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Ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer: application in the garden

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Chemical formula - KNO3. It is a non-volatile, low-toxic crystalline substance of an odorless transparent white color, easily soluble in water. A yellowish-grayish shade may be present.

This valuable fertilizer contains two important components - potassium and nitrogen. When using two different chemical compounds containing these elements separately, they will partially block the absorption of each other by plants. Calcium nitrate is devoid of this disadvantage.

Nitrogen is needed by plants for the rapid growth of green mass, potassium is needed for abundant flowering and fruiting. As a result of the use of potassium nitrate, it is possible to achieve the following results:

  • The root system begins to better absorb nutrients from the soil, thereby improving plant nutrition.
  • The processes of photosynthesis and respiration are normalized.
  • Immunity is strengthened.
  • Fabrics become healthier and stronger, their structure improves.

Mode of application

The first time potassium nitrate is usually used in the spring, when plants are just beginning to the growing season. Per 1 m2 contribute 20 g of potassium nitrate. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of other nitrogen supplements (ammonium nitrate, urea, etc.). Excess nitrogen is not less harmful to plants than its deficiency.

Since the share of nitrogen in potassium nitrate is not so great, the main period of its use is from the moment of budding to the beginning of fruit formation. At the same time, other nitrogenous fertilizers are not used at all during this period. The working solution for basal dressing is prepared as follows: 25 g of potassium nitrate are dissolved in 10 l of water. Watering interval - 1 time in 10-15 days.

If the plant has problems with the formation of buds and poor development of the ovaries, then foliar dressing is used for the foliage. At the same time, the concentration of the solution is reduced in order not to burn the leaves, only 16 g of potassium nitrate are taken per 10 liters of water. Processing is performed in cloudy windless dry weather, or in the morning or evening with minimal sun activity.

Since potassium nitrate primarily contributes to the activation of flowering and fruiting, it is not used for root crops. You do not want your beets to go into a flower?

For potatoes, beets, radishes and other root crops, potassium nitrate is desirable to be applied to the soil only at the initial stage in the spring, and fertilizers with a high nitrogen content should be used as feedings.

Root top dressing (1 time in 10-15 days):

  • vegetable and flower crops - 10-15 g per 10 l of water,
  • berry and ornamental shrubs - 10-20 g per 10 l of water,
  • fruit trees - 25 g per 10 liters of water.

For foliar dressing 1.5-2% solution is used. For spraying on the leaves applied spray.

Precautionary measures

Already from the alternative name "potassium nitrate" it is clear that this substance is an oxidizing agent. Potassium nitrate is actively involved in chemical reactions, including with flammable substances, because of what it is widely used in pyrotechnics. This feature must be considered when storing this substance.

Store potassium nitrate in a safe, sealed package, away from alkaline and flammable materials. Also, there should not be any heating elements nearby - be it a battery or a conventional light bulb. It is best to purchase the required amount of fertilizer and immediately apply it without residue.

It is also extremely important to comply with individual protection measures. Use rubber gloves, exclusively non-food packaging, a respirator and goggles / mask (especially when spraying the solution).

In case of poisoning with potassium nitrate, call an ambulance immediately. The victim must arrange fresh air, warmth, peace and clean clothes. Rinse the skin with plenty of water, rinse the eyes (with open eyelids) with a stream of cold water for 10-30 minutes. When getting burned, apply an aseptic dressing.

Types of fertilizer based on nitrate

Nitrate salts are called saltpeter. They are sodium, potassium and ammonium - it depends on nitrogen compounds. Potassium nitrate contains more potassium (46%) than nitrogen (13%), feeding it plants activates the processes of photosynthesis. She can fertilize all plants: grass on the lawn, vegetables in the garden, flowers, trees. It is used for root and foliar dressings.

Sodium is also used as a fertilizer, but ammonium nitrate, with a high nitrogen content, is the most common. It can feed all kinds of soil. The use of nitrogen fertilizers has a very good effect on plant growth and crop quality. The low price and the required small amount cause widespread use of this mineral fertilizer for lawns, trees and vegetables in the garden. In addition to ammonia simple, they also produce ammonium nitrate of brand B. It comes in 2 varieties, produced in small packages (1 kg), is used at home for houseplants or seedlings.

Ammonium-potassium or Indian nitrate is used in the spring, it is an excellent fertilizer for fruit trees, often it feeds tomatoes to improve the taste of the fruit. Calcium ammonium or Norwegian - contains calcium compounds, potassium and magnesium. It is shown for any soil, because it does not increase their acidity, but in the production process it undergoes treatment with fuel oil, and it does not decompose in soil for a long time. Calcium supplements are needed for vegetables, but it is better to use another fertilizer. The use of magnesium nitrate is particularly useful in the garden for vegetable and legumes.

