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Violet garden perennial: planting and care, description, photo

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If you look at the flower of a horned violet from the side of the peduncle, you can clearly see a sharp, prominent spur, resembling a horn. It is thanks to this feature that the plant got its name, in Latin, sounding like Viola cornuta.

Horned violet: features of the species

In the wild, the elegant curtains of this flower can be found on the Iberian Peninsula. As soon as the spring awakening of the vegetation begins, it is easy to notice this medium-sized, only 8–25 cm tall, on the edges of the forest, in leafy groves and among the underbrush.

Gardeners note that the bloom of horned violet begins when snow has not yet managed to melt in shady corners, indicating that the species belongs to a large group of ornamental perennials grown in Russian gardens. The peak of flowering occurs in the first half of summer, then the emergence of new buds subsides somewhat, but does not stop. The last flowers of the horned violet fade only with the onset of frosts by mid-autumn.

Wild plants of this species open the rims of white, blue, purple and violet tones. With long-term cultivation in one place, the violet forms dense sods of woven creeping stems.

Distinguish perennial horned violet can be on rich green leaves ovoid with a pointed tip.

In wild plants, flowers with simple petals are not very large. Their rims do not exceed 2–4 cm in diameter, but due to the interest in the species of breeders, today flower growers have many large-flowered varieties and hybrids of various colors.

How to grow perennial horned violet?

The plant feels great in the middle lane, and in one place it can grow up to 5 years, creating bright decorative spots in the garden, decorating the site throughout the warm period. Therefore, to grow perennial horned violet, a gardener who is interested in this crop will not have to create any special conditions.

Choosing a place suitable for planting violets, it is best to pay attention to the well-lit corners, but hidden from the direct rays of the sun. If you plant horned violet on the scorching heat, the growth slows down, the plant often suffers from dry soil. In a dense shade the violet is drawn out, the flowers are shallow, but the foliage grows very actively.

Horned violets perfectly acclimatize in the shade of other plants, for example, under ornamental shrubs and tree crowns. In this case, in the spring nothing prevents the flowers from developing, and in the summer the violets are covered from the hot sun.

Tender flowers feel fine next to honeysuckle, barberry. Horned violets grow remarkably and bloom in light, drained soils with an acidity level of pH 6.8–7.2 units. Since the plant is very unpretentious, small flooding in the springtime is not a problem for it, but drying up the soil and long periods of drought can adversely affect the health of the violet.

Caring for violet at home and in the garden

The main care for the violet during the growing season consists of regular watering, removal of weed vegetation and fertilizing the formed curtains.

The drier and hotter the summer, the more water the plants should receive, and in a drought the violets can be sprayed in the early morning and after sunset. Such a measure will help refresh the landing, but will not cause sunburn.

During the active flowering of horned violet weekly feeding is required. Fertilization alternate with irrigation or fertilizer mixed with irrigation moisture. Organic violets are regularly fed in the spring, then in the middle of summer. In the second half of August, the application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers is limited.

To reduce the number of weeds and reduce the evaporation of moisture, the areas around the curtains and on the hills, where they often grow perennial horned violets, fall asleep with expanded clay, wood chips or gravel, spread with moss or plant with stonecrop.

In the care of violets at home and in the garden, they must include pruning of faded peduncles, cleaning up old foliage, other measures to maintain the appearance of plantings and stimulate lush flowering. So, for example, experienced flower growers advise young violets to sit on existing plants every three years. In this case, there is an inconspicuous gradual change of generations, and the curtain constantly remains smooth and richly blooming.

Do not forget that in favorable conditions, horned violets can produce seeds that are sown independently of the fruit-boxes. The seeds sprout in the spring, and the next year the young violets are ready to bloom.

Newly planted plants in the first winter can be covered with needles or other type of mulch, and adult violets in the middle lane hibert well and without loss outside the shelters.

Violet breeding at home and in the garden

For reproduction of horned violets, sowing of seeds or division of an already existing adult bush is most often used.

