There are few people who have never heard of goji berries. The last few years, the attractive advertising for this “miracle from the East” has filled up Internet sites. Goji is often offered as a “magical” natural remedy for weight loss, but it is also known about the content in this plant of many priceless microelements that are beneficial to the human body.
But is it really necessary to eat goji berries, to constantly buy them for decent money? After all, the conditions for growing this miracle plant can be created in Russia. Anyone who wants to try goji as a means of losing weight, looking for a source of microelements and vitamins, or just wanting to diversify the dacha with some unusual plant will certainly be interested to know what is goji berry, planting, growing and caring for which is quite possible and on Russian soil.
Homeland miracle berries and the area where they first learned about its usefulness, is considered Tibet. In China, the history of the use of goji in food is estimated in tens of thousands of years. Since the last century, goji has gained incredible popularity in many countries around the world. For the healing properties of goji berry is rightly recognized as one of the most useful natural herbal remedies. The shrub with oblong bright red fruits has many names: common Dereza, Tibetan (or Chinese) barberry, wolfberry, wolfberry, Chinese Dereza ...
Dereza belongs to the family Solanaceae. Of the more than 40 species of plants bearing the scientific name “Dereza”, it is usually common Dereza that is grown outside China. Due to its simplicity and relative ease of care, this plant is very popular and beautifully cultivated in Asia, Africa, the Caucasus, Ukraine, Primorye, as well as in central Russia.
The benefits of goji berries for humans
Goji berry, planting and caring for which in the Chinese provinces have already acquired industrial proportions, is incredibly valued in traditional medicine of China and Tibet.
The properties of these "magic" berries can not be overestimated. Goji is an invaluable source of more than twenty mineral substances, a set of natural vegetable fats and carbohydrates, 18 rare amino acids, linoleic acid, proteins, fatty acids, fiber, essential vitamins C, E and group B.
Of course, the goji berry, which is planted and cared for in the territory of Russia, is noticeably inferior in terms of the amount of minerals and vitamins to similar fruits grown in the mountains of Tibet or in China. But even “goji from the dacha” can provide the human body with the daily norm of all the substances listed above.
In addition to using these berries for the most publicized goal of weight loss, goji consumption solves many medical and physiological problems: improves metabolism and skin condition, reduces blood sugar levels, regulates melatonin levels, helps against depression and sleep disorders, improves immunity and promote rejuvenation. organism. There is an opinion that it is the use of goji - the secret of the success of athletes from the Middle Kingdom, the reason for their incredible endurance.
Climatic conditions and soil for growing goji
Externally common wormwood is a tall shrub with small leaves and thin flexible, rather prickly branches. The flowering shrub is covered with delicate lilac flowers, and the wolfberry fruit, known as goji berry, is oblong, medium-sized, bright red in color. The ability of woodwort to grow and bear fruit in the harsh mountainous climate of the Himalayas suggests that the plant is highly viable and can withstand frosts down to –15 degrees.
“The berry of happiness and longevity” feels great in the Russian temperate climate, in a place where there is a lot of sunshine and average humidity. The soil on which tree bark is grown can be any, so the plant is very unpretentious. Goji berry, planting and care for which are discussed in the article, can be successfully grown in the suburbs at the dacha.
Goji saplings from cuttings
How to grow goji berries in the area of their own cottages? To grow a seedling tree can be from seeds or from cuttings.
Cuttings can be obtained by slips. To do this, in the middle of summer, on an already existing bush at least three years old, they bend down to the ground and strong branches are dropped in it. Before the first frosts, the branch is cut and spread.
Cuttings can be cut separately. Cuttings about 10 cm long are carefully cut from the mother bush, and be sure to cut them so that at least 1 cm is “old” wood. The edge is treated with a root, and the cuttings are planted in the greenhouse. In winter, suitable for this and insulated balcony.
How to grow seedlings from seed
If it is not possible to obtain cuttings, then one can grow a sapling of barley from seeds extracted from ripe goji berries. Planting and care of seeds is somewhat different from the "cuttings".
Seeds are extracted from fully ripe goji berries. They do not need to be germinated before planting, it is recommended just soak them for a couple of hours in an immune system stimulator - zircon or epine. Seeds are placed in a medium drained neutral soil mixture containing compost and sand. Seeds are planted close together in a greenhouse or other fairly bright place with a consistently warm temperature and covered with a film. Watering is carried out using a spray gun.
After the appearance of two leaves on a bush, the plants are seated in deep containers, and the tops pinch. In hothouse conditions, woods are kept for at least a year, and then planted in the ground.
