Pigeon salmonellosis is a bacterial disease that occurs in both domestic and living in the wild. Infection can even lead to the death of birds. Pigeons suffering from this disease often become infertile.
The causative agent of salmonellosis is Salmonella bacterium that spreads through rodents. Penetrating into the pigeon house in search of food, rats and mice leave droppings in feed, water and bedding. Infection occurs through the use of grain and water, in contact with litter. Infection through the air is possible if there is poor ventilation in the room or cells are rarely cleaned.
The disease affects not only adult pigeons feeding on infected grain. Salmonella is found in females oviduct. During egg laying, the bacteria are transmitted to offspring. Infection can occur through contaminated shells after birth.
An infected chick dies in 7–14 days. But there are individuals that die 5–7 weeks after birth.
Forms of the disease
There are several forms of salmonellosis:
- Explicit. The disease often ends with the death of pets.
- Hidden This form of the disease infects pigeons with strong immunity. Symptoms of salmonellosis do not appear. In the latent form of the disease, the male or female become carriers of salmonella, infecting other birds.
- Nervous. The consequence of the chronic course of salmonellosis is the nervous form of pathology. The sick pigeon most often dies.
- Intestinal. The form proceeds very sharply, striking the intestines.
- Articular. In the affected area are the joints.
Symptoms of the disease
Course and clinical manifestations of the disease:
The incubation period continues with alimentary infection 5.7 days, and with an aerosol - 24. 36 hours. There are over-acute, acute, subacute and chronic course of the disease.
Acute disease often prevails in pigeons up to 6 weeks of age, most of them die in a few days.
Symptoms of the disease:
loss of appetite, inflammation
conjunctiva, intestinal function disorder. In the future, the pigeons
there is a loss of strength, they are indifferent, drowsy, the feather is disheveled,
there is thirst. Body temperature in all cases of acute course
increased. With intestinal form, the flow is subacute and chronic. Symptoms
intestinal inflammation: persistent diarrhea, liquid manure, contains
the blood, tail feathers are heavily polluted. Articular form occurs in
young pigeons and dove after pereboleviya septic form.
Initially, inflammation of the joints and tendons proceeds without visible changes.
Later they increase, the volume of joint fluid increases.
The affected bird is unable to fly, run, so the disease
sometimes called paralysis.
In these forms, lesions are sometimes noted.
jerking of limbs and trembling. The muscles of the wings, legs first
compacted, then comes its atrophy. Under the skin of the joints are formed
pea-sized nodules - granulomas. If two are affected
limbs, then the pigeon moves with the help of wings.
the form in most cases occurs subacutely or chronically, occurs
much less frequently than others. Nervous phenomena, loss
ability to move. Symptoms may persist for
a few days or weeks. The bird lies on its side with a bent neck,
curvature of the neck is a fairly typical symptom if hearing impairment is affected
the labyrinth, the curvature of the neck is exactly on this side.
The first is to make sure that it is salmonellosis. In most places
the analysis is done in a couple of days, by litter, in the rest - by sowing in
for a week. We carry litter for analysis, it’s better
several, the most unhealthy birds.
If the analysis confirms Salmonella - it is necessary to treat all birds in contact with infectious.
What are the symptoms of the disease?
Salmonella infection often affects pigeons and often causes the loss of a large number of birds. It is worth noting that both wild and domestic birds suffer from salmonellosis, however, among the wild death is less common.
Of course, one of the most important causes of the disease is non-compliance with hygiene. Also carriers can be other birds, rats and some insects. Lack of food, dirty water, weak immunity - all this only contributes to the possibility of infection. Most often, the disease affects the young. In order to properly treat, and most importantly prevent the spread of the disease throughout the house, you need to know its symptoms.
So, pigeon salmonellosis occurs in several forms: latent and overt. In the latter case, most often the bird loses its appetite, has a disheveled appearance, exhibits strong thirst, and diarrhea appears. In this form, without a strong and timely treatment, the individual dies in a half to two months. The hidden form is cunning, pigeons have no signs of infection, but they are carriers.
The difficulty and danger of salmonellosis lies in the fact that the disease affects the internal organs: lungs, liver, intestines, brain. Juveniles lay unfertilized eggs or with a defective embryo. Also, with the obvious form of the disease, pigeons stop flying, sit in one place.
Another important detail - salmonellosis is transmitted through the eggs, so very often the chicks hatch already sick. They usually die at the age of 14 days.
