From solanaceous crops, eggplants appeared later in the suburban areas. This heat-loving culture requires suitable conditions and grows best in the southern regions. But breeders brought out such varieties and hybrids that eggplant in Siberia feels great, despite the sharp fluctuations in temperature, a short summer. Cultivated culture in the open field and in the greenhouse.
Features of growing eggplants in Siberia
Eggplant requirements for heat is very high. Culture does not grow well even at temperatures of 10-15 degrees above zero. Even in the greenhouse it is necessary to follow the rules for planting seedlings of eggplants. Seedlings should not be weak, without a strong root system. Any damage to the roots or stem of a plant can lead to death.
In addition to suitable conditions: heat, light, humidity - the vegetable needs proper care. If it is difficult to correct the conditions in the open ground, it is easier to make it in the greenhouse.
But without proper care, eggplant will not give full, fully ripened fruit.
To achieve a high yield of vegetables, you need to pay attention to the composition and structure of the soil in the garden, properly distribute the bushes on the site in accordance with the planting scheme of the plant.
But first of all, planting material should be resistant to weather and climatic disasters, diseases.
Eggplant for open ground
In the open field they cultivate hybrids capable of withstanding a decrease in temperature, do not require special care and are capable of abundant fruit.
It is better to choose early ripening types of vegetables:
- Variety with large fruits Bullish heart F1 is valued for its increased resistance to fungal infections. Oval berries reach 400 grams in weight, covered with a smooth glossy skin, with cream-colored pulp. Bushes fruit for a long time in sunny and warm weather.
- Eggplant Diamond has been tested by gardeners, reaching maturity in 109-120 days after germination. Cylinders of fruit reach 100-150 grams with a length of 14-18 centimeters. The description of the variety includes the fact that the fruits are universal for use, they are suitable for preservation, and cooking stews and salads from them.
- You can not ignore the Siberian prince, with each bush which collect up to 10 large fruits. They note the excellent set of fruits of the hybrid, and unpretentiousness in the care. Berries 300 grams in weight are covered with a thin purple skin, with light pulp inside. Harvest in the first decade of August.
- They grow in the open ground of Siberia and eggplants of early-grade eggplant are excellent fruits. Even under adverse weather conditions, the plant gives fruits that have reached technical maturity.
- The early ripe Prince Fairy is valued for the excellent taste of flesh without bitterness, a small amount of seeds, and delicate skin.
- Vegetables of a round form and white color at a hybrid the Easter egg early ripen.
In order for the eggplants to ripen on the plot, it is necessary to choose varieties bred by Siberian breeders.
Eggplant for greenhouses
In order not to risk the future harvest, summer residents such a culture as eggplant is grown in greenhouses and greenhouses. For beds under film coatings, not only early-maturing varieties are suitable, but also with medium ripening periods.
A good choice is a Robin Hood hybrid with high yields, unpretentious care and growing conditions. On bushes with a height of 1 meter can ripen up to 10 fruits weighing 200-300 grams.
Hybrid Maria with bushes of 75 centimeters in height and fruits weighing 200 grams won popularity not without reason. From 1 square meter of a grade collect up to 7 kilograms of smooth, equal fruits of a dark-violet coloring.
The mauve oval-shaped fruit of the Romantic variety, which ripens for 120 days, and with good care and in greenhouse conditions a little earlier. The white pulp of fruits, with excellent taste, universality of use is characteristic of a vegetable.
High-yielding varieties for the greenhouse are represented by a hybrid Siberian early-ripening 148. Bred at the West Siberian Experimental Station, the hybrid has bushes growing to a height of 50 centimeters and yielding fruits of 200 grams in mass. Recommended variety for canning, culinary processing. Fruit harvests are guaranteed in any weather.
The dwarf shrub of the Long Purple Eggplant reaches a height of 40 centimeters. The elongated dark berries have a delicate greenish flesh. The fruits do not taste bitter, so they are tasty in any form.
How to grow eggplants in Siberia
For the cultivation of thermophilic culture create the necessary conditions in the greenhouse and in the open beds. I want to get ripe fruits, then it is necessary to observe the terms and rules of planting vegetables, provide the plants with careful care.
When to sow
Seeds immediately in the ground can not be planted eggplants in Siberia. Only a seedling method is acceptable for compliance with agricultural culture. Given the timing of ripening vegetable plants, you can plant seeds until February 20. Then there will be enough time for the fruits to appear and reach them ripeness.
To accelerate the germination of planting material, you need to soak the seeds in the "Zircon" growth stimulator. Suitable for sowing seeds collected from last year's crop. Intensify the life processes inside them by soaking the material. Putting it on a wet gauze, leave it warm for 2-3 days.
The condition of the soil also affects the health of seedlings. It is better to decontaminate the ground, warm it up, soak it with water.
The age of eggplant seedlings before planting should be within 70 days when growing vegetables in a greenhouse. Therefore, in this case, you can start preparing seedlings from the second half of March.
Sowing on seedlings
Eggplant seeds are placed in individual pots with nutritious soil enriched with micro and macro elements. Spreading the seeds on the surface, sprinkle them with the soil slightly moistened. Layer should not exceed 1 centimeter. Then lightly tamp the soil and cover the pots with plastic wrap.
Seeds germinate best at temperatures of 25 degrees and above. Vegetable sprouts will appear only after 2 weeks.
Only sprouting will start, you need to start lowering the temperature by 4-5 degrees, and put the containers on well-lit window sills.
"Diamond" - the old high-yielding variety
This variety is practically classical, it is zoned very widely, including Siberia. The bush grows very compactly, which facilitates the care of it, the leaves have a green color.
The variety is medium ripening: from germination to ripening - 115 -150 days. The height of the shoots can reach 60 centimeters.
The yield of this variety with the right care can vary very high rates. From one bush can be collected yield 4–6 kg, and with good care - and more than 6 kg.
The fruits are characterized by a cylindrical shape. At the same time, the length of one fruit can reach 14 -18 cm. They have a dark purple color, shiny.
Mass figures are certainly not a record, but they are 100–200 g. The flesh is dense, greenish in color, without bitterness, pleasant, delicate in taste.
The fruits are characterized by compact, amicable ripening in the lower part of the plant. The height of the bush allows you to grow this variety in containers
Plant does not tolerate low temperatures, and especially sharp drops. Therefore, experienced gardeners advise to plant this variety in greenhouse conditions.
It is advisable to sow the seeds in the first half of March. Seeds need to be embedded in the soil no deeper than 1.5 cm. While maintaining the temperature from +22 to + 28 degrees, germination occurs at 8-10 days. Seedlings should be planted only after a good warm ground. The most effective sowing scheme is 70x40 cm.
It is recommended to grow this type of plant either in greenhouses or under a film cover. Do not forget about the moisture-loving nature of this plant.
With a lack of moisture, the death of the plant is inevitable. To increase the yield, you should use special dressings and additives.
Early hybrid form "Epic" - decoration beds
Eggplant variety "Epic" is an early ripe hybrid. After transplantation into open ground, 65 -70 days pass before the fruit ripens.
The plant is very tall (95-100 cm), upright, powerful. The tobacco mosaic virus, quite common in this culture, is not familiar to Epicu. Distinguished by this variety of excellent ability to tie fruit.
The early ripening of the fruits of the “Epic” variety, resistance to diseases, promise that even 1m2 of your plot can make you happy with a crop of up to 8 kilograms.
A compact plant at the time of ripening becomes just hung with large (10x22 cm) dark purple fruits, drop-shaped. The pulp is dense, homogeneous, without bitterness, with harmonious taste technological qualities. Average fruit weight 300-400 g
The variety of eggplant "Epic" can be considered in the medium of vegetables "commercial leader." And all thanks to the early maturation, high yields, excellent fruit quality, and disease resistance.
Vegetable growers recommend this variety for cultivation not only in greenhouses, but also in open ground, and the variety is zoned almost everywhere.
The disadvantages of this variety eggplant is clearly difficult to separate. The main thing is to regularly monitor the irrigation system. Do not overfill, so that root rot does not occur, however, the soil can not be overdried in any case.
This variety eggplant fruits well on fertilized, light soils. It is desirable to place after onions, cucumbers, early grains. Legumes.
It is necessary to grow seedlings. Planting of seedlings is possible after warming the soil to a depth of 10 - 12 cm to +15 ° C. The density of planting seedlings of eggplant When planting in the ground on 1 ha - 16000 - 20000 plants. Landing scheme: 80 - 100x45 - 60.
It is desirable to grow seedlings without picking, because it can significantly delay the time of ripening of fruits (after all, when picking, plants also tolerate adaptation). And also, after planting seedlings in open ground, or under temporary shelter, it must be regularly tied to a vertical support.