Seeds are buried in a seedling box with a light soil mixture in spring, in April, or in autumn, in October. You can wait for seedlings in 4-5 weeks. With the appearance of a pair of true leaves, violets dive and sit in separate pots. For growing perennial horned violets on a balcony or a flowerpot, young plants are planted in prepared containers with a drainage layer and loose nutrient soil.

The violets that have developed at home are transferred to the garden at the end of the summer, so that before the onset of cold weather the plants have time to acclimatize. Strong sockets begin to bloom already in the first year, and the mass appearance of buds should be expected after wintering.

In addition to propagation by seed, the bush division is often used, and rooting of green cuttings and parts of the stem are also used to produce new plants. You can get cuttings during the entire growing season, with early grafting and rooting contribute to the rapid entry of violets in the flowering season. Unpretentious horned violets easily, after 2-3 weeks, form the roots and form new plants, which accelerates reproduction and allows you to quickly get healthy flowering specimens.

From 20 to 30 plants are planted to obtain a dense beautiful violet meadow per square meter, depending on the variety.

Horned violet in the design of the garden and balcony

Quite small flowers of horned violet look spectacular only when mass flowering. Therefore, a small decorative culture is used in group plantings, where one or several varieties of violets are used. Plants look great against the background of rose bushes, next to low coniferous crops and other plants in the garden.

Horned violets in the garden are planted as curbs and on hills. Do not forget that at home the violet grows beautifully in flowerpots and balcony boxes. Only in this case will have to pay more attention to fertilizing, watering and caring for plants, otherwise the violets will quickly lose their decorative effect and stop blooming.

Place in the landscape

The early flower is most beautiful in spring and summer; designers and landscapers of urban panoramas use this. These perennials are grown by winter forcing, and planted in flowerbeds, curbs, on the slopes.

Violets shade pristvolnye space of trees and shrubs: coniferous, fruit, decorative.

Tip! Bright undersized pansies "do not throw" in the far corner of the garden. Plant on an open sunny area, from which snow comes off early. When you leave the house, your eyes immediately fall on a colorful meadow of flowers.

Feel free to plant viola near ponds and small ponds. A scented variety placed along the perimeter of the gazebo, terraces and paths will delight the sense of smell.

Flower beds made up of violets alone are no less spectacular than group plantings from different plants.

Gardeners use these flowers for alpine gardening and rabat gardening, in the front garden. It is better to put them in the foreground, because of small growth.

Needless to say that garden perennial violet is easy to cultivate in a container and hanging pot, as well as on the balcony.

Viola has a special attraction in the Japanese stony gardens or in the midst of boulders and artificial stones in a small area. It looks so harmonious and natural, because many varieties grow in the mountains, in the cracks of rocks.

Choosing a place for violets and soil composition

Determining the site for planting perennial pansies, stop the selection on slightly acidic or neutral soil. They will also appreciate the fertile soil on an elevated site. Drainage in the form of sand or gravel is obligatory - let excess water seep into it.

Violas are also demanding for illumination: they love the sun and diffused lighting. The shade of taller "neighbors" will be appropriate.

Top tip! It is dangerous to plant violets on low, constantly wet beds. They do not tolerate stagnant water and may die. After the snow melts, such a plot dries out for a long time, and spring ice frosts on the ground kill the landings.

We sow in an open ground

Viola seed material remains viable for 2 years. Then this ability is lost. Directly in the open ground seeds of violets can be planted during the summer or in the winter.

The place is chosen as described above. Then the prepared material is planted in the recesses of 1-2 cm. The distance is selected 5-10 centimeters, then they can be seated. Next year you will receive flowering of rather large baskets.

Important! Pansies often freeze in the winter. At this period, you need to cover the immature planting spruce leaves, dry leaves or garden grass.

Seedling method

A great way to get new varieties. Seeds are purchased in a specialized store, they are presented the broadest choice. These are both simple and terry hybrid varieties.

Sowing is done in March in containers with a special soil for violets, or with another flower.