Calcium nitrate is produced in a dry, like all other types, and liquid state. It is very convenient, you can immediately use it without prior preparation.

Ammonium nitrate

Ammonium nitrate or ammonium nitrate contains from 26 to 34.4% of nitrogen and sulfur from 3 to 14%. Plants from the beginning of their growth require a lot of nitrogen, and sulfur helps to absorb it, this explains its presence in the composition of fertilizer. It is possible to use ammonium nitrate on any soils, but on acidic it is still necessary to add calcium compounds in order not to increase acidity. Ammonium nitrate begins to work immediately after application, which is why it is usually used in the spring, and this is the only fertilizer that is not afraid of frost. It can be used only for root feeding, because it can burn the greens of the plant. This universal nitrogen fertilizer is used for growing flowers, lawns, vegetables in the garden, fruit trees, shrubs. But calcium nitrate can be used for foliar fertilizing, it can be sprayed plants.

When applied in the spring as a fertilizer, ammonium nitrate still protects plants from many diseases, strengthening their immunity. The garden often does not follow the rules of crop rotation, planted repeated crops year after year, because of this, the top layer of soil accumulates pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Saltpeter perfectly protects vegetables from them. The same can be said about perennial lawns.

How to apply fertilizer

Saltpeter is produced in absorbent granules, it is used simply by adding to the soil, and can be diluted with water (according to the instructions) and carefully watered the plants so as not to splash the aerial part. The amount of application depends on the condition of the soil. Usually, 20–30 g is enough for 1 square meter. m, and if the soil is very depleted, then make 30 - 50 g - 1 square. m. When planting seedlings of pepper, melon, tomatoes in each well contribute 1 tablespoon without a slide. Over the summer, vegetables and trees are still being fed. So, in the garden before flowering and after the appearance of the ovaries, 5–10 g are introduced per 1 square meter. m

Root crops can be fed in the following way: make a groove between rows and dig into it (no deeper than 3 cm) 5–7 g - per 1 square meter. m. They need only one feeding 3 weeks after germination. Dry ammonium nitrate feeds the future lawn and fruit trees once in spring. During the summer, the trees can be watered with a solution a couple of times (25 g of nitrogen fertilizers - per 10 liters of water), but it is not recommended to water the lawn - the grass will get burned. Under the trees and bushes dry ammonium nitrate is buried in the tree trunk circle. Its application should always be accompanied by abundant watering - otherwise the granules will not dissolve, and therefore, nitrogen compounds will not fall to the roots. Top dressing is usually carried out in the first half of the summer so that the plant is not carried away by growing the stems and leaves to the detriment of the formation of fruits.

Storage conditions

Hygroscopic granules are sold in plastic or paper packaging. Shelf life is 6 months, and after opening the package it is no more than 1 month, if you allow improper storage, the nitrogen will just evaporate. Keep it in a dry room, avoiding temperature fluctuations, otherwise there is a risk of formation of insoluble crystals. Do not mix with other fertilizers. In general, it must be remembered that ammonium nitrate is an explosive substance, and it is necessary to treat it accordingly, having carefully studied the instructions. If heating is allowed to exceed 32.3 degrees, an explosion may occur. In the summer storage should be either under a canopy that protects from overheating, or in a cool room.

When using do not need to make simultaneously with sawdust, manure, straw or peat in order to avoid spontaneous combustion.

Contraindications

Squashes, cucumbers, pumpkins and squash are recommended to grow without the use of nitrate - they can accumulate too much nitrate. Many are frightened by the word "nitrates", it is associated with chemical fertilizers obtained by chemical means. Nitrates are nitrogen-containing salts, which are found in manure, compost, that is, organic substances, which we use as fertilizers. They are necessary for plants for growth and fruiting, it is them in a huge amount of vegetables, fruit trees and bushes pulled out of the soil. The question is in quantity. If you give the manure to vegetables more than required, it will lead to the accumulation of excess nitrates, just like with excessive fertilizer with nitrate. To do this, and create the rate of making various dressings, they must be respected.

Calcium nitrate is also a nitrate fertilizer. It is better to follow the correct dosage than to deprive the plants of the necessary element. 2 weeks before harvest, experts advise to stop any additional feeding, so as not to accumulate excess salt in the fruit.