Form of the disease
As we have said, salmonellosis is dangerous because it affects the internal organs. Depending on this, there are several additional forms of illness. For example, the most common are the intestinal and nervous form.
Intestinal, as a rule, always proceeds very acutely and quickly becomes chronic. At this time, the bird has a constant diarrhea, bile discharge, there is apathy and poor appetite. Still very often the infection affects the joints of the bird. This is most often observed after the pigeon has already had Salmonella. The joint capsule increases in volume, fluid collects in it, and the bird loses the ability not only to fly, but sometimes to walk. When this form of the disease is acute, even paralysis and spasms of the limbs can be observed.
The nervous form is accompanied by cramps all over the body and occurs as a result of a long illness. Most often in such a situation the bird dies. She rolls onto her back or side and throws her head back to the top. However, thanks to modern medicine, this form of salmonellosis is already quite rare.
How to cure salmonellosis in pigeons?
So, as soon as you determine the extent and form of the disease with your own help or with the help of a veterinarian, you should immediately start treating salmonellosis in pigeons. Today there are already quite a lot of drugs that quickly destroy the infection. Most often, birds are prescribed ampicillin, chloramphenicol, baytril, enroflon and other medicines from leading European companies. However, only the drug treatment itself is not enough; a number of measures should be taken to prevent the spread of the disease to other individuals.
- First of all, the house should be cleaned and disinfected.
- See all pigeons, provide them with abundant drink and good nutrition.
- Prevention measures.
As experts say, any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Fortunately, in this case also has its own measures:
- good food pigeons
- carrying out all necessary sanitary and hygienic measures, cleaning, disinfection of the house, good ventilation,
- fighting mice and rats, which often climb into dovecotes in search of grain,
- timely testing of birds - twice a year before mating, bacteriological laboratory analysis of salmonellosis droppings should be performed,
- the use of natural supplements to maintain good immunity and microflora, for example, to give yeast, apple cider vinegar,
- drug prophylaxis in the most difficult periods - before moulting you can give a weak antibiotics,
Today, European live vaccines, such as Salmo PT and Chevivac-S, have recommended themselves best of all. They are well tolerated by birds and have no side effects. Unlike other cheaper options, these vaccines do not destroy the beneficial microflora, do not lower immunity, and do not prevent the egg-laying of females.
Young pigeons should be vaccinated against salmonellosis for the first time at the age of 8-10 weeks, two weeks after the vaccination against the cone. Then, to adults, birds are already given it once a year, also after vaccination from the waggler. This is approximately the end of November - the beginning of December.
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It is not seen in pigeons that they are sick, since the disease usually does not manifest itself, the symptoms are unlikely. Most often there are different signs. Salmonella affects the liver, kidneys, intestines, heart, joints, and brain.
For adults, there is a decrease in productivity. The laying of eggs occurs irregularly, chickens, embryos die. The disease is most striking for young people, since their immunity has not yet been settled, and therefore they cannot fully cope with salmonellosis. Often the disease strikes the pigeon’s sight. After a while, the pet becomes completely blind. Another indicator is body temperature.
How are things with joints
After carrying out prophylaxis in the pigeon house, putting vaccination on sick pigeons, there are signs of recovery, but this does not mean that there will be no complications, including joint disease. The joint itself expands, forming a pocket filled with fluid. Staphylococcus can develop due to this fluid. The pigeon loses the ability to fly and move around.
Often, this complication is called paralysis, but this is not true. The main cause of paralysis is damage to the nervous system, and then an infectious disease of the joints occurs, as a result of which they lengthen and become filled with fluid, the pigeon cannot move.
Nervous salmonella is a rare form of the disease that occurs only in chronic cases. The main symptom is a slight twitching or convulsions. Then it all develops into constant convulsions, after which the bird begins to spread to its back, which leads to death. The bird lies on its side, its neck is arched.
It is worth considering that the division of symptoms into particles is a conditional form of how this disease can occur. In fact, the bird can meet as individual symptoms, and all at once. With a 100 percent guarantee, salmonella can be said or not, only through clinical analysis. This disease has many different forms and manifestations. In chicks and young pigeons, the mortality rate reaches 89%. If the disease has a chronic course, then the mortality rate is less than 12%.
What is salmonellosis
Salmonellosis is commonly referred to as acute infectious intestinal lesions of higher animals, caused by active reproduction in the body of gram-negative (according to Gram-Weigert coloration) incompatible bacteria of the genus Salmonella.
