A garden without a cherry, like a Russian hut without a furnace: it does not feed and does not please the eye. Therefore, breeders deduce hundreds of varieties so that each garden has its own cherry tree. Such as, for example, Turgenevskaya cherry, or simply Turgenevka.
Description of cherry varieties Turgenevka
Let's start with a description of the variety. The cultivar of cherries "Turgenevka" was taken out by scientists from 1972 to 1979 at the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops. The tree reaches a height of 3–3.5 m. Its crown is elevated, reverse pyramidal. Shoots are straight, medium length, brown. The bark of the trunk and the main branches also have a brown tint. Dark green leaves near a tree with a pointed tip and jagged edges.
In mid-May, the tree blooms profusely with white four-flowered inflorescences.
This variety begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year. Up to 12 kg of fruit can be harvested from one young tree, and up to 25 kg from an adult. The ripening period depends largely on the weather, but usually it falls on the 2nd decade of July. The regularity of the harvest, i.e., whether the cherry will bear fruit every year and how many years in a row, depends on care.
"Turgenevka" is regionalized in the Bryansk, Lipetsk and Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol and Belgorod regions, as well as in the Republic of North Ossetia. However, it is growing not only in these areas. Here the variety was tested and described. If you create all the necessary conditions for growth, the cherry will bear fruit in other regions. But first you need to familiarize yourself with such conditions.
The fruits of “Turgenevka” are large (up to 4–5 g), of a wide heart shape. Fruits are dark red both outside and inside. Small bones are well separated from the juicy and dense flesh. The sweet and sour taste of fruits makes them indispensable for making jam, juice and compotes.
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The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
"Turgenevka" is distinguished by winter hardiness, yield and fruit quality. However, due to the average frost resistance of flower buds under adverse conditions, the yield may decrease. In addition, it is partially self-fertile variety - it means that if you have one cherry, it will bear fruit, but there will be few fruits. Therefore, even self-bearing trees should be planted together with a tree of another variety, for example, with Favorite, Molodezhnaya or Lyubskaya.Cherry Turgenevka
Selection of seedlings
The choice of seedlings is a responsible matter. To purchase a healthy tree, follow these rules:
- buy one or two year old saplings from a trusted seller or manufacturer,
- pay attention to the appearance: a healthy tree does not have any spots, the branches and roots must be whole,
- When buying in the spring, choose seedlings with dormant buds.
Cherries love sunny, windless places. However, “Turgenevka” should be planted on the southern side carefully, because here the snow melts faster in spring, which means sap flow starts and the buds swell. Return spring frosts can ruin the next harvest.
Soil acidity for cherries should be with a pH of 5.5-7. The soils themselves are light, loamy or sandy.
It is better to plant cherries in spring, until the leaves have blossomed on it. You can plant it among other fruit trees, but not in place of the old cherry orchard. Groundwater should lie in the 1.5-2 m under the ground.Freshly planted cherry seedling Turgenevka
- Dig a hole 60 cm deep, 70 cm wide
- Pour a mixture of humus (up to 2 buckets), ash (up to 1 kg) and mineral fertilizers (30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium nitrate) in the middle of the pit,
- Install a planting stake to which you will tie the tree,
- Put a seedling in a hole, straighten the roots and cover with earth,
- Tamp the earth tight so that all airy voids disappear,
- Form a hole with sides for watering,
- Sapling heavily water.
With proper care cherry "Turgenevka" begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year. With poor fruit care, you can also wait, but they will not be enough.
After planting the cherry requires frequent watering: at least 1 time per week, 2 buckets of water. An adult tree is watered only during the drought period.Grown Cherry Turgenevka
Top dressing is also necessary for regular and fruitful fructification:
- in the spring before the blooming of flowers, nitrogen is introduced into the soil (urea, ammonium nitrate),
- in the spring, during flowering, nitrogen and organic fertilizers (chicken manure, green fertilizers) can be applied to the soil,
- in the spring after flowering organic matter (manure, compost) is added to the soil to fill the berries,
- in the summer they make foliar fertilizing with nitrogen and contribute organic matter to the tree trunk circle,
- autumn cherry needs calcium, potassium and phosphorus.
