Concentrated feed. Grain is the main feed for poultry. It should be at least half the diet of the bird. For a short poultry digestive tract and a high intensity of metabolism in its body, grain with its high concentration of nutrients turns out to be the most suitable food. Only an insufficient content of protein in the grain and its amino acid composition does not meet the needs of poultry for productive feed. Therefore, in the diet, you must enter as an additive protein concentrate.
The best grain feed for both young and adult birds is maize, which contains a lot of carbohydrates. In nutritional value, it surpasses all other types of grain.
Barley for the enrichment of B vitamins are germinated. During the fattening of young stock barley, juicy, tender and tasty white meat is obtained. The bird also eats millet willingly, but it contains a lot of fiber. In the first 5-10 days of his life he is fed in the form of millet.
Bird give waste wheat. Wheat bran is rich in minerals, vitamins of group E and B. But due to the high content of raw fiber, young animals and fattening birds are recommended to feed bran in limited quantities. Adult birds are fed rye - 10% by weight of concentrated feed, young animals - up to 5%.
Good protein foods are peas, fodder beans and lupine fodder.
Green feed- It is a source of vitamins and partly minerals. They are included in the diet in an amount of at least 20% by weight of the concentrate. On runs the bird consumes plenty of greens. The most valuable for her are the green parts of young plants. Alfalfa, clover, and pea in the budding stage are used in large quantities.
Nettle leaves and young stalks, which have long been considered bird food, contain many valuable nutrients: proteins, carotene, vitamins A, B, C. K, etc. It is better to feed nettle in spring or early summer, when its leaves and stalks are not yet coarse and especially rich in various nutrients. Forage cabbage gives a green mass from the end of July to the beginning of August, when all the herbs grow coarser and therefore are poorly eaten. Using it, you can provide the bird with green vitamin feed until winter. Feed the cabbage chopped in a mixture with flour feed. You can give thoroughly chopped beetroot and carrot tops, pre-well cleared it from the ground and washed. As a rule, it is included in the composition of wet mash. Leaves and conifers are also good green food. Spruce and pine needles contain a lot of vitamin C and carotene. When using needles as a vitamin supplement, the poultry improves appetite, increases egg production, improves the quality of eggs, the viability of the young and the intensity of fattening.
Roots. Birds are fed carrots, beets, turnips, pumpkins, etc. Carrots are richest in vitamin A and can easily replace fish oil. It is especially useful in the fall. In the future, during storage, its vitamin value quickly decreases, so it, like other root vegetables, it is desirable to silage, pickle or dry. Fresh carrots are recommended to be fed to chickens in the amount of 15–20 g, for adult chickens up to 30 g per head per day. Sugar beet can partially replace grain. It is usually fed raw in the amount of 50-60% by weight of dry feed. Pumpkin - a good source of carotene, it is crushed or cut in half. From the root and field crops one can give small and damaged potato tubers, which are not eaten, be sure to boil them. The bird eagerly eats potatoes, in addition, it is well digested. Up to 100 grams of potatoes can be introduced into the diet of chickens per day, and chicks are fed from 15–20 days of age. Also give watermelons and ripe tomatoes, not more than 20-30 g per head.
A lot of feed for poultry and in the garden. A drop of apples and pears can be given to adult chickens in a crushed form of 15-20 g per head per day.
Hay. The source of vitamins in winter is the hay of cultivated plants (clover, alfalfa, cereals) and wild herbs (young nettle, quinoa, etc.). The best quality hay is obtained by drying the grass in the shade — under a canopy, in loose structures. Turn it over carefully so that the leaves are not sprinkled. Shade hay should be stored in a dark place, tightly packed.
Feed of animal origin. They use skimmed milk, whey, buttermilk, cottage cheese, casein, meat and bone meal and fish meal, clams, worms, etc. These feeds contain the entire set of amino acids necessary for the body of the bird, and have a favorable effect on egg production and the intensity of fattening of the young.
Mineral feeding. Mineral substances missing in feed are obtained from common salt, chalk, limestone, sea and river shells, ash, bone meal and gravel.
Is it possible to give chickens
Experts say that not only can, but also need, and not only root vegetables, but also tops have benefits. Having gathered the harvest, the tops are silted in glass or wooden containers, filling them tightly, slightly primed and sealed hermetically.
However, since there are several types of beets, the properties of each should be discussed separately.
It is an excellent source of vitamins and essential trace elements, both in summer and in winter. Feed beet improves appetite and digestibility of feed to almost 70%.
The correct use of this vegetable practically does not lead to negative consequences. Farmers are advised to add to the feed not only tubers, but also succulent leaves, rich in fiber and dietary fiber.Fodder beets are given raw or boiled, mixing no more than 30–50 g per individual in the feed. It is best to include this root vegetable in the diet in winter, when birds are deprived of proper walking and most of the vitamin products.
If your goal is to increase the weight of an agricultural bird, then this root crop is just a godsend. Vegetable contains a lot of glucose, but fiber, on the contrary, is moderate.
Before giving such a beet to chickens, it is better to boil it and a little grind. Chickens are accustomed to the vegetable gradually. The ideal dosage for adults is 50 g per chicken per day. Sugar beets can be frozen and birds fed to it throughout the winter.
Contraindications and harm
When adding beets to feed, it should be taken into account that this should be done carefully and metered. Non-compliance with the recommended doses can lead to the following consequences:
- drop in egg production
What else can feed chickens
Virtually all vegetables bring only chicken to the hens, and poultry houses claim that they must be included in the diet as a source of vitamins and beneficial elements. But also in the diet of chickens, you can add some more products, about which we present information below.