"Dwarf Early 921" - all about the variety and its benefits
This variety belongs to the early ripening, multi-fruited. The period from germination to maturity is 90 - 110 days.
Low bush - 30-45 centimeters, produces from three to five branches. Stems purple, leaves are dark green, often have purple veins. Low fruit mount on the stems.
This variety is popular in Siberia for its multiplicity. The yield for film greenhouses is from 3.6 to 5.7 kg per square meter, for open ground it is from 14 to 22 tons per gram.
The fruits are characterized by a round or round-pear shape. In the period of technical ripeness they acquire a dark purple color; by the period of biological ripeness, the fruits become brownish-brown.
Fruit weight can reach 200 - 300 grams.
Good taste is one, but a very valuable argument for buying this variety of eggplant.
The cons of growing this early variety of eggplant have not been established.
Planting this type of eggplant depends entirely on the time of planting eggplant seedlings in the ground. Under greenhouse growing conditions (if possible, even heated), the seedlings can be planted already starting from the end of April. But, it makes no sense to plant seedlings earlier than the end of May, unless you plan to grow eggplants in greenhouses or under cover.
The plant does not need special care. Should only regularly loosen the ground, mulch as well as remove weeds. It is advisable to remove the yellowing lower leaves and side empty shoots of stepsons, thus the plant will be more open towards the sun.
Leaves should be inspected periodically for spider mites. If such parasites are found, fitoderm can be used to fight. The collection of fruits should be carried out before the beginning of the skin, it should not be hardened.
Eggplant, which will first appear on your table - “Early 148”
Old widely known variety. This early maturing variety can be used for both open and closed ground.
The bush belongs to the category of stunted (20-55 cm), standard, compact. Technical ripeness is observed after 110 days, biological - 148 days.
This variety is not distinguished by arrogant multiplicity, but at the same time gives a good result: For film greenhouses - 2.5-5.0 kg / m2, for open ground - 12.0-18.0 t / ha.
Hanging fruits, weighing up to 100-200 grams. They are characterized by a pear-shaped or shortened pear-shaped form, while the length of one fruit can vary from 5 to 8 cm, with a diameter of 5-6 cm.
By the period of technical ripeness, the fruits get a dark purple color, and in the period of biological - yellow-brown. The fruits of the "ripening" eggplant have dense flesh, without bitterness, light green color.
Simplicity This variety guarantees harvest in less warm conditions of Siberia. It is often recommended for canning and culinary processing. Fruits eggplant early before frosts.
Cons of growing this variety eggplant has not been established
Sowing seeds for growing seedlings is recommended in late February, early March. The furrow depth should not exceed 1.5 cm.
Seeds will begin to germinate for 8-10 days, provided that the optimum temperature is maintained + 22-26 degrees. A pick should preferably be replaced by transshipment whenever possible, and this procedure should be carried out with the appearance of the second true leaf.
Greenhouses can be planted after 60-70 days, but planting in open ground can only be done after the frost threat has completely passed, that is, in the second half of June. Planting density should be moderate, from about 12,000 to 18,000 plants per hectare.
The entire care of the plant is to maintain a stable temperature, regular watering, fertilizing, loosening. To accelerate the process of germination, recovery of the plant, as well as to increase fruit stitchiness, using special growth stimulants.
About a month after flowering, the fruits ripen and are ready to be harvested. Cut them from the stems must be either shears or a knife to avoid injury to the plant.
Eggplant "Black Handsome" - for what you love him exactly?
The variety is mid-season, fast-growing. From shoots to technical ripeness passes from 110 to 145 days. Suitable for growing in greenhouses, and in open ground, and under the film shelters.
The plant is characterized by short interlozii. The height can reach 50-70 cm.
This variety with good care is characterized by high yield. From an area of 1 m2, it is usually possible to collect about 5 kilograms of eggplant (under growing conditions in film greenhouses), and up to 20 tons per hectare, when grown in open ground.
Fruits have a dark purple or dark crimson color, and the skin has a beautiful glossy sheen. The form of them is characteristic pear-shaped. Can reach in weight 200 g. The flesh does not have bitterness, dense.
Popularity among gardeners of this variety is ensured by stable and friendly fruit bearing. Fruits tolerate transportation and long-term storage.
This variety can be safely recommended for all types of culinary processing.
Grade eggplant Black handsome in the northern and more central regions of Russia, it is desirable to grow in greenhouses - under temporary film shelters, in hotbeds, greenhouses.
Sow seedlings on seedlings should not be earlier than the first half of February. By the method of transshipment (as far as possible, not by picking), transplant into a vessel of large forms, at the stage of growth of two true leaves.
It is recommended to land in the ground only after the frosts cease, in May - June. The landing pattern may look something like this: 40 * 60cm.
The landing site should be as sunny as possible, the ground is saturated with organic matter. Landing after the nightshade is not recommended. The best predecessors can be considered: beans, carrots, onions.
The main basics of care for this variety of eggplant can be minimized: regular weeding, feeding, loosening. Shaping the bush is important to increase yields.: before the first fork, remove leaves and side shoots.
At about the end of July, leave only 5-6 of the largest ovaries on the plant, remove other ovaries and flowers.
"The Nutcracker" - the best eggplant with a fabulous name
The Nutcracker - Medium Early high-yielding hybrid. From the moment of transplanting to full maturity, 45 days is enough. Sprawling bushes, reach a height of 80 centimeters. The leaves have a dark green color. The variety is considered unpretentious.
The average yield per bush is 3–5 kg, but if the care is arrogantly good, then more than 6 kg can be collected.
The fruits of this variety eggplant have a dark purple color, with a glossy peel, oval. The length of the fruit is 12-14 cm. The mass of the fruit is on average from 250 to 600 g. The flesh does not have bitterness, it is white.
The main advantage of this variety is considered to be regular, even in the upper part of the plant, protoobrazovanie. Due to this, the harvest is collected in several stages. Fruits tolerate transportation, do not become loose. Subject to long-term preservation.
Основным недостатком данного сорта является рекомендация выращивания под пленочными укрытиями, либо в тепличных условиях.
Процесс выращивания сорта «Щелкунчик» - рассадный. В начале марта можно осуществить посев семян. Оптимальной температурой для проращивания семян, а в дальнейшем и выращивания рассады можно считать 25 градусов.
Почва для рассады должна быть рыхлой и легкой, должна хорошо удерживать влагу. Starting from mid-June, seedlings can be planted in greenhouse conditions, or in the ground. Landing scheme - 40 to 30 cm.
Stimulate more intensive growth can be hilling. And also it is desirable to periodically plant feed with various mineral fertilizers. The first time - you can feed a week after the planting of seedlings, and the second - in a month.
Growing eggplants in the Urals and Siberia
We have put together practically all the important information for gardeners - the best varieties of eggplants for Siberia, especially the cultivation of seedlings and fruit-bearing plants, the rules for caring for them and preserving the harvest. Everything is set out available and easy to use. Such advice can be used by every Siberian who dreams of growing such a heat-loving and healthy vegetable on his plot.
Too delaying the planting of seedlings in the greenhouse is not worth it, since from planting in the ground before the start of fruiting in the most early ripening varieties, it takes 45 days or more. Usually eggplants are planted in the greenhouse in late May or early June. The earth there should have time to warm up to this time to 20 °.
Two varieties - Violet miracle and Robin Hood, I sowed on February 18. Seeds together rose in pots (although they are advised to sow them immediately in separate cups). Then I dribbled them in plastic boxes with a sliding bottom. The Nutcracker sowed March 7 at the same time as the tomatoes. All eggplants planted in the greenhouse on May 13. Additionally put arc and covered with agrylo.
Yes, it is very important: it is necessary to look through the leaves on the subject of the spider mite and be sure to have fitoverm on hand to fight it.
I cook the ridges for eggplants in the fall - I bring in compost, ashes. I plant in the wells, well spilled with water with the addition of a pinch of fertilizer Kemira-station wagon or nitroammofoski.
There is no reason to linger with the sowing either, because the plant has a long growing season. I sow on seedlings from March 1 to 10, and plant in late May.
- sredneranny grade, fruits slightly pear-shaped, color from violet to black, white flesh, without bitterness, excellent taste.
. Early ripe grade for an open ground and film shelters. Fruits are dark purple, pear-shaped, weighing up to 250 g. The variety is resistant to many diseases. Well tied up even under adverse climatic conditions.
The best varieties of eggplant for cultivation in Siberia include the following practices: “Donetsk 14”, “King of the F1 market”, “Peking”, “Universal”, “Purple dwarf”, “Black beauty”, “Epic”. Choose the best, depending on the possibilities of cultivation, taste and desired yield.