The composition and properties of potassium nitrate

So what is potassium nitrateIt is a potassium-nitrogen fertilizer used for fertilizing cultivated plants on all types of soil. This fertilizer improves the vital activity of plants, starting from the moment of planting. Saltpeter improves the function of the roots to consume food from the soil, normalizes the respiratory abilities and photosynthesis. Due to the addition of potassium nitrate, the plant acquires the ability to resist and not to succumb to diseases.

The composition of potassium nitrate, two active ingredients: potassium and nitrogen. According to its physical properties, potassium nitrate is a white crystalline powder. With long-term storage in the open form, the powder can be compressed, but will not lose chemical properties. However, you need to store potassium nitrate in a closed package.

Application of potassium nitrate

Root and foliar fertilizers of nitrate are used in vegetable gardens and gardens. In potassium nitrate there is practically no chlorine, which allows it to be applied to plants that do not perceive this element: grapes, tobacco, potatoes. Respond well to fertilizer saltpeter carrots and beets, tomatoes, berry crops such as currants, raspberries, blackberries, flower and ornamental plants, fruit trees, bushes.

Potassium nitrate is often used in the garden as a feed for cucumbers during fruit ripening. This somewhat inhibits the growth of greenery and increases the size of vegetables. Since cucumbers are unevenly sown, part of the fertilizer goes to the formation of freshly tied cucumbers.

There is no particular difficulty in how to use potassium nitrate as a fertilizer. Top dressing with this mixture can be spent all season. In stores, fertilizer is packaged in convenient dosages: smaller packages for small summer cottages and large packages of 20-50 kg for large farms.

Safety measures when using fertilizer

Before fertilizing potassium nitrate, some precautions must be taken: It is necessary to work with nitrate in rubber gloves, since the fertilizer uses a liquid solution, for safety you need to cover your eyes with glasses. It is advisable that you wear tight clothes, and the presence of a respirator is not a hindrance: nitrate fumes are unsafe for health.

Potassium nitrate is an oxidizing agent that reacts with flammable substances. It is necessary to store such substance in a tightly closed bag, avoiding the dangerous proximity of combustible and flammable substances. In the room where saltpeter is stored, you can not smoke, it is recommended to close the room from children.

Fertilizing potassium nitrate, you need to take care of safety measures for plants. To fertilizer is better absorbed, as well as to compensate for the lack of moisture, fertilizer saltpeter combined with irrigation. On nitrate soils, nitrate is not abused, as the fertilizer slightly oxidizes the soil. To avoid plant burns, potassium nitrate dressing is applied carefully, taking care not to get on the leaves and stems.

Cooking potassium nitrate at home

Before making potassium nitrate, it is necessary to carry out preparatory manipulations. To get started, get the necessary substances for preparation: ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride. These reagents, being fertilizers, are in any garden shop, at the price available.

Now we proceed to the production of potassium nitrate at home. To make it all happen at its best, follow the following procedure:

  1. Mix 100 g of potassium chloride and 350 ml of distilled hot water. You need to stir until the potassium chloride is completely dissolved, then strain it thoroughly.
  2. Pour the filtered mixture into the enameled container, put on the fire and at the first sign of boiling, stirring slowly, pour in 95 g of ammonium nitrate. Still stirring, boil for three minutes, then remove from heat and let cool.
  3. Pour warm solution into a plastic bottle and allow to cool completely. When the solution is cold, put it in the fridge for an hour, after the time has passed, transfer it to the freezer, hold it there for three hours.
  4. After all the cold procedures, remove the bottle and carefully drain the water: potassium nitrate will remain in the form of crystals at the bottom. Dry the crystals on paper in a dry and warm place for several days. Saltpeter is ready.
Today, many gardeners refuse mineral fertilizers in favor of organic matter alone. Experienced farmers do not recommend this, as this category of fertilizer is indispensable for obtaining a good harvest, for maintaining immunity in plants and their winter hardiness.

Ca (NO3) 2 - calcium nitrate or calcium nitrate

If the plant lacks calcium, the roots no longer throw thin roots, often called root hair, through which the plant "feeds" various nutrients from the soil dissolved in water. And in this situation, the roots are covered with slimy bloom, which does not miss these same nutrients. As a result: chlorotic leaf krone, cessation of the growth of stems.

Ferruginous and manganese-rich soils also have a bad effect on the development of green spaces, and calcium nitrate can easily cope with this problem when it is introduced into the soil. Calcium (Ca), whose content in nitrate is more than 19%, promotes the active absorption of nitrogen by the plant (N-NO3), which in this fertilizer is at least 15.5%.