It is useful to give boiled potatoes to chickens. As a feed you can use small and damaged fruits. This root is well digested, the birds willingly eat it.
Enter into the diet can be from 100 grams of vegetable per day. The age at which potatoes can be given to chickens is 15–20 days.
The poultry houses know that in small quantities animal food (fish, meat) is useful for chickens, but not in smoked or salted form. Animal feeds have a great effect on egg production and on the weight gain of young animals. In addition, animal products contain fats, the lack of which leads to the appearance of brittle feathers and baldness of the back, chickens become fearful.
Fish (including fish meal) is useful because it contains a complete set of amino acids that are so necessary for the bird's body.
Adults are given boiled fish remains (head, tail) in the form of wet mashes. At a time when the young are not walking (winter, early spring), from the fifth day of life, fish oil is introduced into the diet. Norm - 0.1–0.2 g per individual. Fish oil is mixed with crushed grain or egg mixture and given in the morning, at the first feeding.
Aft view is an excellent green supplement. The advantage of cabbage is that it can be stored fresh until spring, while it does not lose its qualities. Chicken cabbage give only chopped, mixing with flour. Professionals stock up for the winter with cabbage silage: pickle the cabbage itself and the remnants of it, adding a little salt. Also in winter, a whole head of cabbage can be hung in a chicken coop so that the birds can reach and pinch it.
Legumes are considered a valuable component: they contain a lot of protein, so they are mainly given during the preparation of chickens for the breeding season, that is, during the production of eggs for further incubation.
Beans are crushed not too finely and mixed with the main feed. If it is not possible to crush, the grains are boiled and then crushed.
Bean stalks along with the leaves will also be useful: they can be dried for the winter time. As you can see, beets, like many vegetables, are not only useful, but also one of the main components in the diet of chickens. The most important thing is to observe the dosage and closely monitor the condition of the birds.
Is it possible to feed laying hens bread
Of course, no one forbids feeding the hens with bread, but it must be done with the mind and in the right proportions.
The stomachs of chickens very poorly digest fresh bread, as it becomes limp, swells and causes indigestion, and a clump can also form in the goiter.
This applies primarily to white fresh loaf from the store.
- Instead of white bread, it is allowed to give a small amount of black bread, namely stale pieces without a crust and without mold.
- Drain them in advance to the state of crackers.
- Before serving the bread, the bread is soaked and mixed with germinated grain and added to the mash.
- Eat their chicken is necessary for a couple of hours, otherwise the bread will begin to turn sour.
It is necessary to refuse:
- citrus peel,
- ambrosia and celandine
- salty and sweet foods that the chicken's digestive system cannot digest.
In the summer, feed the chickens with greens, fresh vegetables, and in the winter, do not forget to include mineral supplements, vitamins and trace elements in the diet.
At the head of our ranking of unhealthy products for the chicken diet - green potatoes, tops from the same potato and tomato. The fact is that potatoes and tomatoes belong to the family of nightshade, and vegetables of this family can produce solanine. Solanine - a poison of plant origin, which consists of crystals of glucose and solanoidin. Greater concentration is found in green and sprouted potatoes, solanaceae tops and unripe tomatoes. The danger is that some breeders in order to save feed chickens with various poor-quality waste.
The hen is an unpretentious bird, but it should not absorb all kinds of waste. Therefore, if you add boiled potatoes to the hen, you do not need to choose green, sprouted and spoiled potatoes. It is proved that heat treatment does not affect solanine. It is also not necessary to give the birds potato or tomato tops as a green forage for the same reason - the presence of solanine in it. It is noticed that the birds on the walk themselves do not particularly pay attention to the tops of the nightshade.
However, if the birds are kept in the pen and no other food is offered to them, the birds simply have no choice. Green tomatoes, which may remain with you after harvesting, are also not suitable for food. With the constant intake of solanin into your hens' organism, they may experience various gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Surely many breeders and lovers have heard or read that chickens are useful in small amounts of fish and meat. This is true, but not smoked products! So, if you have bones, ridges or other remnants of salted or smoked fish, do not give them to your chickens, as inexperienced breeders are in a hurry to make. A large amount of salt in these products just will not do them good. Including smoked meat products should not be present in the diet of your birds.
We gave the third place to our beet rating - a product that can be given to chickens, but with caution and always dosed. The fact is that beetroot for chickens is a good laxative, however, a large amount of it can cause severe diarrhea and, as a result, oppression of the general condition of the bird. In addition, the beet has a pronounced coloring effect and can paint the bird's cloaca in a bright red color. And this is fraught with peasant and cannibalism among chickens - a phenomenon, unfortunately, not uncommon among chicken herds. Therefore, be very careful with beets and give a better stern its appearance.
Remember that the way and what you feed the bird, depends not only on its health, but also on the taste and quality of its eggs and meat, and in this the breeder is interested in the first place. In addition to the listed chicken stop-products, it is necessary to refuse such:
- Peel with orange or other citrus fruits,
- Black bread is also better not to give, unlike white,
- It is better to refrain from celandine or give it in small quantities, do not give ambrosia to the bird either,
- Too sweet or salty food waste is also not suitable for poultry feed, the fact is that the human and chicken digestive systems are very different, so they are not able to adequately, without consequences, perceive human food with pronounced taste.