Collection and storage
Cherries are perishable. No wonder they say: there were cherries, but they all came out.
Collection "Turgenevki" usually occurs July 5-15. A dry windless day is the best day to harvest. In the rain the fruits gain a lot of moisture and subsequently poorly stored.
If you need to keep the cherries fresh for several days, but there is no place to store them, collect the fruit along with the stem: so the flesh will not run out of juice.
In the refrigerator, the harvested cherry will lie for about 20 days. If there are a lot of cherries, and you have a basement, where the air temperature is 8-12 °, place unwashed fruits without “barrels” in different containers. The layer should not exceed 5 cm. Thus, it will be possible to keep the crop fresh for 10-12 days.
And also cherries can be dried for the winter. Do it in three ways: dried berries in the sun, in the oven or in an electric dryer.
Crown formation is an important component in the life of a tree. Cherries grow rapidly, and therefore require annual thinning of the crown:
- after landing, identify the 5 strongest branches, remove the rest,
- treat garden wounds,
- For the 2nd year, cut off all the branches growing inside the crown,
- shorten the length of the branches and make the same
- as you grow, form new skeletal branches, they should be 13-15 pieces.
- when the length of the trunk reaches 3.5 m, it should be cut so that the cherry does not grow anymore.
Diseases and pests
Cherry "Turgenevka" has an average resistance to the most common diseases of the stone fruit - coccomycosis and moniliosis. However, with poor care, a tree can suffer from any disease or pest.
In order to minimize the fight against diseases and insect pests, it is worth carrying out preventive spraying. From various pests fit biological insecticide "Fitoverm" or "Aktara". Strong immunity will help to resist diseases, and Zircon, HB-101 and Energen will strengthen it. And with diseases and pests will help cope preventive agent "Green Soap".
However, prevention consists not only in timely spraying of trees, but also in their cleaning:
- remove infected leaves as well as dried and damaged branches,
- remove and burn the remnants of the fruit, fallen leaves and branches,
- treat with garden pitch all the damaged areas of the bark,
- Loosen the soil regularly in a wheel circle.
Every man to his own taste. This statement applies to any side of life, and to the taste of fruits and berries, and even more so.
Most gardeners positively assess the cold and frost resistance of Turgenevka, as well as the opportunity to grow this cherry in central Russia and even in the north-west of Moscow region. However, not all gardeners are satisfied with the yield and taste of the fruit. For example, a gardener from Michurinsk in the Tambov Region notes a large size and good taste of cherries, but is not satisfied with the rare harvest (once every few years). A gardener from Kiev indicates a rich dark color of fruits and a sour taste.
Reviews and recommendations gardeners
Reviews of cherry "turgenevka" vary. Some chose this variety for themselves and are not going to change it, others were unhappy. Of the positive qualities, the majority notes a good berry keeping capacity, frost resistance and yield (albeit irregular) of the plant.
Many are repelled by the need to plant pollinators nearby and the long period before the first fruiting. In addition, the variety is poor in sugars, and therefore - sour. Like any other plant, cherry Turgenev has its advantages and disadvantages. The variety will appeal to those who want to collect good yields mainly for harvesting. If the main thing for you is a quick result and a sweet taste of berries, it is better to give preference to other varieties.
Cherry "Turgenevka": description of the variety
The cherry variety "Turgenevka" appeared in 1979 as a result of several years of work of breeders and within a few years became one of the most popular among summer residents and gardeners. The tree grows up to 3 m tall with a straight raised sprawling crown, branches of medium thickness, straight, the bark of the trunk and branches are brown-gray. Leaves are saturated green, oblong, with the pointed end and the jagged edge. Cherry blossoms in mid-May with inflorescences of four white flowers, and berries ripen in mid-July. The fruits of the Turgenevka cherry have the following description: the berries are large and juicy, the weight of each is 5-6 g, the diameter is about 20 mm. The stone occupies a tenth of the berry and is easily separated. In Turgenevka cherry, the berries ripen almost simultaneously, their taste is sweet and sour with a long aftertaste and pleasant aroma. Cherry fruits contain vitamins B1, B6, C. Also, they contain substances such as iron, magnesium, cobalt, coumarin and anthocyanin.