Planting in open ground
The next important stage in the cultivation of goji is planting and caring for seedlings. It is best to plant wood wreck in the spring. Since this plant is cross-pollination, it is necessary to plant at least two shrubs next to it.
Sapling tree trunks planted in the hole about 40 cm in depth and about 50 cm in width. The distance between each bush of the goji berry must be at least 1.5 meters. The land intended for filling the plant is mixed with a large amount of compost, about 8-10 kg (peat or humus will do) with the addition of 200 g of superphosphate and 40 grams of wood ash or potassium sulphate. Sapling should be slightly buried, densely sprinkle with prepared soil, it is good to water. Cover the ground around the seedling with a protective film or straw.
And valuable information for those who do not have a summer house, but I want to have their own goji berry. Planting and caring for this plant are possible in the conditions of the house. To grow healthy berries at home you need a large pot so that the powerful goji roots can grow freely. To create a favorable environment, it will be necessary to provide a goji bush berries with plenty of light. The place where goji berries will grow, planting and care for at home should be located where the plant is not exposed to cold running air from a window or door and excessively high temperatures, for example, from a heating radiator or stove. The rules for regular care of such indoor plants are simple: do not add mineral supplements at the same time as organic supplements, ensure constant, but not too strong, watering. And it will be comfortable to “winter” a bush of goji berries at a cool temperature. Of the minuses of the "home" goji - the nutrients in them will contain a minimum, much less than in the "summer" instance.
The main advantage that goji berry has - planting and caring for this plant is quite simple. Caring for shrub barbarum after planting is as follows:
- Watering as necessary, in dry time twice a week.
- You can feed the plant, but only during the growing season.
- If desired, to give an aesthetic look, you can cut the plant and cut branches.
- For the winter, goji can either be carefully covered with branches, or transplanted into a deep container and sent to "winter" in the basement.
As you can see, just grow goji. Berry, planting and care in the suburbs for which are described in the article, is becoming increasingly popular among gardeners.
No less important information than the cultivation of goji berries, planting, care - how to collect ripe bright berries correctly. There is a feature here. A shrub grown from seed yields goji berries only in the third or even fourth year after planting.
You only need to pick ripe berries when it has acquired a bright red shade! Berries that are not ripe on the branch, categorically can not be eaten, as they can cause poisoning.
In addition, you should avoid contact with fresh goji with open skin. If you pick berries with your bare hands, the juice on the skin can cause irritation and color when you oxidize your hands in a dark color. The most traditional way to harvest is to shake berries from branches on spreading fabric. If necessary, further processing of fresh berries hands better protect gloves.
How to store and eat ripe berries
How can you save a crop of goji berries taken from a bush? The most common way to eat goji berries is in dried form, which is exactly how most sellers in our country sell them.
To preserve useful elements in a ripe berry, it should be dried only naturally, without separating the stem, spreading the berries in the shade. Both the use of preservatives and the effect of kiln drying or direct sunlight will adversely affect the quality of dried fruits.
A sign that the berry is dried to the desired state - peeling of the skin. After this, goji must be separated from the stalk and placed in a storage container, then kept in a dark, dry place.
It is important to remember that it is not safe to eat large quantities of goji berries right away - the body has to get used to them. "Overdose" can turn into dehydration and kidney problems. A safe daily dose of this herbal remedy is one tablespoon for an adult.
Goji berries can be consumed in any form. The easiest way is to brew berries in the proportion of 1 tablespoon per 150 ml of boiling water. After 30 minutes, the drink is ready to be consumed, it should be taken along with the brewed berries.
Also, goji will be an excellent addition to any dishes: soups, desserts, cereals, salads, sauces ... In addition to berries, dried bark of common wormwood and dried leaves of this shrub are used for medicinal and tonic tinctures and tea. Despite the miraculous properties of goji, you should remember about the precautions, and before you start to use the berries of this plant, consult a doctor and familiarize yourself with the existing contraindications.
The question immediately arises, where goji berries grow and what it generally is. The plant is a deciduous shrub that belongs to the family Solanaceae. Also, the plant is called wolf berry (popularly, although it has nothing to do with them), red medlar, Chinese dereza, Chinese wolfberry, common dereza, zamaniha, Tibetan barberry. Homeland - Ningxia Hui (Tibet), China. The distribution area covers the Southeast and Central Asia, the Caucasus, Primorye, central Russia, Ukraine.
