During the incubation period (before the start), trays with eggs should be rotated. Otherwise, the embryos will surely die.The turning of the eggs is necessary in order to ensure a stable position of the yolk, as well as for the growth and closure of the allantois. With insufficiently frequent turning, allantois incorrectly grows above the protein, and the embryo sticks to the shell.
In many incubators the process of turning the trays is automated and is carried out 12-24 times a day. If you have to turn the trays manually, it should be done at least 4-6 times a day.
- If the eggs are not rotated for a long time, the yolk may come close to the shell and the embryo will die, attach to the membrane shells, or develop as a freak.
- If, with the eggs in a vertical position, the angle of inclination during turning is not sufficient (less than 45 grams), then in the sharp end of the egg, protein sticking with the membrane membranes may occur, and allantois closes over the protein.
- If the turning of the eggs is stopped for several days, the albumin sticks together with the yolk sac and together with it draws into the abdominal cavity of the chicken.
Why do you need it?
This process is necessary in order to ensure the normal development of the embryo. Periodic turning of the eggs in the incubator allows the chicks to get warm evenly and hatch in due time.
If you turn the source material correctly, it will allow rational use of protein. In addition, if you carry out a coup in accordance with the rules, the chicks will not stick to the walls, as well as supercool.
When a beginner house does not know how many times it is necessary to turn the eggs in the incubator, this can lead to the death of the embryos. They may die due to the fact that the temperature regime is not observed, or the humidity does not correspond to the permissible values.
Turning the eggs evenly distributes heat without overheating.
How many times and how to turn the eggs
If the incubator is fully automated, then it has a corresponding function. Therefore, when using such a device, there is no need to monitor the frequency of this procedure. In a self-made home incubator, it should be done manually.
More details of this procedure can be viewed in the video:
The assembled mechanism will work as follows:
- The engine makes rotational movements with high frequency.
- Gear system converts a high speed of rotation of the motor shaft into a rare (approximately 1 turn in 4-8 hours).
- The stem connecting the last gear and the tray with the eggs converts circular movements into horizontal reciprocating movements of the tray (a distance equal to the diameter of the egg).
Why do I need to turn the eggs?
All experienced poultry breeders say that without turning the eggs, they will not get a productive and healthy conclusion. This is necessary for several reasons:
- the yolk, having a smaller specific gravity, is always on top, in whatever position the egg is, the blastodisk also appears on the top.
- the drying of the embryo is prevented, later - the embryo to the membrane membrane, it is possible to avoid the adhesion of the internal organs and to get their normal development.
- The amnion functions correctly, because it gets enough space for contractions.
- the correct position of the embryo is achieved by the end of the incubation period.
- equal warming in all parts of the egg.
The optimum is considered the frequency of turning 4-6 times a day. It is especially dangerous to ignore this rule in the first half of incubation.
Almost all researchers came to the conclusion and proved experimentally that such manipulation increases hatchability. For example, Aykleshimera’s experiments showed the following results:
- if the eggs were not turned over, then only 15% of chickens were received,
- 2 coups every day - the result was 45.4%,
- 5 turns per day - 58%.
Incubator egg tray
It did not matter, they began to change position from the first or from the third day.
Lay eggs vertically or horizontally. The sharp end should not be at the top, and the air chamber - at the bottom. If the clutch is vertical, but during turning, the eggs are deflected alternately 45 degrees from the vertical to the right and left, which in total gives 90 degrees. With horizontal masonry, the angle of rotation is 180 degrees.
Laying method depends on the type of bird. Thus, eggs of small and medium sizes, belonging to quails, chickens, turkeys, etc., are placed only vertically, and large eggs - goose, duck - horizontally.
For convenience, have a special magazine. He is needed, in particular, in order not to be mistaken with the side of the turn. The field is drawn in four columns in which they mark:
- operation time,
- air humidity,
- the side of the egg, which is designated by a certain symbol, the same marks are put on the eggs.
Check incubator eggs
How often to turn over?
The period of incubation of eggs of different birds is different. The table presents the optimal conditions of detention for some of them.
Manual overturning more or less the established norm, according to many poultry farmers, harms the embryo. In the first case, it adheres to the walls, in the second case it is supercooled. It is necessary to act very quickly to prevent excessive cooling of the material.