Today, most animals and birds show a high susceptibility to Salmonella, so the infection is actively transmitted between various genera of animals, including from animals to humans. Bacteria of the genus Salmonella characterized by high resistance to adverse environmental factors, therefore, it is not rare that they can persist in the environment outside the host organism for several months. But it is possible to destroy the infection, for this purpose they use various disinfectant solutions, as well as prolonged surface treatment with high temperatures.
After salmonella ingestion, the first symptoms of the disease develop within 13 days. Active reproduction of bacteria in the intestines is accompanied by the release of a variety of toxins that cause moisture loss, impaired activity of the vessels and the nervous system.
Ultimately, this causes a sharp increase in body temperature, abdominal pain, diarrhea and other disorders in the stomach That is why, at the first signs of illness, isolation and obligatory treatment of affected animals and birds is shown.
Salmonellosis can occur in several forms:
- acute - no longer than 4 days,
- subacute - lasting from 6 to 10 days,
- chronic - characterized by periodic short-term remissions throughout the lifetime of the bird. It develops on the background of an acute or subacute stage, in case the salmonella cannot be completely eliminated from the body.
The cause of the disease
There are several reasons for the development of salmonellosis, but most often the ailment is a complex effect on pigeons of various adverse factors. They cause a sharp decrease in immunity in birds, which soon leads to active damage to individual individuals, and then to the entire population.
As a result, this leads to a sharp death of the weakest birds, as well as their future offspring, since Salmonella is quite successfully able to penetrate inside the fertilized eggs developing in the mother's body.
Breeding pigeons is quite a costly activity, especially acutely this problem concerns the purchase of expensive feed. Therefore, many poultry breeders save on this part of the cost, buying inexpensive food with a fairly low quality.
As a result, there is a general lack of vitamins and important minerals in the diet of pigeons, which leads to a sharp deterioration in immunity, and with this to a decrease in the body's ability to resist various pathogenic bacteria.
Do not forget that many poultry farmers do not rarely neglect the general sanitary rules when storing and preparing food for birds, including during the preparation of food mixtures. In this case, the infection becomes the cause of the use by the population of individual infected food components, which, against the background of reduced immunity in just a few days, can lead to serious diseases of the entire population. In addition, salmonella can get to pigeons and with dirty water contaminated with feces of sick birds or other pollutants.
That is why, before filling the drinkers and bird feeders, you must make sure that the contents are in proper sanitary condition. Otherwise, the neglect of purity can cause the development of other serious infections (hemophilia, colibacteriosis, streptococcosis, ornithosis, etc.).
As mentioned above, salmonella can persist for quite a long time in litter, litter and outdoor objects. However, the active development of bacteria is observed only if favorable conditions for this have arisen. Pigeon droppings as salmonella habitat. Neglect of periodic cleaning of pigeon houses contributes to the accumulation of various physiological fluids in the room, which creates the necessary microclimate for the comfortable development of bacteria. As a result, several bacteria can cause contamination of even sterile water and feed and in just a few days become a threat to the entire population.
Therefore, the observance of general sanitary rules for breeding poultry is one of the main conditions for the successful prevention of this dangerous disease.
In addition, the disease can be the result of suffocation in the dovecote. Insufficient air circulation in the premises of the mass stay of birds contributes to the emergence of a special microclimate, which, in conditions of even necessary cleanliness in the poultry house, creates the most favorable conditions for active reproduction of bacteria outside the body and subsequent passive migration to water or food. Therefore, before actively breeding birds in their own loft, you must make sure that the future premises are suitable for this.
Treatment of salmonellosis in pigeons
All sorts of infectious lesions of poultry are one of the most common reasons that prevent the prosperous poultry industry, regardless of the climatic characteristics of the region. Therefore, for more than a decade, various traditional and folk methods have been used to combat them.
However, not every one of them is distinguished by its cheapness and high efficiency, therefore, we will further consider only the most popular ones.