The main thing when growing eggplants for Siberia is the choice of variety. If you do not take into account the winter heated greenhouses, where everything can ripen, grow in this climatic zone is only early-season or mid-season varieties:
Site selection and land preparation
The first week did not open at all, on the second week, if the weather allowed, I took off agril. I must say that in our polycarbonate greenhouse in both doors you can open the top and bottom separately - this is very convenient. In May, I aired the greenhouse only from above, and only when it was hot did I open the doors completely. Since spring I have fertilized the earth with a smoke, and during the summer I no longer fed anything.
From the care - only loosening and removing weeds. Hilling eggplant do not like. Mulch quite a bit of dried grass. Noticed that a large layer of mulch eggplant can not tolerate.
It should be planted carefully, with a lump of soil mixture on the roots, trying not to damage the root system. For this, on the eve of the landing, I spill seedlings well. Per 1 m2 planted no more than 2-3 plants. To get a good harvest, eggplants need a lot of light: they should not have a shadow on them during daylight hours. The slightest shading of neighboring plants, neighboring shrubs, trees leads to a decrease in yield.
Since we have a short summer, I make my choice in favor of early or middle-early varieties. Constant varieties I have identified for myself - this is the early Violet miracle, Epic, the King of the Market. I can still recommend
Land preparation for planting seeds and seedlings
I tried to grow different varieties of eggplant at my dacha. I live in Siberia in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Sadila Matrosik, Fat Barin, Bagheera. But the best result was obtained when growing the CALEC GALINA F variety. Seeds sowed in February, shoots dosachivaet fluorescent lamp. When the first true leaf appeared, the seedlings were transplanted into a separate container. Half a liter special cups in which the lower part and a clod of earth are pulled out together with the roots of the plant without damaging the soot right into the hole .. Seedlings were tempered on the balcony and planted in open ground in early June. In the hole when planting add a tablespoon of superphosphate and a tea boat of potassium sulfate. eggplants love a sunny place. For 15 bushes she removed three buckets of eggplant for the season.
Seedlings usually grow in 14 days. You can not allow digging in the pot to see if the sprout has propped up. This will damage the seed or the sprung seedling. Stable watering is important.
"- a variety of mid-season type, from sowing to maturity 110-150 days pass. Plant height 0.5 meters, fruits prefer the lower part of the plant. Their shape is cylindrical, 14-18 cm long, weighing up to 170 g, the color is purple and dark shade. Pulp with a green tint, no bitterness. In Siberia, is available for cultivation on the technology of open ground.
Which eggplant varieties are best suited for growing in Siberia?
© Author: Olga AlexandrovnaAfter the formation of 5-6 ovaries, depending on the state of the plant, pinch the points of growth of the shoots, and remove the newly emerging flowers. In hot summer you can leave up to 7-8 ovaries. If you do not ration the number of fruits, they will be small and underdeveloped.Eggplant - a short day plantThe Nutcracker, Bibo, Clorinda, Matrosik, Helios, MariaWhen the ovaries and buds appear on the bushes, pests stretch to the bush (bugs, twenty-eight-point bug and others), it is necessary to process the bushesBalticEggplant varieties for growing in
Before planting on the street or in a greenhouse shelter, the seedlings are tempered for two weeks.
"- an early ripe hybrid, a tall plant - from 90 cm, fruit formations have the form of a cylinder up to 25 cm in length. Pulp with a green tint without bitterness. Equally survives in the open field or greenhouse. The variety is immune to mosaic virus. From a square of the area collect on 10 kg and more.«Successful cultivation of eggplants is possible only with good seedlings. Plants should be strong, slightly higher than 20 cm in height, with 7-10 leaves, a good root system. Before transplanting to a greenhouse, seedlings need to be watered well. On 1 square. a meter place no more than 2 plants. If the seedlings are in peat pots, their bottom and side walls must be torn so that the roots can freely grow into the soil. Eggplants do not like burial, therefore the hole should be such that the pot with seedlings is no more than 1 cm below the ground. The hole is watered, the plant is placed in it and covered with earth.© Lilia Pershikova, Irkutsk. Photo by the author
In general, not to say that this vegetable is very picky, but it requires care (as well as everything else).It takes no more than 14 hours of light. If you reduce the length of the day for him to 10-12 hours (with a high intensity of illumination), you can speed up the onset of fruiting and slightly increase the yield. To this end, I open them at 8-9 o'clock in the morning, and after 19 I “dress” again with shelter. A double layer of lutrasil does not, of course, create a complete shadow, but there will still be shading.
- medium early variety, cylindrical fruit, color from purple to black, white flesh, without bitterness.Conditions of the Siberian climate,The soil of open ground or greenhouses is specially prepared. Add clean sand, sawdust, wood ash and purchased land. This is done in order to bring it closer to the composition in which the seedlings grew in pots. To reduce root stress from abrupt changes in growing conditions. Also, the soil is enriched, depending on its type, with various additives, dug up. You can mumble abundantly.
Eggplant CareRequirements for growing eggplants
The Nutcracker and Robin HoodAs soon as 8-9 leaves grow, the first bud will appear, and the stepson will start growing from under it - the future second stem. The first bud and this stepchild are best removed. Side shoots in the axils of the first 9 leaves must also be removed.
Eggplant seeds I soak in stimulants (otherwise they germinate for a long time) - epine or in aloe juice. Some gardeners germinate seeds in wet wipes or cotton pads at a temperature of 20-25 °, sow those who hatch in containers, and after 20-25 days they swoop in pots..
DiamondCurrently, quite a few. Below will be givenTo grow eggplants in Siberia, it is important to know how to properly build work with seedlings and adult plants. Crop yields and fruit quality will depend on this.
Early maturing 148"- medium early, fruits from dark purple to black, white flesh.After planting, eggplants need to be tied up immediately to the wire stretched from above. Watering plants should be once a week with warm water, not very plentiful. After watering, the greenhouse must be ventilated; the ground should be loosened, but not deep, since the roots of eggplants are located superficially.
These plants belong to heat and light-loving cultures. Their homeland is sultry India. However, they are being tried, and successfully cultivated in the conditions of the Urals and Siberia. With the climatic features of these regions, it is clear that growing eggplants there requires good care and knowledge of some agricultural techniques.
The problem of diversity and the difficulty of choice
The journey from the 9th century to the 20th century brought not only global expansion, but also significant varietal enrichment. If in 1910 Russia knew only two varieties of eggplants - the Odessa Early and the Bulgarian semi-long - then the beginning of the third millennium gave birth to hundreds of new varieties, hybrids and half hybrid. Now the main problem of farms and gardeners was not the process of finding at least some seeds, rarely available for sale, but the process of choosing the right varieties from a huge range, oriented under any climatic zone of Russia and the near abroad.
Today, eggplant is cultivated everywhere - from Kaliningrad to Kamchatka. And even Siberia, with its strongest differences in day and night temperatures, is no exception. There are whole Pleiad varieties for growing in greenhouses and in the open field. In this case, you can choose the desired shape of the handsome purple, and its preferred length, and even the color from milky white to bright lilac. The riches of choice are such that even the forefathers of the blue vegetable did not dream.
Since it is impossible to cover the description of all varieties in one article, we limit ourselves to only a small part of them intended specifically for Siberia and climate-like zones.
Climatic features of the Siberian region
To choose the right variety, it is necessary to clearly understand the weather and climatic conditions of the region. The growing season in most parts of Siberia begins in early May and ends by the end of September. At the same time, the beginning of May is rather cold, with daytime temperatures no more than +10 +12 0 С and night frosts on the soil and in the atmosphere. Such an environment is not suitable for planting heat-loving crops. Therefore, if we are talking about open ground, then eggplants are planted in it only after May 28, when the threat of return frost is over, and the air temperature stabilizes to +22 +25 0 C during the day and +10 +12 at night.
In open ground in Siberia, eggplants are planted only at the end of May, in order to avoid spring frostbite
But this is not all the troubles of the weather. June in the region is characterized by heavy precipitation, often with hail and sudden temperature fluctuations from cold to heat. September in Siberia is a warm month in the afternoon, but the vegetative is only conditional. Perennial plants begin to prepare for winter. And one-year-olds lose active growth, complete the formation of fruits with seeds, but no longer form new ovaries. With this kind of vegetative season, special types of eggplants are required, which not only tolerate atmospheric fluctuations, but also mature not 150 days, but for a shorter period of 95–130 days.