  • In the prepared boxes with the ground, lay the seeds, deepening 0.5-1 centimeter, sprinkle,
  • Water the planting and cover with the top of the film, glass,
  • Rassadny container put on a bright window sill and periodically ventilate, spray out of the spray,
  • Shoots will appear in a week or 10 days,
  • Then remove the film and leave to grow in warm conditions,
  • We wait until the seedlings grow up, the number of leaves should be at least 4 - then they can be planted in permanent places.

Planting of seedlings is carried out at a distance of 20-30 centimeters, as soon as the threat of frost in May is over.

Watering and feeding

As already mentioned, the viola reacts negatively to waterlogging. Watering should be moderate in dry weather, a good measure will be spraying.

For a rich flowering planting periodically fed, 2-3 times during the growing season - the best option. Get any mineral composition for plants, process them your favorite flowers.

When the heat comes, the stalks of violets stretch upward, towering above the bush. If this is not to their liking, you can cut the outstanding flower stalks, giving the bush a compactness. Cut plants grow very quickly. To prolong flowering, remove dry baskets.

Diseases of violets

This flower is subject to various diseases. The main reasons are overmoistening of the soil, violation of lighting and overfeeding with fertilizers.

Violet can be affected by fungus, powdery mildew, leaf spot, black spots. Chemical treatment helps from many diseases. If the infection is already severe, then the bush should be dug out and destroyed.

If the stalk is thinned and darkened - it is a black leg. It occurs when crops are thickened or moisture is increased. At stagnation of water the slugs attack the plant.

Tip! Thin thick plantings in time to avoid the appearance of fungal infections and pests.

In summer, pansies will be an excellent target for clover and violet pearl. Spray the plant with tobacco extract or insecticide, it will save him from insect parasites.

Varieties of perennial violets

The following varieties and hybrids derived from them are most common and loved by gardeners.

The leaves grow in a bunch on stems 10-18 centimeters high. Viola odorata is a fragrant plant, flowers (coverage up to 30 mm.) Can have a simple and terry structure. Color usually blue, purple or lilac. In the evening the scent is enhanced. It reproduces by cuttings, has a creeping stalk and is well rooted.

Name received for a characteristic outgrowth behind inflorescence. Viola cornuta grows to a height of 22 centimeters, while flowers have a coverage of up to 4 centimeters and much more.

On the basis of this species, many differently colored hybrids have been derived. These varieties are more often cultivated as two-year-olds - seeds are sown in summer or autumn right into the ground, lush bloom is observed the next year.

White violet

This type of perennial viola has large snow-white inflorescences covering up to 10 centimeters. The middle has a yellow, bluish and lilac color.

There are several varieties that have a light flower (for example, the white queen, and the hood). The monochrome white garden viola looks great in group plantings and singly.

General description of the species

In a botanical environment, horned Viola is called Viola cornuta. This is a perennial flower, characterized by branching stems that form the pillows. In the wild, viola grows in the highlands of Spain and France. The height of the bushes depends on the variety and varies from 10 to 30 cm. The leaves have a dark green color and pointed tips. The average length is about 4 cm. The diameter of the flowers varies from 2 to 6 cm. In the center they have a peephole of orange or yellow color. On one bush can simultaneously bloom up to 60−70 tasty-smelling flowers.

Attractive spots-paths with pretty violets will perfectly fit into flowerbeds, mixed flower beds, stony hills, lawns, curbs and “liven up” empty meadows around trees. They are modest and uncaptitious, but unusually cute and full of inner dignity. Carried away by these crumbs, you noticeably ennoble the aura of your garden and home.

Fragrant violet is a herbaceous perennial plant that is found in deciduous forests. The flower prefers mountain slopes and glades, but it is also grown in garden plots.

Violet attracts with its small purple flowers and pleasant aroma. The plant blooms in April and again at the end of the summer.

Violet has a powerful rhizome, giving a lot of shoots, and a stem 15 cm long. The leaves are simple, rounded, located at the root of the rosette. Flowers solitary, with 5 petals, lower wider.

Cultural forms of fragrant violets:

  • Bechtles Ideal - a plant with large blue flowers,
  • Coeur d’Alsace - decorative form with pink inflorescences,
  • Queen Charlotte - a hybrid with large lilac flowers,
  • Red Charm - perennial with lilac inflorescences and burgundy core, suitable for growing at home,
  • Foxbrook Cream is a white violet with a yellowish core.