In order to protect tomatoes from top rot, and lettuce leaves from burns, calcium nitrate is best applied to the soil in the form of liquid dressings, the benefit of this white “sugar” (so looks like nitre from the package) perfectly soluble and digestible.

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Urea or urea: (NH2) 2CO - 46% nitrogen

Let's recognize for this nitrate the right to be called the most effective granulated fertilizer. This is not only the most highly effective fertilizer, it is also the most concentrated of nitrogen fertilizers! Applicable to all types of soil and all types of plants, especially if the soil is experiencing waterlogging.

Urea nitrogen is better fixed in the soil even with multiple precipitations, and therefore, has a significant advantage over the same calcium nitrate, although its application and consumption rates are exactly the same as those for calcium nitrate (see table above). Remember! On neutral and alkaline soils, nitrogen losses can be significant, and it is simply impossible to do without nitrogen supplements.

Urea is often used in greenhouses, the main thing is not to overdo it!

Urea is used as a basic fertilizer diluted in water or directly embedded in granules into the soil to prevent loss of gaseous ammonia. The carbamide granules may look different, but most often they are large white balls.

И на пакете с удобрением может быть как надпись «Карбамид», так и «Мочевина».

Карбамид легко смешивается с простым суперфосфатом, только сначала его надо нейтрализовать молотым известняком (мелом) в соотношении: на 1 кг суперфосфата добавляют 100 г мела. For feeding plants that do not like to swim very much, for example, cucumbers, urea is bred in a proportion of 50 g per 10 l and they shed a bed of 10 m.

Urea is used not only in the form of supplements for “garden-beneficial” plantings, it is also good as a means of combating various garden diseases, for example:

  • monilial burn, not sparing stone trees,
  • purple leaf blotch that affects almost all plant species, but raspberries and roses suffer the most,
  • scab, "eating" the fruits and leaves of apples and pears,
  • apical rot of tomatoes, destroying up to 70% of the crop of tomatoes.

Urea, diluted up to 5%, copes with the task of disinfecting a garden if it is sprayed with trees and bushes either at the beginning of leaf fall or in early spring. For every 10 sq.m. should be spent about 3 liters. solution.

Good urea-urea and the destruction of pests such as aphid, sucker, weevil and apple tsvetoyed. Such top dressing treatment will be especially appropriate if last year there were many of these pests, in the form of prophylaxis for the coming year.

Before the start of budding, when the temperature stays steady at +5 degrees, it is necessary to shed and spray garden trees and bushes with a concentrated solution of this nitrogen. How to dilute nitrate in this case? 700 g per 10 liters of water.

Often the question arises as to how to replace urea. Potassium chloride is capable of this (they cultivate the soil under trees and bushes, avoiding its contact directly with plants) and saltpeter such as the ammonium salt of nitric acid.

Nitrogen starvation of plants must be able to determine the time

Nitrogen, as noted above, is the primary element for the process of photosynthesis and the formation of chlorophyll, its deficiency adversely affects the whole plant. To notice the lack of nitrogen is easy as the leaves, which become weak and become unnatural, often pale in color.

  1. Cabbage leaves become yellowish-green, small and transparent. With a deep nitrogen deficiency - they turn pink and can become completely red. Cabbage is not rolled into the head.
  2. Tomatoes acquire leaves of a light green color with streaks of bluish-red veins on the underside of the leaf. Branching and growth stop, there is no hope for a harvest.
  3. Cucumbers pull thin, fibrous stems in an attempt to hold down, pale leaves, often covered with uneven yellow spots. Fruit formation leaves much to be desired.
  4. Beets throws up small, erect leaves of rectangular shape and painful green color, which quickly turn yellow and also quickly die off.
  5. In onion, eggplant and Bulgarian pepper, the leaves turn yellow evenly, as if they are preparing for autumn leaf fall, fruits may fall off.
  6. Fruit trees often suffer from starvation if the soil of the trunk circles is sodded. And the first signs - yellowing of leaves on the lower branches.

When such signs appear, you should immediately begin the procedure to save the future harvest - it's time to feed your green pets.

All nitrate nitrate provided to your attention, according to the owners of gardeners, is the best way to avoid the “loss” of cultivated plants in horticulture. Take from me and this advice: when used with nitrate of another organic fertilizer, the dose of both and the other is reduced exactly by 2 times!