Eating the fruits of "Turgenevka" helps to reduce blood clotting and strengthen the heart muscle. Eating cherry berries "Turgenev" is a good prevention of anemia. Fruits are tasty when consumed fresh, baked and preserved, suitable for freezing. In addition, the yield of "Turgenevka" is high, and its berries tolerate transportation.
Features of the cultivation of cherry "Turgenevka": the choice of locationCherry "Turgenevka" is not too demanding for planting and further care, but there are some features. Sapling is not recommended to be planted in a lowland location, as well as in a draft. The plant is resistant, but for a good harvest it is better to provide him a sunny plot. The optimum location will be the south-western, western or southern slope, since excessive moisture will not linger in the soil, and the cold air masses bypass the tree.
What soil loves cherry "Turgenevka"The land in which the tree will grow should be of neutral acidity, preferably of sandy sand. When planting varieties of cherries "Turgenevka" should be avoided marshy and over-wetted soil, which will negatively affect the development of the plant and its yield in the end. The depth of the groundwater should not be less than 150 cm from the surface of the earth. When planting seedlings clay soil should be mixed with sand.
In order for the seedling to settle down better, you can make a nutrient mixture and dilute the soil in which the tree will grow. To do this, you need 5 kg of humus, 200 g of wood ash, 100 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potash fertilizer.
Planting "Turgenev" cherry
Planting cherries "Turgenev" produced in the spring before the blooming of the kidneys, for better adaptation to the new location and the active growth of the tree. If desired, seedlings can be planted in the fall, in which case the cherry will be better adapted to the climatic conditions of its growth. For the "Turgenevka" dig a hole to a depth of half a meter and a diameter of 0.5-0.7 m, it is better to dig a hole for 7-20 days before landing, so that the earth has time to settle. If the cherry grows among other trees, the distance to the nearest stem should be at least 2 m.
The seedling is preliminarily held for 3-4 hours in water, so that the roots fill in the moisture, the well is filled with the nutrient mixture described earlier, the seedling is set and the root system is carefully poured with the mixture without root penetration. A cherry seedling is dug around with a surrounding roller, poured a bucket of warm water and mulch the soil around the tree with peat. After that, the seedling is tied to a wooden vertical peg to maintain the plant.
Watering and feeding plants
After planting, the cherry seedling is watered almost every day, as the soil dries, but it is necessary to avoid over-wetting and moisture stagnation. Watering is performed within the surrounding roller, the same hole and fertilized with mineral fertilizer once a year, in the spring. After the cherry begins to bear fruit, fertilizer is applied after harvesting in the summer. Organic fertilizer (poultry or cow dung) is applied every two to three years in two steps: the first time is applied after the cherry has faded, and then a second time during fruiting in the middle of summer. During the ripening of the fruit, cherries require more abundant watering.
After watering, the soil dries out and becomes covered with a dry crust, it must be carefully loosened to a depth of 7-10 cm for oxygen to reach the roots of the tree. Weeds should be removed after the appearance. Also be cut the root cherry growth, which will weaken the tree, taking him juice.
How to form the crown of Turgenev cherry
For good plant development and high-quality fruiting, pruning is necessary to form a crown of cherries and cutting dry branches. Pruning can be done on a wintered tree in early spring. In place of the cut should be applied garden var for the speedy healing of the tree. Pruning before fruiting begins, forms the crown of the cherry, and after the appearance of the first fruits, performs sanitary functions. It is recommended to cut the branches on which shoots grow longer than half a meter, as well as branches that grow at a height of less than 0.4 m from ground level. After the first winter of a sapling, it is pruned to five basic strong branches directed in different directions from the trunk. Subsequently, the crown of the cherries is shaped, avoiding the thickening of the branches, and also remove the branches growing high. Diseased and dry branches should be cut off as they are detected. Shortening one-year shoots is required for the growth of side branches. Fruiting cherry rejuvenate, cutting off the side branches, thereby stimulating the growth of young shoots. If necessary, pruning is carried out in the fall until frost, remove diseased and dry shoots and thin out the branches of the crown.