The best eggplant varieties for Siberia for open ground
Zoned varieties for Siberia a lot. In addition to their early maturity, their strengths are their strong endurance, high resistance to diseases, low susceptibility to harmful insects, and stable yields, which are in no way inferior to varieties of medium and late maturity. At the same time, all the beneficial substances are preserved in the fruit, thanks to which eggplant is included in the number of dietary foods recommended for many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, anemias, liver, kidney and heart diseases. “Vegetable of longevity” - this is how some people dubbed eggplant when they understood its healing properties.
Classic purple varieties
The phrase "eggplant in Siberia" today is not absurd and not consonant with the expression "an elephant in a china shop." Eggplant in Siberia is 100% appropriate. Although there is one "but." The fact is that, due to the peculiarities of the climate, the presence of this crop in the open field is very conditional. After all, the period of 10–12 days after transplantation, 30 nights in June and 20 nights in September, he is likely to spend under a PVC film, defending himself against the June return frosts and differences in day / night temperatures. And only 50–60 full days out of 95–130 are, indeed, in open ground. Therefore, when we say “varieties for open ground,” we mean exactly this situation in agricultural technology. This is Siberia, not the southern coast of Crimea.
We start the review of varieties with those of them that have become Siberian classics, as they have received the full cultivation priority in the region.
The variety tested for reliability since 1983 has not lost its relevance. It attracts not only its precious name, but also its genetic characteristics. Recommended for cultivation anywhere except in the North-West region and the Far North. Breeders declared as mid-season - the cycle of ripening from germination to full technical ripeness is 110-140 days. The plant does not exceed 60 cm in height. The branching from the central trunk is dense and harmonious - this contributes to the formation of a productive early harvest.
Dark purple eggplant Diamond, bred in 1983, today has become a folk classic
The beautiful fruit of a cylindrical form is painted in dark-violet color. The average weight is from 100 to 160 g. There are no thorns on the cup of the fruit. The flesh has a greenish tint, without bitterness. The yield by the time of technical maturity is 2.1 - 7.5 kg / sq.m, which in terms of conversion will be up to 2 kg per square meter. m or from 6 to 20 medium fruits from one bush. Swipe big. But the specific yield depends on the region of cultivation, and on the fertility of the soil.
Significant disadvantages of the Diamond are:
- elongation of the fruits, as a result of which they come into contact with the ground,
- the presence of many small seeds that complicate culinary processing.
The variety is recommended for large and small farms, as it is low-cost for maintenance, relatively resistant to mosaic and stolur, it is moderately sensitive to vertex rot, Fusarium, verticillosis, and also adapted to mechanized harvesting and transportation.
Diamond Grade is not such an old-timer on the Russian fields, like Diamond. It exists in the state register of the Russian Federation only since 2010, but over the past eight years has established itself positively in all respects. Bred by the Astrakhan Research Institute, the variety has spread to all regions of Russia and the Near Abroad without exception. Feels great in the conditions of Siberia. It is characterized by early ripeness with a maturity of up to 120 days and the presence of a calyx without thorns.
By mass, the dark-purple fruit of the Diamond has bypassed its fellow Diamond - the average weight is declared in 150-220 g. The flesh is white, while the taste is not inferior to other sweet varieties: no bitterness, the taste after the heat treatment is excellent.
Diamond and Diamond are somewhat similar, however, by the weight of the fetus, it was the first to beat its fellow: 220 grams versus 160
The yield on the characteristics of the originators of the variety reaches 2.8 - 3.1 kg / sq. M or up to 1 kg from the bush. The uniformity of the fruits, amicable returns and the stability of fruiting are noted. For industrial cultivation, the variety is not recommended because of its relatively low yield. But for small private farms is quite acceptable.
Variety Bataysky recommended for cultivation in Eastern Siberia. However, gardeners from the Altai Territory, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Tyumen Oblasts also recognized this culture as suitable for their regions. Giving her maximum attention and care, they achieved high yields and appreciated the even cylindrical fruits of black and purple color.
The variety has been known since 1981 and has not lost its admirers for almost 40 years. There is a high growth of the plant - up to 70 cm, but a weak spreading, which allows planting roots with an interval of 30–35 cm. The fruit reaches its technical ripeness in 120–140 days from the moment of germination. Длина зафиксирована от 12 до 19 см, диаметр в средней части от 4,5 до 8 см. Размах по массе — от 140 до 220 см, что позволяет получить целый размерный ряд плодов. Пустот внутри нет, как нет и горечи во вкусе. Белая мякоть отличается средней плотностью и умеренным количеством семян.
Главный недостаток Батайского — свисание плодов и касание земли, что чревато заражением гнилостными бактериями
Недостаток тот же, что и у Алмаза: плоды свисают и касаются земли, что чревато распространением гнилостных заболеваний, если вовремя их не снять. It is also noted instability to fusarium wilt.
Another variety that has gained popularity is the Black Diamond. It is known since 2009 and has an early term of ripening. The stem is distinguished by its light anthocyanin coloration with slight pubescence. There are practically no spikes on the cup. The glossy surface of the dark purple cylindrical fruit resembles a wax toy. The claimed mass is 200 g. Tastes are excellent.
The glossy surface of a perfect dark purple cylindrical fruit resembles a wax toy
Productivity can reach 6.5 kg / sq.m or almost 1.5 kg from one bush. But at the same time, a reservation is made that such effectiveness is possible only under the cover of a cell.
I, a resident of the Trans-Baikal Territory, had the experience of growing this variety. And I could argue with its creators about the last statement. Film shelter is required only in the first 10–12 nights after transplanting in open ground. Further, with the onset of stable heat in the region, my diamond beauties slept under the open sky, felt great, and at the end of August gave a good harvest of even long-rounded fruits. Cooked with garlic sauce, they showed their perfect flavor.
F1 Purple Miracle
Long-lived is considered a hybrid variety Violet miracle. It was listed in the State Register of the Russian Federation in 1999 and still has a laudatory reputation. The compact and medium-growing bush of the Miracle can be called early ripening, because maturation falls on 95 - 100 days after germination. The stem has no anthocyanin coloration, there are no spikes on the fruit calyx.
Interesting shape of the fruit. It is an elongated cylinder with a smooth, glossy skin and a pointed tip. Mass within 100–350 g. The pulp inside the fruit is greenish with a moderate amount of seeds, but without bitterness.
Violet Miracle gives a stable yield of up to 5 kg / sq. m, or up to 10 fruits from one bush
When grown in unheated greenhouses and in open ground, the Violet Miracle gives a stable yield of up to 5 kg / sq. m, or up to 10 fruits from one bush. At the same time, excellent transportable properties and keeping quality of fruits with full preservation of the presentation are noted.
The value of the variety is also in its high resistance to verticilous wilt and spider mites.
I can not fail to mention the Japanese Dwarf variety in the section on eggplant classics. Zoned for Russia on Novosibirsk experimental plots in 2004, it became native to many Siberians.
Japanese Dwarf does not require special care, but it is not inferior in yield to large-fruited varieties.
A short foreigner with a blue stalk came to my beds as an experimental sample, but remained for many years. He did not demand for himself special careful care and the desired southern heat, but he never let me down in terms of harvest. Neither the spikes on the calyx, nor bitterness in the taste, nor the deformed fruits — his fruits didn’t manifest themselves to be so negative. Although the size, weight and yield to compete with large-fruited eggplants were not suitable at all. The average weight of the State Register is only 150–170 g, but in practice it can reach 300 g, and can surpass any giant in taste.
Reviews of classic eggplant varieties
Bataysky planting the second year. And the next will put. I have it productive. Last year, ripe early Ultraranny. Seedlings grow in 2-liter packages. And the transplant practically does not notice. Sheltered removed in mid-June, as they began to bloom. And no longer covered.
Eggplant Black diamond, I would recommend to grow for people who do not have free time or a particular desire to mess around in the ground. Of all the varieties I know of, this eggplant is probably not the most whimsical. All that is required of you is just to plant it (no more than 4 pcs per 1 sq. M) and to water it occasionally.
Eggplant Purple Miracle I planted at the cottage for two years in a row. I like them in early ripeness and taste. But there is a big minus - they can not stand the heat. Watering should be abundant, so they are too troublesome for a remote dacha - you almost have time to water and the crop is postponed.
White eggplant varieties
Traditionally, the purple plant looks particularly tempting, if it has white fruits. There are many such varieties, and they are not at all assigned to deviants or albinos. These are completely healthy edible vegetables with all the qualities of eggplants.
Bibo's oval white fruits have a small mass - 190–210 g, but taste is pleasant
Of the most famous, adapted for cultivation in the open field in a Siberian climate, the following can be mentioned:
- BiboF1. The hybrid of the Dutch selection, is intended for personal subsidiary farms. Refers to the early maturing. The bush is short, half-sprawling. Oval white fruits are beautifully in tune with the anthocyanin color of the stem. The mass is small - 190–210 g. They differ in average yield and excellent transportable properties. Among the shortcomings - spikes on the fruit cups.