After flowering, the plant forms a spherical seed box. In nature, violet propagated by seed. On the garden plot multiply it by dividing the rhizome.

For planting, select open sun or partially shaded areas. Provide the plant with good light in the morning and in the afternoon - to be in partial shade.

Violet prefers fertile, loose soils. Plant the plants along the edges of the flowerbed or under the trees. At home, put them in containers, put on a balcony or loggia.

Seed seeds spring in open ground. In cold climates, first get seedlings at home and transplant it in May to a garden bed.

Growing violet includes a certain care:

  • Watering. To maintain soil moisture, water the plant regularly. In a drought, increase the intensity of irrigation.
  • Feeding. Before the beginning of flowering, feed the perennial with a complex flower fertilizer.
  • Protection against pests. In a drought, the flower is attacked by a spider mite. As a result, the leaves of the plant turn pale and dry. To control the pest, spray the underside of the leaves daily.

After 3-4 years, replace the flowers in the flowerbed. Remove old plants and plant new ones. In the soil make compost and fertilizer for the flower bed. If you do not update the planting, the bushes grow, oppress each other and stop blooming.

Fragrant violet is a ground cover plant that can complement landscape design. The plant blooms profusely with constant watering and dressing.

The perennial horned violet is an unpretentious flower, but still it is necessary to know the peculiarities of its care in order to successfully grow it in the garden. This plant can also be used to create original landscape design compositions. With its attractive colors, it is in harmony with other blooming cultures.

Brief description of the form

Distinguishing perennial violet (lat. Viola cornuta) is simple because plants of this species have specific leaves. Their color is deep green, and their shape is ovoid with a pointed tip. Дикорастущие экземпляры раскрывают соцветия в характерной цветовой гамме – можно встретить фиолетовые, белоснежные, голубоватые и сиреневые оттенки. Лепестки всегда простые и некрупного размера, диаметр венчиков не превышает 2-4 см.The number of flowers on each bush reaches up to 60 pieces, so that the violet looks spectacular.

Plant height may vary - it all depends on the variety. There are 8-centimeter and 25-centimeter specimens, which first grow into small bushes, and over time turn into real flowering meadows. The decorative beauty of the plant was discovered in 1776, and since then it has become a permanent resident of many gardens and parks.

This type of violet was called “horned” for good reason - all thanks to a process located behind the flower itself, which is very similar in shape to a miniature horn.

In our time, from the wild garden perennial violet received many hybrids, among which you can find large-flowered specimens of various color shades. The plant fell in love with flower growers due to its decorative appearance and long flowering. Garden violet begins to bloom after the snow melts, reaches a peak in the middle of the summer season and makes you happy until the very first frosts.

How to grow perennial garden violet

To grow a fragrant violet in your garden, you need to follow some recommendations that relate to the selection of growing places, soil composition and lighting:

  • Optimal landing spot - in a diffused shadow, where there is no direct exposure to sunlight, but a sufficient amount of light. Best of all, if the violet will be slightly shaded by higher plants, branches of trees or bushes, especially in the first time after landing in the ground,
  • Worth avoid shade or shadeBecause the sun's rays are a necessary condition for the abundant flowering of garden violets. In addition, they provide protection from slugs,
  • Ideal soil - slightly acid, light and well drained. It is possible to achieve such a composition in the autumn period by digging up the land for future planting and adding humus to it. You can also add superphosphate, calculating the required amount of fertilizer based on the indicators on the package. In the spring re-digging is carried out, the ground is leveled and large clumps of earth are broken,
  • Violet likes good humiditybut without stagnant water. For the soil to be constantly hydrated, it is necessary to mulch it, introducing gravel, moss, tree bark.

It is possible to grow horned perennial violet from seeds in a vegetative way (through dividing a bush or by cuttings).