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Potassium nitrate - properties and uses

Potassium nitrate has long been used as a mineral fertilizer. Another popular name is potassium or potassium nitrate. Externally, these are needle-like crystals, which may be colorless or white with a grayish tint. The use of potassium nitrate as a top dressing is convenient, since the product is highly soluble in water. This supplement is a supplier of nitrogen and potassium, and these minerals are very important for many plants.

What is potassium nitrate for plants?

This popular two-component additive, including nitrogen and potassium, facilitates the care of plants, since they do not need to be added separately, especially since they can block the absorption of each other. This bicomponent supplement should be used when it is important to eliminate excess nitrogen and, if the cultures react poorly to products including chlorine, for example, potatoes, grapes, tomatoes and currants. There is a wide list of what potassium nitrate is needed for:

  1. Promotes root development, improving their branching.
  2. Accelerates growth and activates photosynthesis.
  3. Potassium regulates the exchange of water in the plant.
  4. Improves the taste of the fruit and their appearance.
  5. The harvest rises.
  6. Strengthens the immune system, increasing the resistance of plants to disease, low temperatures.

Potassium nitrate - composition

It has already been mentioned that this fertilizer contains two main components that provide nutrition to the crop. It should be noted that the composition of potassium nitrate fertilizer, unlike other additives, contains more potassium (44%) than nitrogen (13%). This ratio allows you to use this dressing even after the plant has flowered, and the ovary began to form. It is important to bear in mind that during storage the fertilizer coagulates, but it does not affect the concentration of minerals in any way.

What is fed with potassium nitrate?

Potassium nitrate can be used for different crops, the main thing is to do it according to the existing rules:

  1. It is important to know not only that potassium nitrate is fertilized, but also that it cannot be mixed with organic additives, such as peat, straw, manure, and so on.
  2. Do not use potassium nitrate in hot weather, because it can ignite when interacting with a number of materials.
  3. Frequent processing of plants will not be useful, for in most cases two applications are enough.
  4. While working, you need to remember some security measures. It is recommended to wear gloves, goggles and a respirator, since the fumes emitted are hazardous to health. If during the application of saltpeter got on the skin, it is important to wash the affected area with water and treat with antiseptic.

Potassium nitrate - fertilizer, use in the garden

There are certain groups of plants for which it is recommended to apply potassium nitrate:

  1. Cucumbers. The use of potassium nitrate in the garden for this crop is recommended during the fruiting phase. This supplement does not affect the growth of greenery, but increases the yield.
  2. Tomatoes. Add supplements should be when the fourth true leaf appears on the seedlings. In addition, potassium nitrate, the use of which is justified during the pick, can increase the yield by 40%.
  3. Roots. During the spring digging of the site where these crops will be planted, a dry preparation of up to 50 g per square meter should be added. m. Potatoes are processed when hilling is performed during the development of potato tops. For cabbage and radish it is recommended to add calcium to potassium nitrate.

Potassium saltpeter - application in gardening

Once in the spring it is recommended to feed with potassium nitrate. It is dry instilled into a tree circle. Another use of potassium nitrate is watering at the root, for which the fruit tree should have 2.5 g, and berry bushes - 1 g. In addition, during the summer the trees should be watered with a solution prepared from 10 liters of water and 25 g of nitrogen fertilizer.

Potassium nitrate - application for flowers

For floral and ornamental plants to enjoy their bright and abundant flowering, they need additional nutrients. When carrying out root dressing should be taken 1.5 g / l, and when spraying - 2.5 g / l, and you need to spend no more than 0.7 l per square meter. m. Potassium nitrate for flowers should be used no more than two times per season: before planting, the use of dry fertilizer is recommended, and watering solutions a few days before flowering. This supplement is best suited for small-bulb, rhododendrons, tulips, lilies, clematis and gladioli.

Potassium nitrate for indoor plants

Potassium nitrate can also be used to take care of potted flowers, but unlike bed flower plants, the dosage should be halved, that is, to prepare a working solution, you must use 0.5 g per 1 liter of liquid. Especially useful is the use of potassium nitrate for indoor plants of such groups: violets, begonias, orchids, ferns and other exotic plants. As for leafy crops, it is better to use a complex solution twice a month, for which mix 1 liter of water, 0.1 g of viburnum and 0.4 g of ammonium nitrate, and another 0.5 g of superphosphate.

How to apply potassium nitrate?

Potassium nitrate can be used in a dry form and in most cases it is introduced during digging. In addition, there are two more options for the use of the additive.