The coup is stopped when the first beep is heard, and to nakleva. However, some farmers call earlier terms. So, when caring for chicken eggs, they stop the procedure already after the twelfth day, since allantois, or the vascular grid, closes. Then the eggs lay to the side and include the highest level of ventilation and moisture.
Disinfect eggs before incubation
This is another important factor that will ensure the development of the embryo without anomalies. In conjunction with the correct temperature, it provides the maximum percentage of output. Of particular importance this indicator acquires, if we are talking about getting offspring of waterfowl. The optimal indicators are shown in the table above.
The required level of humidity is provided by the evaporation of water. Low levels harm the embryo, because then it comes water starvation, and from the protein into the yolk comes less water, and with it, and nutrients. In the period of development of allantois, the water regime is of less importance, but it again becomes relevant at the final stage of the incubation process. Too dry air leads to the fact that the naklev becomes difficult, and pieces of the shell and shell are glued to the body of the young, and down is stuck together.
High humidity is also harmful. In the period of development, the embryo of the amnion is excessively swallowed, allantois fluid evaporates poorly, and an excess of moisture is noted in the membranes. There is a catch, but there is no output, or it is small.
Excess moisture is the cause of mold and microbes on the shell and in the installation itself.
To monitor this indicator, if the equipment does not have built-in sensors, use a static psychrometer.
What to do with a crack in the shell?
For incubation, select only the highest quality material. Criteria are the health and sexual maturity of the bird, its good nutrition. The age of the egg itself should not exceed 3-4 days, but it is best to select it no later than 2-3 hours after laying in the summer and 1 hour in the autumn-winter period. The form must be correct, the size - medium. Too small or large specimens are not suitable for this purpose (in the latter there may be two embryos, and there will not be enough nutrients for both).
One of the most important criteria is the absence of cracks in the shell. Mechanical damage is accompanied by damage to the membrane. On the one hand, it is an open gate for bacteria, on the other - a way to evaporate moisture. Dehydration causes the death of the embryo. However, if there is a violation of the integrity of the outer hard shell, and the membrane tissue remains intact, then such material can get into the incubator, because they look complete without inspection using an ovoscope.
If damage is found during laying, the egg is removed, since the embryo in it is likely to die. For this reason, for transporting material, containers are taken without sharp edges, since in most cases this is the reason why the shell breaks.
If this happens when the chicken's body has already formed, then you can try to seal the shell. Some poultry farmers do this, thus protecting the future chick from the influence of external factors. This can be done, for example, with paraffin.
The action algorithm is as follows:
Step 1. A match is dipped into melted wax or paraffin, which is obtained, for example, from a lit candle.
Step 2. Wait until the mass has cooled down a little, and again put it in liquid wax.
Step 3. Quickly, until the "glue" is hot, it is brought to the crack and damage is processed. If the size of the faults is small, then one layer of coating is enough.
With a significant violation of the integrity of the shell, you will have to abandon the idea of gluing for several reasons. First, a large area of zakleyka is the cause of the violation of gas exchange. Secondly, the chances of hatching are reduced.
Medical glues, such as BF-6, are also used as a compound for sealing. 2-3 minutes after application, it creates a film that prevents the penetration of the infection. Also use more simple materials at hand - tape, plaster.
A chicken is not always able to hatch on its own from a “restored” egg. Then you need to carefully monitor the place nakleva. When a hole appears in the shell, gently break it off from it in a small piece. If there are traces of blood, the procedure is terminated. If not, continue.
When the hole is too large, the egg is tilted to the side, and the chicken is gently taken out, freeing from the film in the head area, so as not to interfere with breathing. The rest is moistened with warm water. The hatching chick is placed in an incubator until dry, until it starts to move and dries. Then they take it to the box under the lamp and place it in a warm room without drafts. It should be observed that the chick is cold.
If you are going to purchase a manual incubator, pay attention to a number of factors that can simplify maintenance and allow you to get a high percentage of output.
- ability to connect to an emergency power source. This function is necessary in case of a sudden power outage. Then the eggs will not be cooled, which will get the planned result,
- the presence of a fan. Adequate airing and normal gas exchange is another necessity for the health of the embryo. An additional task that the fan solves is the uniform distribution of temperature inside the chamber. As a rule, models of small capacity of such an option are deprived, unlike units for 100 eggs or more,
- A plus is the function of rearing young stock, usually this period is from 12 to 14 days. Inside the chamber, optimal conditions are created for temperature, air humidity, which positively affects the development of the bird,
- quality parts and components. Doors should be tightly closed, so as not to violate the mode of compliance with temperature and humidity. Through the window should be clearly visible state of the eggs. It is necessary to check the operation of the turning mechanisms.
