-early) will be most suitable for the Moscow region. Also very important is their resistance to fungal diseases and pests.
This vine ripens very early, the first berries are ripening already in mid-August. The plant is vigorous, the bushes are powerful, razlohie. Productivity is good. Brush of grapes weighs up to 200 grams (medium), berries are small (2-4 grams), round, white.
Due to the short berry cuttings (from 3 to 5 mm), the arrangement of the grapes in the bunch is very dense. The taste is pleasant, sweet and sour. Frost resistance of an adult (from 3 years) vines reaches - 30 C. The variety of table purpose.
Grapes with a powerful structure of the bush, on thick vines matures many small berry brushes (length 8-10 cm, weight 80-100 g). The variety is early, mass ripening occurs in the last decade of August or the first decade of September (depending on the weather).
The grapes are blue-black, round, small with poorly separated skin from the flesh and a rather large bone. The berries are tightly located in the brush. The sugar content in the pulp is from 18 to 20%. Productivity and frost resistance is excellent.
The mature, well-ripened vine does not freeze out even at frost down to -45 C. Valiant Grapes are used to make red wine, but it can also be used as a sort of table purpose. A distinctive feature of the variety is a light strawberry flavor.
A grade of table appointment with cone-shaped large clusters, the average weight of a cluster is from 0,5 kg to 1 kg. Shrub medium growth. Berries are white-yellow (8-10 g), oval-shaped, with a sweet-sour taste. The sugar content of berries is 20-22%.
Mass ripening of brushes begins in the second decade of August and lasts until mid-September. The mature vine is frost-resistant; it survives frost-free up to -24 C.
Wonderful frost-resistant variety from the North-American group of varieties obtained from crossing with Librusek. This variety carries frost up to - 35 C without damage. The vine is lianoobrazny, its lash reaches 9 meters, the leaf plate is very large (25 cm long and 20 cm wide).
The variety is medium late, flowering occurs in mid-June, and the peak of fruiting is 140-150 days. Clusters of medium size, have a cylindrical shape, dense. The grapes are medium in size, round, dark blue (almost black) in color with a red or purple hue.
The flesh is quite sour, slimy, has a light strawberry flavor. The skin of grapes is covered with a gray wax bloom. The yield of this variety is very good, with proper care you can get up to 10 kg of berries from one plant.
In industrial cultivation, the yield reaches 180 centners per hectare. Alpha is very resistant to major diseases of the grape and grape vine, but it easily gets chlorosis. This grade is used for dressing by green lianas of personal plots, arbors, fences.
A variety of early ripening, in the Moscow region, the beginning of fructification is in the middle of September. Bushes are powerful, vigorous, young shoots before frost have time to mature well. Grape brushes in the shape of a cone, medium size, dense. The large berry is round, slightly oval, large.
Color is black-blue, a peel with a gray wax bloom. The taste is harmonious, sweet and sour, with a forest pear aftertaste. Sugar content - 18-21%, yield for industrial cultivation - up to 120 centners per hectare. Buffalo has a good frost resistance (- 28 C), the plant has little mildew or gray rot of berries. Buffalo grapes are used to make table wines and juices.
Tips for growing grapes in the suburbs
For those without experience in viticulture, we can recommend a long-term cultivation of seedlings in the nursery (shkolke). Young saplings (grown from cuttings in a hotbed) in the second year of life are transplanted into two-liter bulk containers with openings for water flow at the bottom.
These containers are also installed in the shkolka, the space between them is half filled with soil. Young plants remain on growing in the nursery until full maturity. A sign that it is time to replant the plant to a permanent place will be the first full grape clusters.
Growing in shkolke simplifies the care of cuttings: they are easier to water, harden, process from pests and shelter from frost. At the beginning or in the middle of November, containers with saplings are moved to the basement for wintering. Growing grapes in shkolka Spring (May 20-25), they are transplanted to a permanent place by the method of careful handling, without damaging the roots. This technology of growing young grapes developed by experienced growers and is used for the early start of fruiting seedlings.
Choosing a place
- Priming. The most suitable soils for the vineyard are black soil or sandy soil. The soil with sand is even better than chernozem, thanks to its loose structure (drainage), it better passes heat and freezes faster. Absolutely unsuitable for growing grape swampy lowlands, in such places the plants will rot the roots.
- Direction. The vines are excellent fruit on the slopes (prefer southern or south-western direction). If the site does not have natural slopes, and the south side of the house does not have space available for planting, then it is recommended to build a fence out of planks or a fence (two meters high enough). Such a structure is oriented from east to west.
- A place. When planning a vineyard, a well-lit place is selected, inaccessible to the cold northerly wind. As a windproof structure can serve as a high fence or wall of the house.
Three ways to lay a vineyard
- Landing in the pit. To lay a vineyard on sandy soil for each plant, a planting pit with dimensions of 80x80x100 cm is prepared; in a black earth soil, a pit size of 80x80x80 cm is sufficient.
- Landing in the trench. Young grape saplings are planted in this way on sandy soils. The depth of the trenches should reach 80 cm, and their width is brought to 1 meter. The trench should be located from south to west.
- Landing in high ridges. Poorly drained soil (loam or clay) is not sufficiently heated by the sun, so on such grounds grapes are planted in highly filled (up to one meter) embankment. The old Russian name of such landing embankments - “created”.