Most often, modern veterinary therapies include the following highly active bacteriostatic drugs:
- "Ampicillin" - a broad spectrum antibiotic drug that relates to synthetic analogues of penicillins. It is most effective in the treatment of articular salmonellosis. Антибиотик используют перорально, с питьевой водой или пищей из расчёта 20 мг/кг веса особи в сутки.To do this, Ampicillin is uniformly dissolved in a daily dose of water or feed, and then the resulting solutions completely replace food or water. The duration of such therapy is from 5 to 10 days,
- "Baytril" - broad spectrum antimicrobial agent based on enrofloxacin. In the body of pigeons, the drug is administered orally with drinking water. To do this, 0.5 ml of the product is diluted in 10 liters of water, and then the resulting solution completely replace the drinking water. The common bush of treatment of infection "Baytril" ranges from 3 to 5 days,
- "Biomitsin" - antibiotic drug with a wide range of effects for animals and birds. The tool belongs to the group of tetracyclines and is based on synthetic analogues of natural antibiotics secreted by microorganisms of the genus. Actinomyces in the course of their life. The drug is administered orally, with food or drinking water at the rate of 20-30 mg / kg of body weight per day. To this end, the agent is uniformly dissolved in a daily dose of water or feed. The general course of therapy is no more than 7–10 days,
- "Levomitsetin" - synthetic antibiotic agent, which is an artificial analogue of the antibiotic chloramphenicol, produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces due to its natural vital activity. “Levomycetin” is administered orally, with drinking water or food 3 times a day, 30–50 mg / kg of bird weight. To do this, the required amount of the drug is uniformly dissolved in a daily dose of water or feed. The general course of therapy is no more than 10 days,
- "Terramycin" - a tool with powerful antibiotic effects of a wide spectrum, based on oxytetracycline dihydrate. The drug is characterized by mild effects on the body of pigeons, so it can be actively used for nestlings or juveniles without fear. "Terramycin" is introduced into the body orally, with drinking water or food 3 times a day for 20-50 mg / kg poultry weight. To do this, the required amount of the drug is uniformly dissolved in a daily dose of water or feed, and then the resulting solutions completely replace food or water. The general course of therapy is 7 days,
- "Tetracycline" - natural antibiotic drug, widely used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of various infections in animals and birds. The product is based on natural compounds produced by the bacterium. Streptomyces aureofaciens in the course of their life. "Tetracycline" is administered orally, with food or drinking water at the rate of 20-30 mg / kg of body weight per day (for 2 doses). To this end, the agent is uniformly dissolved in water or feed. The general course of therapy is 7-10 days,
- "Enroflon" - An antibiotic drug, actively used to treat a variety of infections in animals and birds, based on enrofloxacin. In the body of pigeons means is administered orally with drinking water. For this, the preparation is diluted in a daily dose of water at the rate of 0.5 ml / l, after which the resulting liquid completely replaces the drinking water. The general course of treatment is from 3 to 5 days,
- "Enteroseptol" - broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent based on hydroxyquinoline. The drug gently affects the pathogenic bacteria in the body, causing the normalization of the natural microflora. “Enteroseptol” is administered orally, with drinking water or food 3 times a day, 30–50 mg / kg of bird weight. To do this, the required amount of the drug is uniformly dissolved in a daily dose of water or feed, and then the resulting solutions completely replace food or water. The general course of therapy is about 7 days, but if necessary, treatment continues until the pigeons recover fully.
Among the most common treatments for salmonellosis in pigeons, the most popular are the following:
- pharmaceutical chamomile infusion: 1 teaspoon of dry grass is drawn in 250 ml of boiling water for 1-2 hours. After complete cooling of the infusion, the liquid is carefully filtered and then used as drinking water for a week. This tool has a fairly mild effect on the body, so it can be safely used, regardless of the age of the bird,
- Pharmaceutical infusion of propolis or crushed perga: these bee products proved to be excellent during the laying of eggs, as they help protect not only the organism of adult birds from infection, but also their future offspring. A tablespoon of infusion or crushed on a kitchen grater perga thoroughly dissolved in a liter of drinking water, and then the resulting solution is used as drinking water. The feeding of pigeons is carried out throughout the entire breeding period, in the other periods of the year the procedure is carried out in small courses, with a duration of not more than 1 week,
- decoction of pine needles: the tool has a powerful antimicrobial effect, as well as a source of many vitamins and other substances that are useful for immunity. To prepare an anti-salmonella agent, 1 cup of pure pine needles is drawn in 1 liter of boiling water for 1–2 hours, and then the resulting liquid is carefully filtered. Infusion completely replace drinking water in the dovecote for 1 week and, if necessary, watering is prolonged until the infection is completely eliminated,
- sunflower oil: This product has a huge amount of essential fatty acids, especially important for the normal functioning of the metabolism, including the protective abilities of the immune system. Oil is included in the feed periodically, during the mass distribution of infectious diseases at the rate of 1 tbsp. l / kg dry food.