The most affordable incubators assume a completely hand-laid egg. It takes a lot of time and effort. But there are also mechanized models that simplify the task somewhat. Such devices are of two types - frame and inclined.
This mechanism works on the rolling principle. The frame pushes the egg, and the surface-support stops it, and the egg turns over around the axis.
Incubator with a coup mechanism
Frame incubator is suitable only for horizontal laying.
The advantage of this type of mechanism is considered:
- relatively low power consumption for turning, even with a power supply, when the power supply is stopped,
- easy maintenance and functionality
- small size installation.
Frame incubator Blitz 48ts
This mechanism has drawbacks that need to be considered:
- eggs are put into the incubator with the purified shells, because the contaminants interfere with the coup,
- The diameter of the egg should be taken into account: if it does not correspond to the pitch of the shift that the manufacturer expected, then the rotation angle will not be what the poultry farmer needs (this disadvantage is absent in devices with circular motion),
- Some devices have too low frames. Then with sudden movements damaged shell.
Method of laying eggs in the incubator
Such installation works according to the swing principle, and is used under the vertical tab.
- in installations with an inclined mechanism, the rotation is carried out to a predetermined degree, regardless of the diameter of the pledged material,
- the amplitude of the movements is small, so the eggs are less beating each other.
Incubator with inclined mechanism of coup
The disadvantages of these models include the relative high cost of maintenance and large size.
What to look for in the tray?
The sliding mechanism is considered the easiest and most affordable. When buying such equipment, you should pay attention to some details:
- load volume. It depends on what the population of the house will be,
- frame thickness. The cheapest models differ in a small thickness, why the frames bend. Large material in such devices will touch the walls, hang outside the cells and as a result may be damaged, and the hatching of the chicks is also difficult. The safest devices are insulated cells and high sides.
- cell size. They are selected depending on the type of eggs (chicken, quail, turkey, etc.),
- removable partitions. This tray is versatile, you can lay different eggs at the same time.
Experts do not recommend laying eggs of land and waterfowl at the same time. For the former, the temperature should be higher, since they produce less heat, and they need less time for cooling.
Popular models of household incubators:
- "The hen IB-100" with a mechanical coup,
- “Ryabushka IB-150” with a mechanical overturn and a digital thermostat,
- "The hen of IBM-70" with a mechanical coup,
- "UTOS MI-30" with a manual turn,
- "Ryabushk IB-150a Smart plus" with heating elements and mechanical overturn and others.
Ryabushk IB-150 Incubator
These models are versatile and suitable for all types of poultry.
Obtaining a conclusion of up to 90% is easy if you follow the recommendations of experts and experienced poultry farmers.
Why turn the eggs in an incubator
The hatcher, in effect, replaces the hen in order to get as many chicks as possible. In order for the operation to be successful, the incubation material in the device must be in the same conditions as under the chicken. Therefore, it maintains the same temperature. In addition, it is necessary that the eggs turn over, because the feathered "mother" does so.
The bird does it instinctively, not knowing all the processes occurring inside the shell. The poultry farmer needs to understand this in order to provide egg laying in his incubator with conditions as close as possible to the natural ones.
Reasons for turning eggs:
- uniform heating of the egg from all sides, which contributes to the timely appearance of a healthy chicken,
- preventing the embryo from sticking to the shell and gluing its developing organs,
- optimal use of protein, thanks to which the embryo develops normally,
- before birth the chick takes the correct position
- the absence of overturns can lead to the death of the entire brood.
How often to turn the eggs
In the automated incubator there is a rotation function. In such devices, trays can move quite often (10-12 times a day). You only need to select the appropriate mode. If the turning mechanism is absent, then you need to do it by hand. There are brave breeders who claim that even without turning over, you can get a good percentage of brood. But if the hen has the instinct to turn over its chicks in the shell often and daily, it means that it is necessary. Without turning them in an incubator, you have to rely only on the case: maybe it will, or may not.