  1. Root top dressing. Potassium nitrate, the use of which should be carried out according to the rules, is absorbed faster and better by the plant if used in liquid form. The solution is injected into the trunk circle. The amount of the substance depends on the crop to be fed. The finished product should be used immediately, because during storage it loses its useful properties.
  2. Extra root top dressing of potassium nitrate. For spraying, the solution is made more concentrated as a part of the substances evaporates from the leaves. The application should be carried out in the morning or in the evening when the sun is not active. Otherwise, the risk of burns on the leaves increases. Green mass should be wetted thoroughly. The maximum amount of potassium nitrate per bucket of water is 25 g. Consumption depends on the culture, so per 1 square meter. m .: flowers and vegetables - 1 l, berry bushes - 1.5-1.7 l, young trees - 2 l, and for adults you need 5-8 l.

How to replace potassium nitrate?

There are gardeners who do not want to use mineral supplements, so they are looking for an alternative. To obtain the necessary substances can be used and organics. If you are interested in how to replace potassium nitrate in the garden, then pay attention to the rotted manure. In addition, you can use and compost, which is prepared from different components, for example, plants, herbs, slop and so on. It is recommended to add substances including nitrogen, superphosphate, lime and minerals.

Many gardeners use homemade potassium nitrate, the use of which is no different from an industrial additive. For work, you should prepare potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and distilled water. It is important that all used utensils are clean and dry.

  1. In a glass container in 300 g of hot water dissolve 10 g of potassium chloride. Using several layers of gauze, filter the solution to finally get a practically clear liquid.
  2. In an enamel container, heat the medium to form the first bubbles, and then add 95 g of ammonium nitrate to it. Mix and simmer for three minutes, stirring.
  3. Remove the container from the heat and let it cool, and then put it in the fridge for an hour. Then transfer it to the freezer for three hours. It is important that the temperature is not below 0 ° C.
  4. Remove the container and drain the liquid that was at the top. The precipitate should be dried for four days on paper. The result is potassium nitrate, in an amount up to about 60 g.

Properties of potassium nitrate

Potassium nitrate is a crystalline or powdered mixture of white, odorless. It is also called potassium nitrate or potassium nitrate, and in some sources - Indian saltpeter.

The main properties of potassium nitrate are water solubility, strong oxidizing properties, the ability to contact with combustible materials and reducing agents. The substance is released in tightly closed bags, each package has detailed instructions for use, which must be followed.

Potassium nitrate, the chemical formula of which has the appearance of KNO3, includes almost 40% potassium and 13% nitrogen. Such a composition allows the use of potassium nitrate as a double complex fertilizer: the plants will receive not only the potassium necessary for their vital activity, but also nitrogen. This unity allows to solve several tasks at once:

  • accelerate the growth of culture thanks to nitrogen
  • improve the performance of the root system, which begins to absorb the necessary elements from the soil much faster,
  • improve cellular respiration as a result of biochemical reactions in which nitrate acts as a catalyst.

Cells that are actively inhaled oxygen contribute to increasing the immunity of the culture to certain types of diseases. And this is a definite guarantee of a good harvest.

The advantages in comparison with individual dressings are obvious: you can add the substance even after the flowering of the bush, when the buds have already formed. A small amount of nitrogen will make the bush stronger, without redirecting its tasks to the formation of green mass. At the same time, potassium will allow already at this stage to lay the foundation for a high-quality crop with a wonderful taste.

Fertilizer designation

The result of the consumption of potassium nitrate by the plant favorably affects its characteristics such as:

  • resistance to adverse environmental conditions (low temperatures, drought),
  • resistance to certain diseases, for example, mealy dew,
  • ovary formation and a decrease in the total number of barren flowers,
  • the quality of the fruit and their appearance,
  • crop life.

Most often, fertilizing is done to crops negatively related to chlorine: berries, beets, and grapes. In addition, potassium nitrate has found application in horticulture, vegetable growing and floriculture.

It is not recommended to make this fertilizer under the cruciferous (cabbage, radish) and greens - they often do not need potassium for optimal development. Neutral to feed and potatoes (he prefers phosphorus).

Terms of making potassium nitrate

Especially potassium nitrate is necessary for plants before flowering in spring or summer. Bring it also with a shortage of substances in the soil. To diagnose a lack of elements is possible on the following grounds:

  • slow growth and poor development of the bush,
  • browning and drying the tips of the leaves,
  • wilting and subsequent fall of the ovaries.