- Mushroom Taste. Variety refers to the early ripening species. The fruit is short cylindrical with white pulp and an average weight of up to 180 g. The taste after cooking is excellent. Productivity to 6 kg / sq. m or up to 1.5 kg from one bush.
- Milkman. A new generation of 2017 breeding varieties. It is considered mid-early. On a square meter, 5 bushes can fit in well, since their average indicators of spreading and height are noted. Stem green, pubescent. Spikes are rare. The fruit is declared as a club-shaped with a large diameter and weighing up to 270 g. The yield is high - one bush can produce up to 8 large fruits.
- PelicanF1. The hybrid exists since 2000, it is intended for small farms. Technical ripeness comes on the 115th day. Outside and inside the fruit is white, no bitterness. Harvest gives amicably. Fruits are well stored and carry transportation.
- PingPongF1. Ping Pont and Pelican are almost identical hybrid varieties, for both the ripening times are the same, and the recommended turnover for growing is the same, and the bush structure is similar and even the thorns are the same for two crops. The difference in the fruits. If they are long in Pelican, then in Ping Pong they are round, from a distance they look like tennis balls. Accordingly, the weight of the fruit is small - only 90 g. But the yield is quite profitable - up to 7.5 kg / sq. M or up to 2 kg from one bush.
In this segment of breeding over the past 20 years there has been a significant leap. Dozens of new varieties of eggplants were developed from lilac-milky to violet-blue with striped inclusions. They were given appropriate names so that consumers could not confuse them with white or purple classics.
The fruit of the polosatika has an ovoid shape of small diameter weighing only 80 g
For cultivation in open ground, we can recommend the following:
- Striped flight. Mid-season variety, tall bush. The fruit is glossy with frequent white-purple stripes. Weight 190–200 g. Average yield.
- Polosatik. Compact low bush early ripening. The fruit is ovoid of small diameter, dull. Weight is only 80 g. Productivity is good, up to 3 kg / m.
- Boatswain. Low-growing shrubs, refers to the early ripening varieties. The stem has anthocyanin coloration. The fruit is in the form of an ellipse of small diameter. Interesting coloring with spots and strokes on a light green background, brought a grade to the first ten of a striped rating. Weight up to 180 g. The yield for small fruits reaches 5.5 kg / sq.m.
- Sailor. Early ripe variety. The fruit is painted in white and purple stripes. The mass is quite large - 380 g. The pulp after cooking is tasty, there is no bitterness.
- Matrosik. In the State Register of the Russian Federation since 2000. Ripeness occurs within 104 days after germination. The anthracian coloration does not have a half-stem, but there are thorns on the calyx. Fruits have a striped lilac-white color, the mass of one unit is 143 g. The value of the variety is in its high yield, resistance to fusarium and wilt.
- Overseas whale. New 2015 breeding variety. The bush is vigorous, early ripe. The egg-shaped fruit, reaching a mass of 500–900 g, is considered a real giant. The fruits of the giant and corresponds to the yield - up to 9.5 kg / sq. m
- Marble. Early ripe variety. Semi-sprawling, tall plant. The fruit is an elongated cylinder with white-purple stripes. Maximum weight 250 g. Taste is excellent, without bitterness. The yield of 4.9 kg / sq. m
Spherical eggplants are also in great demand. They are attracted not only by the shape that resembles a ping-pong ball, then an egg, or a moon disc, but also their high immunity to diseases of solanaceous crops.
Hybrid Bourgeois with spherical fruit showed excellent taste
The eggplants presented in the table below belong to the early or mid-early varieties with a maturity of 95 to 125 days, which is quite suitable for growing in climatic conditions of all regions of Siberia. All varieties have greenish or white flesh without a bitter aftertaste. All are usable after heat treatment.
Spherical fruit has an average weight of 600–700 g and yield above 6 kg / sq. M
Southern guest settled at home
The cost of eggplants on the market during the season is low, but for a long time in all regions of the country gardeners have got the knack of growing this naughty southerner on their notorious six acres. No wonder his homeland - hot India, plenty of sunshine and high air temperature are ideal conditions for good fruiting.
However, in Siberia in any garden you can find low bushes with purple fruits. Such an opportunity for the inhabitants of the harsh climate is due to the work of breeders who have brought out the best varieties of eggplants for Siberia, which successfully grow and delight the crop. The secret is that the most appropriate are early and mid-early species.
Absolutely corresponds to its name Eggplant Long purple, the cultivation period of 95-130 days. In length it grows up to 25 cm, about 6 cm in diameter. Fruit is so dense that in appearance several fruits look like a bunch. The smooth cylindrical shape along the entire length has an attractive presentation, taste without the usual bitterness. Dormant, does not lose quality during prolonged storage. A lot of vegetables about 250 grams. Productivity is good, from square meter to 5 kg. Feature of the variety - growing preferably in the greenhouse, does not like drafts and hypothermia. With a shortage of sunlight and heat, the yield drops sharply. The positive quality of this species is a bush upright, strong.
You dreamed about him
From germination to ripening, 95-105 days pass with the popular eggplant variety Dream of the Gardener, without much hassle. Description of the variety is: low, upright plant, up to 80 cm tall. Fruits oblong 180-200 grams, up to 20 cm, glossy, dark purple. Juicy white flesh does not taste bitter. The yield is high - about 6 kg per square meter. Feature: impressive bushes require an appropriate space, at least 40 cm between the beds. The most weighty plus varieties - resistance to late blight.
Noble robber in the garden
Delicate purple color differs from fellow aubergine Robin Hood, an even earlier variety with ripening 90-100 days. The plant is low, branched, strong. Fruits with thickening at the end, about 300 grams. Feature - does not like crowding, it is better to give him more space on the garden. 5 plants per meter - ideal conditions. Positive quality - one of the most unpretentious species, fruits almost always and everywhere.
By early hybrid applies eggplant Giselle, a beautiful dark color. Compact bush. Fruits grow up to half a kilogram, 20-23 cm long. In closed ground, the yield is up to 14 kg, on the ground - 7 kg per square meter. Feature of the variety: eggplant Giselle F1 like no one likes light sandy and sandy sandy soil. Plus - high cold resistance. Under certain conditions it is stored for a very long time, it easily carries transportation.
Viva, the king!
One of the most fruitful of early ripe eggplants. The king of the market is a hybrid, the length of a vegetable is about 23 cm, and 6 cm in diameter.
Fruits are smooth, shiny, beautiful color. The flesh is soft, snow-white, not bitter. Seeds for seedlings should be planted no later than the end of February, in order to achieve from the hybrid the habitual yield of more than 10 kg. The peculiarity of the variety is that due to the high yield it needs an obligatory garter of the bush, it can not withstand the severity of the fruit. An interesting feature is that from the very beginning fruits are purple in color, therefore ripening is assessed by other parameters.
Not just early, but ultra-fast
This characteristic is given by seed producers to the sort of eggplant Maria, whose ink-purple fruits ripen quickly and on ordinary beds. Vegetables of this type grow long, weighing up to 220 grams. Resisted to characteristic Siberian daily temperature drops of air. Under the film receive up to 5 kg from the bed of tasty bitter fruit.
Especially for Siberia
Indispensable for growing in difficult conditions eggplant Salamander, bred for the Siberian regions. It is resistant to sudden temperature changes from frost to heat, which is a distinctive feature of the weather in Yakutia and some regions of Siberia. Description: both shrub and medium sized fruits. The flesh is dense, light, without bitterness. Prefers a light fertile soil containing organic residues.
Siberian breeding product
This variety was developed at the Siberian Experimental Station; therefore, the Precipod eggplant is the most popular in this region, only 120-130 days pass from sprouting to harvesting. Pear-shaped products are small in size. The bush is low, standard. From 4-6 bushes receive 4-6 kg of vegetables. Hybrid variety is Siberian eggplant 148, ideal according to the inhabitants of South-Western and Western Siberia. Early fruiting, a compact bush, a drop-shaped vegetable, up to 10 cm in size - all these positive characteristics make it possible to achieve high results even for those who for the first time decided to grow eggplants.
In agrotechnics eggplant Early 148 requires compliance with certain conditions, including the selection of soil for seedlings. She must be:
In order for all the seeds of the variety Siberian eggplants to grow, the temperature in the room must be at least 20 degrees Celsius. Plant sprouts at a distance of at least 60 cm from each other.
Galina eggplant, one of the most praised early varieties, enjoys a special position of cooks for their tender and savory taste. Smooth, with a thickening at the end of the glossy fruits weigh 250 g. The bush is compact, 80 cm in height. Suitable for all types of greenhouses, as well as for open ground. During the season, up to 6 kg of vegetables are gathered from an area of 1 m.