The number of daily egg turns depends on the day they are laid in the tray and the type of bird. It is believed that the larger the size of the eggs, the less often you need to turn them.
Experts recommend turning over just two times in the first day: in the morning and in the evening. Next you need to increase the number of turns up to 4-6 times. Some poultry houses leave a 2-way cornering. If you turn over less often two times and more often 6 times, the brood may die: with rare turns, the embryos may stick to the shell, and with frequent turns, it may freeze. Лучше всего переворачивание совместить с проветриванием. Температура в помещении должна быть не меньше 22–25°С. Ночью нет необходимости в этой процедуре.
In order not to get confused and not to stray from the regime, many poultry farmers practice keeping a journal in which they record the turning time, the side of the egg (opposite sides are marked with signs), temperature and humidity in the incubator. We put tags on eggs Table optimal conditions in the incubator for eggs of different birds
Variants of rotary mechanisms
Incubators are automatic and mechanical. The first save time and effort, but "hit" afford. The latter are a cheaper option. And in expensive, and in cheap models the mechanism of rotation can be only two types: frame and inclined. Having learned how they function, you can build a similar device with your own hands.
The principle of work: a special frame pushes the eggs, they begin to roll on the surface, which stops them. Thus, the eggs have time to roll around its axis. This mechanism is adapted only for horizontal bookmarks. Benefits:
- energy efficiency,
- simplicity in management and functionality,
- small dimensions.
- the material is laid only in its pure form, since any dirt interferes with turns,
- frame shift pitch is designed only for a certain diameter of eggs, due to the slightest discrepancy between the sizes of the eggs are not fully rotated,
- if the frame is too low, they beat each other, damaging the shell.
The principle of operation is swing, the laying of the material in the trays is only vertical. Benefits:
- universality: material of any diameter is loaded, it does not affect the angle of rotation of the trays,
- safety: the contents of the trays when cornering does not touch each other, therefore, without damage.
- maintenance difficulty
- large dimensions
- high power consumption
- high price of automated devices.
How to make a turning mechanism with your own hands
If it is rather easy to assemble the enclosure for the incubator from scrap materials (wooden boards, plywood boxes, chipboard sheets and polystyrene foam), then it is already more difficult to build an automatic egg turn. To do this, you need at least a little to understand the mechanics and electrical engineering. The main thing - to understand the principle of operation of this device and clearly adhere to the selected drawing.
What is needed?
To build a small frame incubator, you need to purchase ready-made parts, take used items or do it yourself:
- the case (the wooden box warmed by polyfoam),
- tray (metal mesh attached to the wooden sides, and a wooden frame with restrictive sides, the distance between which corresponds to the diameter of the eggs),
- heating element (2 incandescent lamps 25–40 W),
- fan (suitable from a computer),
- turning mechanism.
The composition of the automatic rotator:
- low-power motor with several gears, which have a different gear ratio,
- metal rod attached to the frame and motor,
- relay to turn the engine on and off.
The main stages of the construction mechanism
When the incubator is ready, it's time to collect and automation:
- On a separate wooden plank fasten all parts of the mechanism.
- The free end of the rod is attached to the frame so that when the motor is turned on, it moves it forward and backward.
- The timer is connected to the motor and the switch, and the plug is brought out (it is possible through a special hole in the box).
With proper construction, the following principles will be followed:
- the crank mechanism is activated, which converts the rotor movements in a circle into reciprocating rod movements,
- thanks to the gear system, the multiple revolutions of the rapidly rotating rotor go into slow turns of the last gear, the duration of its rotation corresponds to the interval between the turns of the eggs (4 hours),
- the stem must move the frame a distance equal to the diameter of the egg, which allows them to roll over 180 ° in one direction.
How this mechanism should work
The mechanism works as follows:
- Motor rotor rotates at high speed.
- Gear system slows down rotation.
- The rod connecting the frame with the last gear changes the circular motion to reciprocating.
- The frame moves in a horizontal plane.
- As it moves, the frame flips the contents of the tray 180 ° with a cycle of 4 hours.
Although the frame incubator has a very simple mechanism, thanks to automation, it significantly saves time, which without it is spent on turning the material. The self-made design also allows saving material resources that could be spent on the purchase of a new automatic device, and the turning mechanism helps to get a high percentage of brood chickens.