If you adhere to the fertilization plan, it is important to know that different crops fertilize in different periods:

  • cucumbers feed potassium nitrate during fruiting to increase yields and strengthen the bush,
  • if you decided to fertilize potatoes, then fertilizer is applied in combination with phosphorus during the first hilling,
  • potassium nitrate will be brought dry for a couple of days before sowing (up to 50 g per 1 m²) in the beds where the roots will be grown,
  • The onions, roses, grapes and vegetables growing in the greenhouse are in great need of the element, so they are fed more than once.

Potassium nitrate solution is used for fertilizer 2 - 4 times during the summer. With more frequent fertilizing in the fruits of vegetables, nitrates will begin to accumulate. To prevent this negative manifestation, it is advisable to shed every bush after fertilizing. The last foliar top dressing of potassium nitrate should be made about a month before the harvest.

Fertilizer application methods

Potassium nitrate is used in the form of root or foliar supplements. And at the root, it is brought in both dry and dissolved form.

The dissolved substance gets inside the plant much faster, so most often it is the liquid potassium nitrate that is brought into the near-stem circle or hole. When mixing the solution for 10 l of water, take a different amount of substance:

  • for fertilizing flowers or vegetable crops - 15 g,
  • for berry bushes - 10-20 g,
  • under fruit trees - 20-25 g.

Freshly prepared solution shed plants twice in a month. It is important to note that the mixture is not stored, so it must be used at one time.

For greater safety, it is not recommended to feed crops in hot weather, since potash saltpeter tends to ignite when interacting with certain materials. For the same reason, it should not be mixed with organic matter (peat, manure, straw, sawdust).

They are made more concentrated, as some of the substance may evaporate from the leaves or be lost during watering or rain. At the same time, the maximum possible amount of water is taken to a bucket of water - 25 g. Consumption for different crops is (per 1 m²):

  • 1 l for flowers, vegetables and small ornamental plants, as well as strawberries,
  • 1.5-1.7 liters for small berry bushes,
  • 2 l for bushes and young fruit trees,
  • 5-8 liters per adult tree (the volume of the solution depends on the height and thickness of the crown).

Spray the foliage of potassium nitrate in the morning or evening, when the sun is weakly active, to eliminate the possibility of getting burned on the leaves. Green mass should be moistened well, using the entire amount provided.

Do not fertilize in this way in the rain, as the procedure will be meaningless, because the necessary substance immediately washed off from the leaves.

Application of potassium nitrate for flowers

Potassium nitrate is needed for the normal development of colors. Ее перемешивают с грунтом во время подготовки клумб. Процедура минерализации способствует избавлению от некоторых разновидностей вредителей.

Калиевая селитра применяется для удобрения цветов:

  • очень нуждаются в такой подкормке рододендроны,
  • не откажутся от питания и луковичные культуры, для них селитру обычно перемешивают с золой,
  • рано весной вмешивают в почву для лилий, георгинов и тюльпанов,
  • Clematis fertilize no more than two times during the whole growing season.

For some indoor plants (begonia and violet) is also important nitrogen-potassium fertilizer.

Ca (NO3) 2 - calcium nitrate or calcium nitrate

If the plant lacks calcium, the roots no longer throw thin roots, often called root hair, through which the plant "feeds" various nutrients from the soil dissolved in water. And in this situation, the roots are covered with slimy bloom, which does not miss these same nutrients. As a result: chlorotic leaf krone, cessation of growth of stems

Ferruginous and manganese-rich soils also have a bad effect on the development of green spaces, and calcium nitrate can easily cope with this problem when it is introduced into the soil. Calcium (Ca), whose content in nitrate is more than 19%, promotes the active absorption of nitrogen by the plant (N-NO3), which in this fertilizer is at least 15.5%.

In order to protect tomatoes from top rot, and lettuce leaves from burns, calcium nitrate is best applied to the soil in the form of liquid dressings, the benefit of this white “sugar” (so looks like nitre from the package) perfectly soluble and digestible.

Granulated Ca (NO3) 2 is not very good - it is granulated on the basis of gypsum, but it is slightly soluble in water.

Below are the rates of calcium nitrate for large farms (kg / ha) and the norm for the garden plots, where you can make sure that it is very easy to use, you just have to remember that you should not mix Ca (NO3) 2 with superphosphate, and with other types of fertilizer - always, please!

In general, there is also a universal recommendation on feedings:

  • All vegetables before planting - 5-12g. per 1 sq.m.
  • top dressing during the growing season - 5-10g.,
  • foliar before flowering - 50-60g. on a bucket of water
  • ornamental and fruit trees and shrubs - 2-fold feeding a week after flowering and later m-c.