Unusual among its dark-skinned brethren, Zelenenky eggplant is distinguished by a special mushroom flavor of tender loose meat. Fruits of the rounded short pear-shaped form of green color. Ripeness comes on the 115th day. Vegetable reaches a mass of 300 grams. Resistant to many negative factors: to cold, temperature changes, pests, diseases. Popular due to the speed of cooking. After heat treatment, the taste acquires a special piquancy of shades of greens and mushrooms.
This Russian hero
A weighty representative of the eggplant family Ilya of Murom has the full right to his name. The fruits of this plant have truly gigantic sizes, weighing up to 800 grams, up to 40 cm in length, up to 10 in diameter, the ripening of fruits occurs already 115-120 days after the emergence of shoots. A distinctive feature - the fruit does not contain seeds, the pulp is juicy, not bitter. Feels best in a greenhouse covered with film.
Small, but remote
One of the most undersized species of this culture is the Eggplant Northerner, which stands only 50 cm. 115 days pass from the landing to the ripeness. Fruits in any soil, good yield. The shape of the fruit is pear-shaped, the weight is 300 grams, which is a sufficient load for such a bush. Therefore, it often needs props so that the fruits do not touch the ground. Resistant to late blight and rot.
News for gardeners
Excellent resistance to pests, namely, spider mites and the Colorado potato beetle, differs eggplant Samurai Sword, so named for an unusual club-shaped form of up to 200 grams. This is one of the varieties of new products, already firmly occupied its niche among the more famous counterparts. Technical maturity comes on the 120th day.
Thanks to its almost seedless pulp, high-yield eggplant caviar is suitable for preparing canned same-named product. For the season, 7-7.5 kg of vegetables of excellent taste are obtained from the beds. Suitable for any soil, picky. The plant is sprawling, thanks to bright leaves has a decorative appeal. It needs a support under fruit-bearing branches, as weighty drop-shaped fruits burden them to the ground.
The low, compact eggplant Galich is famous for its sturdy stem and wavy leaves at the edges. The fruits are cylindrical, at the time of ripeness reach 200 grams. The flesh is juicy, without bitterness, piquant. Suitable for canning and cooking caviar at home. Семена лучше высаживать на рассаду в продезинфицированную почву в начале марта, а в грунт в мае-июне, саженцами с 5 настоящими листочками.
Секреты успеха в разведении баклажанов
According to experienced gardeners, amateurs and professionals, the best varieties of eggplants for Siberia are those that were developed at experimental stations in the region.
But many other representatives of the species, seemingly not intended for the Siberian summer, delight the owners with an abundance of fruits. It does not always depend on the climate, but rather on the experience and desire to achieve the goal.
To achieve high yields of this crop is easy if you follow certain rules:
- Growing carried out through seedlings. Sowing in late February - early March. Seeds to embed shallow. The soil should be loose, moisture should not stagnate on the surface.
- Seedlings do not dive, because after that she is ill for a long time.
- The soil for planting should be fertile, but not greasy. Better with the addition of organic peat.
- Between the bushes of eggplant should be a distance of 40 to 60 cm, depending on the variety. Eggplants love space and air. Otherwise they start to hurt and rot.
- Even if it is planned to grow in open ground, at first planted bushes should be carefully sheltered from the scorching rays of the sun during the day and from frost at night. Best of all film or covering material.
- Eggplants are responsive to loosening, mulching, feeding.
- It is necessary to protect the plant from the Colorado potato beetle and spider mite.
You should not wait for the seasonal sale on the market, it is much more pleasant to taste what is grown with your own hands. Especially since even an inexperienced gardener can do it. Read the article: Eggplant in a greenhouse: growing and care with a detailed description.
About eggplant culture traveler, fit to write adventure stories. She passed many kilometers of roads, sailed nautical miles, underwent national culinary traditions - not counted. Starting from the warm East India, the eggplant reached the cold Russian north, where it adapted to the climate and turned from an exotic overseas decipitated berry into an ordinary vegetable.
Exotic varieties for outdoor and PVC greenhouses for Siberia
This group of eggplants has gained popularity due to its special shape or unusual color shades. If vegetable growers are already accustomed to pear-shaped, cylindrical and spherical forms, the shape of an eggplant bean pod is of interest, and colors such as green or red are curious. The grades presented below are not whimsical and of little demanding to weather conditions, and therefore may well be cultivated in Siberia and the Urals.
The variety entered the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2009. Refers to early ripening crops. It has an ellipsoidal shape of a green fruit. Strong gloss on the peel makes it look like a green pear. Weight from 200 to 250 g. Productivity and product quality at altitude.
The ellipsoidal fruit of Zelenyenky entered the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2009 and immediately gained popularity.
This eggplant received a start in life in 2013. Reaches technical ripeness by the end of August. The bush is semi-sprawling, of medium height, the stem has an anthocyanin coloration. Fruits brushes, which matures several fruits. They have a violet-green shade and a very small diameter, due to which it resembles hanging bunches of asparagus beans. The weight of eggplant pods reaches only 30–40 g, but the size does not affect the taste. Suitable for use after heat treatment, as well as for long-term storage in the form of pastes and canned vegetables. In the characteristics of the variety such fat “pluses” are noted, such as resistance to heat and heat resistance. Productivity is 6,9 kg / sq.m.
Finger Fruits grade with brushes, on which several fruits ripen each - their shape due to its small diameter resembles hanging clusters of asparagus beans.
Emerald is a hybrid variety with white flesh inside. Green fruit has an oval shape and reaches a mass of 300 g. The bush is characterized by high yields, resistance to adverse weather factors and temperature fluctuations. It has been in the State Register of the Russian Federation since 2007.
Emerald is characterized by high yields, resistance to adverse weather factors and temperature fluctuations
The variety of Astrakhan breeders has been recommended for cultivation in almost all regions of Russia since 2008. The extravagance of the fetus lies in its shape and color. White, long, with a narrow tip and a small diameter, it really resembles an icicle. The cup does not have thorns, and this facilitates the gathering of fruits, which can form up to 25 pieces on the branches of one bush. At the same time, the mass of one unit is small - only 100–150 g. The recommended spacing for planting is 40–45 cm between bushes, since they are very branched and reach a height of 80 cm.
White, long, with a narrow tip and a small diameter, the fruit of the Icicle weighs only 150 g, but up to 25 pieces can grow on a bush
From the decorative forms of eggplants, suitable for cultivation in the Siberian regions, we can cite as an example the variety:
- The Golden Egg, which is edible only if it is harvested in its immature form, at the stage of technical maturity the eggplant has a yellow color and looks like a goose egg.
- Red Decor is a variety that is completely inedible, but it creates the appearance of the decor on the bushes due to its small flat-red fruits of bright red color.
- The mantle is a sort of lemon yellow striped color, resembling the mantle of either the Colorado potato beetle, or the fairytale king.
The best eggplant varieties for Siberia for unheated greenhouses
As noted above, eggplant is a heat-loving culture. Although the Siberian region is adapted to many types of this crop, it is still not suitable for particularly delicate varieties if cultivated in open, unprotected areas. However, if you apply the rules of agricultural technology with the use of greenhouses made of PVC, then some varieties of violet beauties can be obtained without sacrificing yield. Among them we will name the following:
- Black suit - a high-yielding variety of late ripening period, has pear-shaped fruits up to 18 cm in size, up to 7 cm in diameter and with an average weight of 400 g. White flesh, decent taste qualities.
- GalineF1 - hybrid of French selection, entered the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2003. The fruit has a purple-brown drop-shaped color and a spiked cup. Weight is from 200 to 500 g. Differs in the long period of storage.
- Darling - mid-season variety, is in the State Register of the Russian Federation since 2010. It has an ovoid fruit of light purple color weighing 300–360 g. The yield is average.
- Sancho Panza - variety of average ripening period; it takes 130 days to fully ripen. The fruit is globular in color, dark purple, calyx without thorns. The mass is simply gigantic - from 0.5 to 1.0 kg. The bush is productive in terms of yield, although it produces only 3-4 fruits.
- MabelF1- A hybrid of the Dutch selection, listed in the State Register in 2015. The bush is not spread, medium height. Easy to care for, easily tolerates stressful conditions, resistant to tobacco mosaic. The fruit is long, cylindrical, of small diameter. Fruit weight less than 300 g. Yield 2.7 kg / sq.m.
Video: Popular eggplant varieties
Eggplant only at first glance seems to be an expensive vegetable. In fact, its cultivation is no more troublesome than corn or beets. If you choose a variety, zoned under the climate of the region, you can fully enjoy the aesthetic appearance of the unusual fruit, and its exquisite taste after proper cooking. The main thing is to start, and everything will work out.