In the adult state, the height of the plant reaches 3 m, and the crown - 6 m in diameter (photos of goji shrubs are presented). The branches are drooping and prickly, having small foliage, painted on top of light green and on the bottom a gray shade. The root is very powerful, growing in the ground, and not on its surface.
Flowering occurs in June and continues through October with the blooming of purple, pink, brown-purple buds with a pleasant aroma.
At the end of flowering, oblong berries of crimson-red or orange color are formed.
Eating fresh fruit is categorically impossible, because they contain poisonous components. But after drying, the berries can be put into use.
Choosing a place
The plant grows very quickly and at the same time has a well-developed root system. It should be planted either in areas devoid of vegetation, or along supports, to create a hedge.
When choosing a place, you need to be extremely careful, because dereza can "crush" nearby plants.
It is best to pick up sunny areas or located in a small shade. Also note that the height of the plant reaches three meters - take care of a reliable support.
Chinese goji appeared as a result of many years of selection experiments of Chinese gardeners. This variety has a more lush and tall bushes. To taste, honey berries are drop-shaped (up to 3 centimeters in length) only slightly resemble the nightshade.
Such berries are easy to dry, and they are very nice to eat fresh because of the thin skin and small seeds.
The disadvantages of this variety include late fruiting: the first crop is harvested from young bushes only in the second, third or even fourth year after planting.
It should also be borne in mind that in the more northern Russian regions most of the Chinese goji berries simply do not have time to ripen. In addition, cuttings of this variety root poorly. An interesting experience of growing both types of this crop can be found here.
The technology of growing goji is not particularly complex. This culture prefers stony alkaline soils, but it will remarkably take root on black soil. Goji should not be placed on areas flooded in spring, as it does not tolerate overmoistening. In this case, plants are more tolerant of short-term drought.
Goji have rows at a distance of 1.5-2 meters between plants in a row and 2-3 meters between the rows. Seedlings are placed in planting pits of 50 × 50x50.
10 liters of mature compost and a liter of wood ash are added to each such hole, the fertilizers are mixed thoroughly with the surrounding soil, and the plant is planted.
Immediately after planting next to each seedling, it is necessary to dig into the soil a support 2-2.5 meters high, since in the first few seasons the shoots tend to sink to the ground.
The first few years should pay due attention to the formation of goji bushes. 3-5 plants of the most powerful skeletal escape should be left on each plant, and the others should be disposed of. On the skeletal branches form the so-called fruit shoulders 20-50 centimeters long, on which fruit shoots grow. They should be cut annually, leaving up to four buds on each.
If for some reason you want to limit the growth of a bush, you can form goji in the form of a compact tree. To do this, when planting in the soil around the seedling, a metal rod is installed with a height of up to 3 meters. Then goji is grown in one shoot, which, as it grows, must be attached to the rod.
When it reaches 1-1.5 in height, they make a stem and start forming fruit shoots.
You can grow goji with the help of root shoots, green and lignified cuttings, but the most convenient and reliable method is rooting of shoots.
In the second half of June, when the bushes will acquire lush foliage, they take a young branch, bend it down, put it in a mini-container and sprinkle it with earth. Water as needed.
By the fall, numerous roots form on the underground part of the shoot, besides it will be covered with fruits. After this, the escape should be separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
Goji, like any other plant, can be affected by diseases and pests. From aphids, the Colorado potato beetle and caterpillars of the winter scoop helps to get rid of repeated spraying of plants with wormwood extract.
Although goji is distinguished by its resistance to disease, with poor plant care, natural immunity decreases and they may suffer from phytophthora or powdery mildew (how to cope with these ailments with the help of natural remedies can be found in the articles “Save the plants from powdery mildew” and “ 11 effective recipes to combat the phytophthora of tomatoes ").
Goji berry: planting and care in the suburbs, growing from seed, photo
The foothill areas of Tibet gave us an amazing plant - goji, also called Tibetan barberry and common rerez. The shrub has slightly hanging soft vines. They have spines and can reach up to 80 cm in length.
Leaves lanceolate, tapering to the tip, green, with a gray tinge. The flowers are five-lobed, reaching 3 cm in diameter. The flowering period lasts from the beginning of June to mid-August. Color purple. Perennial growth ranges from 6 to 9 meters.
The berries are bright red, oval, no longer than 2 cm in length.
Goji has one feature: during the contact of a person causes an oxidation reaction, the skin at that moment turns black.
Поэтому во время сбора урожая плоды не берут руками, а натягивают специальный настил и потряхивают ветки. В естественных условиях встречается на высоте 3-х тысяч метров над уровнем моря.