Cherry "Turgenevka": harvestingAfter 4-5 years after the seedling was planted, the first fruits appear, which ripen almost simultaneously, in the middle of summer. Ripe berries fall off. Harvesting is preferably carried out in the morning on a dry day. For better preservation, the cherry is removed from the tree with a stem. Crop in plastic boxes or wicker baskets is stored for up to two weeks at a temperature of -1. +1 ° C and high humidity. For long storage of fruits they are packaged in a plastic bag and placed in a freezer.
Approximate parameters of optimal seedlings for planting: 1–1.2 m in height, with a stem diameter of about 1–1.5 cm. The root system should be well developed and measure up to 30 cm. When buying, it is important to carefully inspect the plant so that it does not there were wounds, cuts on the trunk and branches. The best age of a sapling is one to two years. Older trees will take root worse and slower.
When buying seedlings carefully inspect them - dry and rotten tissue is unacceptable
The marking of the plot for planting Turgenevka cherries is made according to the 3 X 3 m scheme. It is considered optimal for good yield. Before planting, dig pits of 85 x 45 x 45 cm in size. Fertilizers are poured there: 200 g of superphosphate, 400 g of wood ash, 50 g of potassium mixture are added to the humus bucket.
If the soil is acidic, you can add 200 g of lime.
It is especially important to adhere to all rules of care in the first year after planting the seedling. Since the root system develops first of all, it needs to create all the conditions - the stem should be wide for the moisture to reach the most distant roots. The formation of a crust or overdrying of the soil is not allowed. It needs to be loosened and mulched regularly.
Many experts advise to sow siderats in between rows - peas, alfalfa, beans, which saturate the soil with nitrogen.
Fertilizers are applied depending on the results of growth in the first year. If the increase for the season is less than 60 cm, a bucket of humus is added in the fall with the addition of 100 g of superphosphate. The following binding dressing is done in the spring, when the flowering begins. Mixture: nitrate, double superphosphate and potassium salt in the proportion of 20: 10: 5 g. The next fertilizing with humus will be needed no earlier than 3 years.
3-4 years later, when the cherry gains strength and the crown becomes wide, the soil in the basal circle is soddened.
The main purpose of watering is to provide moisture to the roots of a tree that are at a depth of 40–45 cm. There should not be too much water, otherwise the soil will begin to acid. The first time watering is carried out immediately after flowering, adding fertilizer. The second is when the berries ripen so that they get enough moisture. The optimum amount of water per watering is 3–6 buckets (depending on air humidity, weather).
With the onset of spring after the first wintering, seedlings will need pruning. It begins with the shortening of the main conductor by 20 cm. With any pruning in the future, it is necessary to monitor the “purity” of the trunk — at a distance of 45–50 cm from the soil, all shoots are removed. Выше этого нужно выбрать 5–6 хорошо развитых побегов, направленных в разные стороны, и их оставить. Это скелетные ветви кроны.
С первого года жизни у деревца формируют крону
На второй год жизни первую обрезку проводят весной, удаляя ветки, растущие внутрь, и укорачивая остальные. In the autumn, you can once again prune a tree for the winter, but experienced gardeners do not recommend this, so that before the onset of cold weather does not inflict wounds on the tree. Sanitary pruning is carried out at any time of the year, removing all weakened by the disease, dry or damaged branches.
Sick and dry branches are removed at any time of the year.
For any pruning, they make neat, even cuts and necessarily cover the wounds with garden pitch so that the processes of decay and hollow formation do not begin later. Bottom seedling is also subject to removal, which takes part of the feed from the seedling, preventing it from developing normally.
Preparing the tree for wintering
The trunk in the autumn is whitened, capturing the main skeletal branches. In order to destroy possible pests and prevent them from wintering in the bark, copper sulfate is added to the lime solution. With the advent of snow, the tree trunk is “covered” with a snowdrift, and sprinkled with usual sawdust on top. For young trees, it will not be out of place to have an additional shelter made of pine twigs - they tied a tree right after the whitewash.
In front of the cold, the cherry stem is whitened, capturing the skeletal branches
After the leaf fall, all the plant residues are removed, they dig up the near-trunk circles of the cherry tree, adding fertilizer to a depth of 10–20 cm. If the weather is dry, carry out water recharge irrigation. The near-trunk plots are mulched with peat.