I love the garden, the garden, flowers. Rate this article:
(0 votes, average: 0 out of 5)
Eggplant and Siberia: seemingly incompatible concepts, but it is not. Of course, in summer in Siberia it is very warm, but not for long, and eggplants require a long and hot summer. Therefore, until recently, this vegetable was exotic in the Ural regions. But breeders tried, and enthusiasts had the opportunity to successfully grow this heat-loving culture in Siberia.
The best varieties for Siberia
Since eggplants have a long growing season, the choice for Siberia is obvious: you can only grow early or even super early varieties. Well, in a pinch, you can put a medium early, but they already require more thorough care. Fortunately, there are several dozen of suitable varieties now, and even the State Register of the Russian Federation recommends many varieties and hybrids of eggplants for cultivation in all climatic zones without exception.
From sowing the seeds to the readiness of the harvest, eggplants take a very long time: the earliest varieties bear fruit only after three months or more. Unfortunately, this vegetable can be planted only in the beginning of summer: it needs real heat. Even in the south, to obtain early production, eggplants are grown through seedlings, and in Siberia the seedless way is practically inapplicable.
In principle, eggplants do not need anything supernatural: they need warm, constantly moist and very fertile soil. Thermophilicity, as well as a long growing season and stopped for a long time the promotion of culture in harsh climatic regions. In Siberia, summer residents open their season usually for the May holidays. At this time, the preparation of the beds for eggplants begins, although it is better to do this in the fall.
If there is a good greenhouse, you can prepare a place for eggplants in it. Although, of course, the best vegetables grow under the sun, and eggplants are no exception. But outside the greenhouse for them they still have to prepare a temporary shelter: build a hotbed from arcs, cover it with a film. Rows of eggplants for better lighting and warming by the sun should be positioned from north to south. The best precursors for eggplants are cabbage, onions, pumpkin and legumes. Do not plant them after tomatoes, peppers and potatoes.
Eggplants need space and good lighting.
The bed from the autumn must be cleaned from plant debris and dig with fertilizers. Eggplant is very demanding on the composition of the soil. It must be loose, breathable and saturated with humus and mineral fertilizers. At 1 m² make at least one and a half buckets of humus or compost and a liter jar of wood ash, as well as a tablespoon of potassium superphosphate and potassium sulfate. If the earth is clay, be sure to add peat, rotted sawdust, sand, give a high dose of compost.
When to plant eggplants for seedlings
Eggplant seeds, especially unprepared ones, sprout for a very long time, and the prepared ones do not sprout simultaneously. The first shoots may appear in 6–8 days, and then a few more weeks may appear next. Therefore, it is necessary to start preparing for sowing seeds even in winter, regardless of whether eggplants are to be grown in a greenhouse or in open ground.
The best dates for sowing seeds in Siberia are the first days of March. In this case, seedlings can be expected in mid-March, and the appearance of buds - in late May. Just after that, you can plant eggplants under the film cover. With a later sowing, it will be possible to plant the seedlings in open ground in June, when frosts will already end in Siberia. Perhaps, no shelter will be required, but the harvest will be less: only the first fruits will have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather.
If transplantation of seedlings into a greenhouse is planned, sowing is carried out a week and a half earlier, after February 20. Of course, it is possible to plant seedlings in a heated greenhouse even in April, but it is difficult to prepare it completely in the winter even in a city apartment: there is not enough sunlight, the plants will be pulled out, and on the windowsill it may be too cool.
Preparing for sowing
Eggplants are best sown immediately in medium-sized peat pots. But for this, you immediately need to spend a lot of seeds (sow at least 3 pieces in a pot so that the pots do not disappear due to poor germination). Yes, and places in the apartment, they will take a lot of three months. Therefore, initially they often sow them in a small common box, and then they dive. However, this culture does not respond well to picking, so many gardeners sow seeds in small cups, and then roll them into larger pots without disturbing the root system.
Soil preparation for seedlings is of paramount importance. If there is peat and sand, the mixture can be made independently by mixing good earth and peat in half and adding ten percent sand. Immediately add about 50 g of any complete mineral fertilizer and a handful of wood ash to the bucket of the mixture. Such a soil should be disinfected by watering it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
To grow a dozen bushes is much easier to buy ready-made soil in the store, choosing the one where it says about eggplants.
Seeds before sowing are also disinfected by preparing a solution of dark-colored potassium permanganate. The seed dressing process lasts 20–30 minutes, after which it is obligatory to rinse with clean water. If eggplants are to be grown in open ground, hardening of seeds in the fridge is also necessary (in wet tissue for 3-4 days).
On the day before sowing, it is worth treating the seeds of eggplants and growth stimulant, this well improves germination and strengthens future plants. The easiest way to use Epin-Extra or Zircon, strictly according to the instructions. You can also take an agave juice, diluting it 5 times with water and holding the seeds in the solution for several hours. Some gardeners and germinate seeds before sowing, but this is not necessary: after a few days of preparation, they are already quite swollen.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Small cups are filled with the prepared soil, where 2-3 seeds are sown (it is possible one by one if there are few seeds, but it is possible that empty cups will remain). Sowing depth is about 1.5 cm. From above put a layer of snow in several centimeters. Having melted, it evenly permeates the soil and compacts the soil as much as needed. In addition, snow water activates growth processes.
The cups should be covered with glass or transparent film and put in heat, the optimum temperature before germination is 25–28 ° C. Until that time, the bright light is not necessary, but immediately after the first loops are formed on the surface, the cups will have to be moved to the lighted place, otherwise the seedlings will quickly stretch. If the surface of the soil dries out while waiting for seedlings, it should be moistened gently with water.
The first shoots will appear in seven days, but they are likely to be small. As the “loops” appear, the cups should be transferred to a well-lit, cool window sill, with a temperature of 16–18 ° C. Such a regime takes about five days, then gradually raise the temperature to 23–25 ° C (at night a few degrees less) and keep it until the end of growing the seedlings. When it will be clear which shoots lag behind others, they are carefully removed, leaving the strongest in the cup.
Watering the seedlings with distilled water with a temperature of about 30 ° C makes it 1-2 times a week, but moderately: the risk of sprouts growing sick with a black leg increases from waterlogging the soil. Two weeks after germination, give top dressing: 1 tablespoon of urea per bucket of water. Cups periodically turn to the light source, so that the seedlings are not bent.
Seedlings grow unevenly, and transfer to larger pots must be done selectively. They do it very carefully, trying to extract a plant with all the soil from the cup. The most suitable volume of containers for handling - about a liter, the soil - the same as in the cups. Dump it so much to remove all voids, and then watered with warm water. Further care is the same as before the transshipment.
Eggplant seedlings are not a tiny plant.
15–20 days before planting the seedlings in the garden, it is hardened, bringing to the balcony at first briefly, and then for several hours. At the same time, the temperature outside should not be too low: 12–14 ° C for seedlings is not enough. On the morning of the transplant, the seedlings are well watered. The seedlings ready for planting should have a height of 20–25 cm and 5–8 large green leaves. Such it becomes approximately at the age of 2.5 months. If buds have already originated - great.
Transplanting seedlings to ground
In a good greenhouse in Siberia, eggplants can be planted at the end of April, but they usually do it in mid-May. With a lack of heat additionally used covering non-woven material. In open ground without shelter, planting seedlings in Siberia can be breaded in mid-June, when the soil warms up well. It is possible and a couple of weeks earlier, but in this case, first put the arc, cover them with a film, then replace the film with a double layer of spunbond, by the middle of June, remove the cover only during the day.
Landing in open ground
It is desirable that by the time of disembarkation the average daily air temperature was not lower than 20 ° C. And since it is impossible to wait for this in Siberia, the beds are prepared long in advance, trying to make sure that at the time of planting the soil warms up to at least 15 ° C. For eggplants, experienced gardeners prepare warm beds. To do this, choose a well-lit place, closed from the north winds.
The previous summer, they are digging a pit 20–25 cm deep in terms of the size of the future bed. A variety of organic waste is put into it: sawdust, foliage, small twigs, grass, garbage, etc. If there is peat, all this is generously poured by it. Periodically water the future garden with infusions of manure or bird droppings. Autumn fall asleep clean fertile soil.
Борта полученной высокой грядки огораживают досками, шифером и т. п. Весной грядку посыпают древесной золой и за неделю до высадки рассады хорошо проливают тёплой водой с добавкой коровяка. После этого накрывают плёнкой для прогревания. В день перед высадкой рассады почву рыхлят, а затем делают лунки по размеру горшочков с рассадой. The planting scheme depends on the variety, but between bushes there should not be less than 35 cm, and between rows it should be from 50 to 70 cm. They try to plant eggplants in the evening when the sun is not baking anymore.