Landing time - growing grapes in the suburbs, you need to take into account that the first frosts can begin quite early, and the plant does not have time to get stronger and mature. Therefore, during the spring disembarkation, the most favorable time for planting is the third or fourth decade of April.
During the autumn planting, the optimal period falls on the whole of October, at this time there is still quite warm and a lot of moisture. Autumn grapes can be planted before the onset of the first frost. In order not to be disappointed in the cultivation of this crop in the future, a gardener needs to choose the right sapling.
Rules for the purchase of seedlings
- Покупайте молодой виноград в конце марта или в апреле.
- У хорошего саженца-двухлетки будут крепкие и пышные светлые корни.
- Перед посадкой купленные саженцы нужно замочить в специальном препарате для защиты от виноградной тли (филлоксеры). The preparations “BI-58” or “Kinmiks” are excellent for this purpose, a double dose is taken for soaking the cuttings: 2 ml of the preparation are added to 10 liters of water. Saplings are put into the solution for 30 minutes, then they are washed in clean water.
- The two-year-old seedlings purchased in March-April are planted in five-liter containers (possible in leaky buckets) and grown in a perforated film shelter (small school, temporary greenhouse) or on a southern sill, loggia.
Video: how to choose grapes It is best to apply for the purchase of grapes saplings to gardeners - collectors with a good reputation or buy the desired variety in the fruit nursery.
Both in the first and in the second cases, it is desirable to personally see at the site with the seller how this variety is grown, how it bears fruit, find out how the seller recommends caring for this grape variety.
Buying seedlings from reliable sellers, you can be sure that in the end it will grow exactly the variety that you wanted to purchase. Do not purchase grape seedlings in spontaneous markets.
Grapes are grown only on well-fertilized soil. To do this, in the autumn digging in the soil contribute organic matter, and in the spring the vineyard is fed liquid mineral dressing. The rate of making organic autumn Feeding is conducted in October. In the root layer of each plant, a bucket of cattle manure is laid out on top of the soil and 50 grams of ammonium nitrate, 50 grams of potassium salt and 100 grams of superphosphate are evenly scattered. After that, the soil is dug up on the spade bayonet so that all fertilizers are deeply covered with soil.
The rate of application of liquid mineral fertilizers in the spring and early summer This dressing is carried out twice: before the grapes bloom and after the first ripe berries begin to appear.
On one adult vine bush: top dressing is prepared as follows: 20 grams of superphosphate and 10 grams of ammonium nitrate dissolve in 10 liters of water. The solution is applied under the root during watering.
Video: when and how to feed grapes
Loosening - The soil under the vineyard must be constantly kept loose and clear of weeds, for this purpose, up to ten soil treatments are carried out during the summer.
Watering - after the plants are planted, they must be watered abundantly (at least 30 liters under one bush) twice a month. In the future, the frequency of irrigation decreases, because the climate in the Moscow region is rather humid.
For the convenience of watering or applying liquid fertilizer near each bush, you can install a special capacity for watering. This can be either a five-liter plastic bottle with a cut-off bottom (dug into the ground down the neck), or a dug old bucket dug near the roots. Such a simple know-how will ensure the delivery of moisture or fertilizer directly to the roots of the grapes. If the planted grape variety is table, then after 3 years the irrigation tank is replaced with a meter pipe (asbestos or metal) dug vertically down.
For technical (wine) grape varieties, at the same time, the temporary tank for irrigation is completely removed, since the moisture of such varieties is extracted from the roots of deep water layers.
The described irrigation technology is suitable for young plants. Watering of adult grapes is limited to abundant spring and autumn irrigation. About a week before the flowering of the vines begins, the watering stops, as excessive moisture can cause shedding of flowers, that is, the loss of most of the crop.
Trimming and shaping - summer shoots on young bushes pinch (cut with shears) at a height of 1.7 m. This will not allow the young plant to deplete its strength in the growth of unnecessary lashes and allow the vine to mature well to frost.
Proper formation of young grapes: varieties with low resistance to frost are covered by groups. It is these varieties that are recommended to be formed by the fan or cordon formation. Frost-resistant grape varieties do not hide for the winter, so they use standard or arbor shaping.
Shelter for the winter - young varieties (even frost-resistant) in the first year of life must cover for the winter. The ground part of the young bush is wrapped with spunbond or agrofiber, its root zone is covered with a layer of sawdust 5-7 cm thick.
Before the onset of serious frosts, the plant is laid on the ground and covered with plant debris (leaves, needles, fir branches, corn stalks or sunflower stalks), as well as special wooden rectangular boxes. At the onset of spring thaws, winter shelters are immediately removed, as the delay threatens to blow out the grapes.
How to determine whether it is time to remove shelters from the wintering grapes and whether the plant will suffer from the spring frosts? In the spring, after melting snow and sustained warming (5-7 degrees Celsius), shelters are removed from the plant, but they are temporarily left to lie near the vineyard.
So the grower insures against the case of sudden return frosts (if necessary, materials for shelter are at hand and it is not difficult to wrap the bushes with them again). All this time, the vine remains lying on the ground, tying the lash on the trellis is possible only in early May, when the threat of frost returning will recede.