Sowing seeds of violet horned (viola)

When to sow seeds

It is possible to sow seeds of a long-term garden violet, both in the fall, and in the spring. However, it is worth considering the fact that the "autumn" germinate 2 times longer. Planting seedlings at a permanent place of growth is carried out after the root system is formed. The distance between the bushes should be about 30 cm. After the ground part of the flower develops, in about a month you can wait for flowering.

Cuttings

The horned violet is also propagated by cutting. Cutting allows you to get several new bushes from one horned violet bush, thereby propagating the variety you like. This breeding method is fairly simple:

  1. Optimal dates - from May to July.
  2. It is recommended to moisten and loosen the chosen landing site, opening air access.
  3. Taken as cuttings green shootsthat grow from above. The number of sheets on each copy should be at least two.
  4. Planting is carried out to a depth of 1.5-2 cm on the prepared bed.
  5. To plant the material quickly rooted in the soil, you can cover the plantations wet cloth or transparent film, thereby creating greenhouse conditions.
  6. When weeds appear, it is recommended to weed a bed, also to monitor soil moisture, if necessary, watering and spraying the plants.

Dividing bush

Propagation of garden scented violet by dividing the bush is optimal if the florist wants to rejuvenate the plant and prevent the degeneration of the variety. Works are carried out in several stages:

  1. Time suitable for dividing - before flowering or after it.
  2. All flowers and their remnants are removed from the plant.
  3. With a sharp scoop or knife, a part of the overgrown bush is cut off (fragments with roots) and transplanted to a new place.
  4. It is optimal if the separated plant grows in well-drained soil, in light shade.
  5. In the spring after the first wintering, the plant is planted in a permanent place.

How to water

Horned violet, though it likes moist soil, but does not like excessive watering, so it should be done without fanaticism. If the weather is hot, it is necessary to focus on the speed of drying of the soil and, as necessary, to shed the beds. However, this does not mean that the plant will not be able to survive a forced drought - it may well wait for your return from vacation or next weekend.

A prolonged drought negatively affects the appearance of horned violet - the growth of bushes slows down, and the flowers become much smaller and lose their original attractiveness. That is why it is still not recommended to experiment with the lack of watering in the heat, but to moisturize the soil well. This garden flower responds very well to spraying - if the temperature is high in summer, it is recommended to pamper the plant with a “shower” 2 times a day, in the morning and evening.

Top dressing - when, how and how much

A good time to add fertilizer to the soil is the active spring growth of the plant in spring and the second half of August. You can use any mineral or organic fertilizer for flowering plants, which are sold in a specialty store. The recommended rate of concentration is weak, so always put in the soil in 2-3 times less top dressing than indicated on the manufacturer's packaging.

The only exception as a fertilizer is fresh manure, which is capable of inflicting garden horned violet instead of good. It aggressively affects the plant root system, burning it and causing the death of the whole flower.

Maintaining a decorative bush look

Compact and well-groomed garden perennial violets over time can lose their appeal, pulling the stems in length and becoming untidy. To restore the beauty of the bushes, growers recommend a "haircut", forming plants of the desired shape and size. At the same time, trim the stems to a height of 8 cm.

Removal of dried and wilted flowers allows the plant not to expend forces on the formation and maturation of seeds, but by directing them to abundant and rich flowering.

Horned violet in landscape design

The perennial violet has been successfully used by flower growers for decoration of rabatok, borders and flower beds. This flower can significantly diversify the flower garden and fill the empty place around the trees and bushes. Quite spectacular group planting of plants, which during the opening of the buds as if "capture" all the free space. The flower looks original against the background of coniferous bushes and trees, and also perfectly coexists with roses.

The horned violet on the alpine hills and flat stone rockeries looks attractive. The contrast of the composition is achieved by the small size of elegant flowers. You can plant a plant near ponds, artificial waterfalls and ponds. Violets of bright colors are often used for this, which significantly “enliven” the landscape.

The perennial horned violet is an unpretentious flower, but still it is necessary to know the peculiarities of its care in order to successfully grow it in the garden. This plant can also be used to create original landscape design compositions. With its attractive colors, it is in harmony with other blooming cultures.

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