When planting seedlings temporary shelter required
When disembarking, the seedlings are almost not buried; tilting the eggplants is also not required. Peat pots are planted entirely, from other seedlings roll over with the entire contents of the pot. It is advisable to immediately provide for pegs if the variety requires a garter. The plants in the garden are watered with warm water, and the soil around the bushes is slightly mulched. Be sure to cover landing non-woven materials.
Landing in the greenhouse
Eggplants in Siberia can be planted in a greenhouse in the last days of May, and in the greenhouse 1–2 weeks earlier. In greenhouses, especially polycarbonate, the right temperature conditions are created early for eggplants. When planting seedlings, it is necessary to pay attention to the temperature of both the air in the greenhouse and the soil; it should be no colder than 14 ° C.
In advance, you must carefully prepare in the greenhouse beds. All plant residues should be destroyed and the soil prepared in the fall. If there were diseases of plants, the soil is better to change completely. In the autumn, it is worthwhile to form a bed, digging up the soil with fertilizers. A week before planting, the bed is watered with a light blue solution of blue vitriol and covered with film.
After a couple of days, the film is removed and the soil is allowed to reach the state when it will be possible to work with it. Deeply loosened, rake leveled and planted seedlings. Planting schemes - the same as in the open field. For tall varieties it is convenient to use a chess fit. The landing technology is the same as outside the greenhouse.
Sowing seeds in the garden
In the south when growing eggplants, you can do without seedlings. But in Siberia, this can be done only at great risk, and by choosing very early varieties and hybrids for such cultivation. In this case, the use of greenhouses does not even have a significant advantage over open ground.
To have time to get the harvest of the earliest eggplants, they must be sown in the garden at the very beginning of May. At this time in Siberia, only the first time going to the country, so the bed should be prepared in the fall, then at the same time build a film shelter. By the time of sowing, the soil at a depth of 10 cm should warm up to at least 15 ° C. You can pour a bed of hot water, then cover it with a film.
The seeds are sown very densely: their germination in spartan conditions may not be sufficient. In rows that suit 50–60 cm, seeds are sown every 5–6 cm. After emergence of the seedlings, they are planted several times, removing the weakest specimens. The film is removed only at the onset of this summer.
At first, eggplants grow very slowly in a bed, growth resumes after two weeks, when the seedlings take root. First, care is needed minimal: you just need to keep the soil slightly moist and loose. Throughout the summer, care includes watering, feeding, loosening and shaping the bushes.
Eggplant in open field
The soil on the bed with eggplants should always be slightly wet. Eggplants require a lot of water, but excessive waterlogging should be avoided. It is necessary to water only the water warmed on the sun, under a root. In Siberia, they are trying to plant the seedlings already with buds, and right up to their blooming, planting is watered once a week: in the morning or in the evening, spending about 1 m2 around a bucket of water. As soon as the flowers bloom, water more often. The water temperature is not less than 25 ° C.
After each watering or rain spend loosening. Hilling of plants in Siberia is not used. Of course, we must constantly deal with weeds. Up to setting fruit, fertilizing is not needed, unless, of course, the bushes grow normally. But then eggplants are fed often, twice a month. At the same time, for the first time, infusions of mullein or bird droppings are used, and during the mass growth of fruits, nitrogen should not be given, therefore, only superphosphate and potassium sulfate are used. You can replace this mixture infusion of wood ash.
For most varieties and hybrids of eggplants, the formation of bushes is required, but in open ground in Siberia they often allow eggplants to grow naturally. Nevertheless, it is necessary to at least pinch off unnecessary stepchildren, while they are just emerging. Such an elementary operation allows eggplants to save forces and direct them to the growth of fruits. Remove and yellowing lower leaves. It is necessary to sacrifice part of the ovaries: in the conditions of a short summer it is difficult to get more than 7–8 fruits on the bushes.
What appears from the leaf bosoms should be removed as early as possible.
In Siberia, you have to constantly monitor the current weather. When it is hot outside, the beds are kept open, and if the temperature drops below 15 ° C, the bushes are covered with non-woven materials. In late August, the bed again closed film. The most responsible growers follow the length of the day: eggplants bear fruit better with a short day. Therefore, if possible, in the morning and evening cover landing from excess light.
Eggplant in the greenhouse
Eggplants in Siberia also require care in a greenhouse: in a damp, cloudy summer, one can hardly get more than two fruits from a bush even indoors. This culture needs light and heat. Sunlight should be maximized, and the temperature inside the greenhouse should be about 25–30 ° C, almost in the absence of daily fluctuations. During the day in the greenhouse in the heat, you can easily maintain the temperature by simply opening the window and the doors, but they need to be closed at night. Help placed in the greenhouse containers with water.
It does not rain in the greenhouse, which means that watering is needed more frequently than on the street. If during cultivation in unprotected soil it is possible and not to come to the site in the middle of a week, you should visit the greenhouse daily: without airing in hot seasons, the temperature can go off-scale, and during the heat the eggplants are not tied.
The mode of dressing does not differ from that when grown in open ground, and the formation of bushes is required necessarily. Indeed, tall varieties are trying to be planted in greenhouses, therefore, at least, the bushes should be tied up to trellis or stakes.
In the greenhouses on the bushes leave a minimum of shoots
When the bushes grow up to 30 cm, they pinch the top on the main stem, after which the side shoots begin to grow. In the end, they are left no more than five. If a sufficient amount of fruit has formed on the shoot, and the growth of the shoot continues, it is also pinned to the top. Stop all the operations of forming a month before the last harvest: now the strength of the plant should be directed to the ripening of the fruit.
- Black leg is a disease of seedlings, rarely affects adult plants. From this fungus darkens the neck of the eggplant root. Treatment is impossible. Sick specimens are removed, the soil in their place is treated with bleach, in other places sprinkled with ashes.Black leg ruins the seedlings on the spot
- Mosaic is a viral disease, the leaves get a mosaic pattern, and the fruits are covered with yellow spots. To cure this disease is difficult, the plants have to be removed.Mosaic only looks outwardly dangerous, it can destroy plants
- Gray rot - a fungal disease that manifests itself initially dark spots, then gray scurf. The diseased parts of the plant are cut, the rest can be spread with a paste containing Trichodermin.Gray rot can leave no crop
- Late blight is a dangerous disease of any solanaceous crops. The leaves are covered with brown spots, dry out and disappear. Fruits rot and deform. Sometimes help drugs Zircon or Fitosporin.Blight often develops in cold weather.
- Mealy dew is one of the most common fungi. At first white scurf appears on the lower leaves, then on the rest, it passes to the fruit. Treatment - Fitosporin or Trichodermin.Powdery dew is hard not to find out: as if the whole plant is sprinkled with flour
The most dangerous pests
- The Colorado potato beetle - a well-known whale - harms eggplants as much as a potato, nibbling clean leaves. Zhukov have to collect manually and destroy.Colorado beetle: very beautiful, but no less harmful
- Aphid is a small insect, looks like small grayish dots at the bottom of the leaves, sucks the sap from the plants. Can be used for spraying drugs Fitoverm or Spark-bio.Aphid is able to suck all the juice up to the death of plants
- Slugs - eat both the leaves and the fruits. These nasty creatures know everything, you can fight them, but it is difficult. This can be either bait (they willingly go for beer), and special preparations that are scattered on the ground, for example, Slizneed.Slugs - very unpleasant creatures, able to destroy all the landing
- The whitefly is a butterfly gnawing through holes in the leaves. In the open ground helps spraying drug Konfidor.Whitefly: the butterfly is small, and there is a lot of harm from it
Harvesting and storage
The fruits of eggplants in Siberia ripen no earlier than August. By the end of summer, in the warm season, up to 5–7 fruits can be harvested on each bush in the open field. Eggplants are harvested in the phase of technical maturity: the fruits should grow to their size, acquire a characteristic color for the variety, gain juicy flesh. Seeds at this time are white, soft, immature. Crop is removed weekly, cutting off the shears along with the stalk. Over-grown eggplants are not suitable for human consumption.
Eggplants are stored for no more than three weeks. They must be stored with stalks, the best temperature during storage is 1-2 ° C, relative humidity of air is 85-90%. Since it is difficult to keep them, they try to process the fruits in the very first days after harvest.
In Siberia, the summer is warm, but short, which is not enough for the successful cultivation of eggplant. Nevertheless, using various tricks, gardeners get good harvests of this tasty vegetable here. They do this both in greenhouses and outside of them, but they plant mostly early-maturing varieties and hybrids and take care of them very carefully.