Potassium nitrate, potassium nitrate, nitrogen-potassium fertilizer KNО3 - potassium nitrate

With this food for plants in closed ground, you need to be especially careful - it is toxic, besides the explosion-and-fire hazard.

But this composition has clear advantages over calcium nitrate: it is most effective for soils with a low content of potassium, besides, it is indispensable for plants reacting sharply and negatively to chlorine.

In addition to optimizing the vital forces of the roots (root hair, etc.), potash nitrate also contributes to balancing the "respiration rate" of plants - photosynthesis, which qualitatively improves the tissue structures of any plant. Nitrogen-potassium fertilizer does not contain harmful impurities, insoluble compounds. With which you can mix saltpeter, too, no problem - with any other fertilizer, soluble in water.

Potassium (K2O) contains almost 50% in it, nitrogen - 13%, and this powder, something resembling badly ground powdered sugar, will be of particular benefit if you feed it with a solution of soil in early spring, before planting, according to this scheme:

  • strawberries-strawberries - 20g. on a bucket of water, use root dressing before flowering every 10 days.
  • in pristvolny circles of fruit trees make a solution of 25g. on a bucket before bud break.
  • foliar dressing - spraying is used as follows:
  • vegetables and flowers - 150g. / 10l. at a rate of 1.5 liters. on 10 sq.m.
  • shrubs - the same 150g. at a solution consumption of 2 l. / 10 sq.m.
  • fruit trees - again, 150/10, consumption - 1 bucket per 1 tree.

And remember about the instructions for the use of potassium nitrate! Store saltpeter strictly in a closed, dry room in a well-packed container. In no case do not allow the mixing of nitrate with sawdust, coal or peat! It is forbidden to keep it near flammable or mineral substances!

In addition, it is always necessary to remember that there are cases of the sad consequences of potassium salt poisoning. The most harmless is digestive upset. Much worse - a violation of the kidneys for a long time, stomach cramps and inflammation of the urinary tract. And all this against the background of generalized prostration. In medicine, even described cases of death after poisoning with potassium nitrate!

Urea or urea: (NH2) 2CO - 46% nitrogen

Let's recognize for this nitrate the right to be called the most effective granulated fertilizer. This is not only the most highly effective fertilizer, it is also the most concentrated of nitrogen fertilizers! Applicable to all types of soil and all types of plants, especially if the soil is experiencing waterlogging.

Urea nitrogen is better fixed in the soil even with multiple precipitations, and therefore, has a significant advantage over the same calcium nitrate, although its application and consumption rates are exactly the same as those for calcium nitrate (see table above). Remember! On neutral and alkaline soils, nitrogen losses can be significant, and it is simply impossible to do without nitrogen supplements.

Urea is often used in greenhouses, the main thing is not to overdo it!

Urea is used as a basic fertilizer diluted in water or directly embedded in granules into the soil to prevent loss of gaseous ammonia. The carbamide granules may look different, but most often they are large white balls.

And on the package with fertilizer can be both the inscription "Urea" and "Urea".

Urea is easily mixed with simple superphosphate, but first it must be neutralized with ground limestone (chalk) in a ratio: 100 g of chalk is added to 1 kg of superphosphate. For feeding plants that do not like to swim very much, for example, cucumbers, urea is bred in a proportion of 50 g per 10 l and they shed a bed of 10 m.

Urea is used not only in the form of supplements for “garden-beneficial” plantings, it is also good as a means of combating various garden diseases, for example:

  • monilial burn, not sparing stone trees,
  • purple leaf blotch that affects almost all plant species, but raspberries and roses suffer the most,
  • scab, "eating" the fruits and leaves of apples and pears,
  • apical rot of tomatoes, destroying up to 70% of the crop of tomatoes.

Urea, diluted up to 5%, copes with the task of disinfecting a garden if it is sprayed with trees and bushes either at the beginning of leaf fall or in early spring. For every 10 sq.m. should be spent about 3 liters. solution.

Good urea-urea and the destruction of pests such as aphid, sucker, weevil and apple tsvetoyed. Such top dressing treatment will be especially appropriate if last year there were many of these pests, in the form of prophylaxis for the coming year.

Before the start of budding, when the temperature stays steady at +5 degrees, it is necessary to shed and spray garden trees and bushes with a concentrated solution of this nitrogen. How to dilute nitrate in this case? 700 g per 10 liters of water.

Often the question arises as to how to replace urea. Potassium chloride is capable of this (they cultivate the soil under trees and bushes, avoiding its contact directly with plants) and saltpeter such as the ammonium salt of nitric acid.

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