Ореолом обитания являются Китай, Австралия, Америка и Африка. It is actively used not only for decorative purposes, but also for medicinal purposes.
Use in landscape design
Tibetan barberry - an indispensable element of the design of the garden plot. Specialists, exposing his haircut and modeling, create exquisite compositions. It is actively used by gardeners to create hedges, group and single plantings, as a way to zone a site.
Unpretentious gardening feels great in winter gardens and container plantings. In any case, wolfberry ordinary perfectly complements the landscape. Perennial has long been a permanent member of Japanese gardens. In them he plays the role of a lawn framing, protects fragile flowerbeds from the wind, trampling.
Combination with other cultures
Most often combined with different varieties of barberry. It can be used both as the main background. Bright flowers and noticeable berries appropriately fill the contrasting accent zones. Harmonious compositions can be created in partnership with:
The bottom tier of the ensemble is filled with:
When selecting "neighbors" it is important to take into account agrarian requirements and color compatibility.
Goji berries planting shrubs
Eastern miracle is better to plant in the middle of spring. Cross-pollination requires the location next to another 1-2 representatives. A suitable well size is 35 cm deep and 45 cm wide. The optimal distance between them is 130-140 cm. The distance between the rows is at least 250-300 cm. The soil that falls asleep in the landing pit is mixed with large quantities of compost.
The root zone, after planting, mulch or cover with straw. Woods can be strengthened support, its height should not exceed 2 meters.
Loosening and mulching. Have a beneficial effect on growth and development. It is important to carry out shallow loosening in order not to damage the root system. During it, all the weeds are also removed. With the help of humus or peat, young plants protect against moisture evaporation during planting.
Watering and feeding
Watering should be scant but regular. It is necessary to avoid overwetting. This is especially true of young seedlings. They are more sensitive to both abundance and lack of water. Ground drying and crust formation are unacceptable..
If there is heavy rainfall for a long time, the basal zone is covered with plastic wrap so that the roots do not rot. Copies planted without a drainage layer are covered on the very first day of torrential rains. Irrigation mode is closely related to weather conditions. During a drought, it occurs every 3 days. Young specimens are watered more often.
Unlike adults, they are not able to withstand the drying out of the soil. Inhabitants of sunny sites require more moisture.
As for dressings. Unpretentious shrub able to grow even in poor ground. Minerals are not particularly demanding. Enough to make compost and a complex with phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium in the spring.
Diseases and pests
The most common problem is the appearance powdery mildewin the rainy season. It does not cause significant harm to the ornamental shrub.
For prevention, the bush is sprayed with soapy water. Special chemicals do not apply. Young shoots may start Colorado potato beetle, caterpillars and aphid.
The affected areas are treated with a strong solution of wormwood.
Trimming and preparation for winter
Pruning begins with the formation of the "skeleton" of garden plantings. The method has a great similarity with the formation of the crown of the vine: on the main branches only fruit “shoulders” are left (branches no more than 30 cm).
By trimming and molding, you can create a columnar form of perennial, with descending branches. The stem is selected in height of 100-150 cm. It is supported by a metal rod. During the creation of the crown requires support.
Severe winter conditions will immediately destroy the useful representative of the flora. It is very important to conduct a thorough and proper preparation for the cold season.
In central Russia, the shrub is carefully removed from the soil, pre-trenched around its root circle, and placed in a deep container together with an earthy clod.
It is transferred to the full onset of heat in the basement, winter garden or a warm veranda. If the climate is mild, then trunk mulching will help protect against temperature fluctuations. The first layer is applied from sawdust. It should be at least 13 cm. From above they are covered with spruce branches.
Species and varietal diversity
Today, more than 35 species of this useful representative of flora are known. Shrubs and their fruits, in different varieties, have significant differences:
- grade "New big". Appeared thanks to the work of breeders from Poland. Its height is 340-350 cm. It is grown as a shrub or vine. Fruits decorate branches in the first year. The eastern miracle is growing very fast: adding up to 90 cm in height per year. The variety is frost resistant, unpretentious and very decorative. Berries ripen in September-October.
- Chinese. The low-lying representative reaches 180-200 cm in height. Resistant to the appearance of diseases and insect pests. The preferred landing place is a small shadow. Planted young plants in pairs. Pulp berries sour, with a characteristic bitterness. Ripens before other representatives. The fruits hang on the branches until the first frost.
- lhasa. Height 300 cm. Arched branches, dotted with small spines all over the surface. It is very popular because of its high yield. One bush is a way to bring up to 5 kg of berries. Flowers purple color, pollinated independently. Fruits are orange, large size.