Far from farming, a person is often lost if he is asked the question from which plant millet is obtained. This culture is called millet and has long been grown in the Russian North, as well as in almost all the peoples of the East. From millet it turns out not only familiar porridge, but also beer, kvass, flour. As feed for livestock husk, straw, millet's torch is used.
Growing Millet: Key Features and Benefits
Millet is one of the main cereal crops in the world. This spring grass is valued for the high taste qualities of grain (millet groats). It is drought-resistant, is a culture of short daylight, is characterized by rapid vegetation. Due to these properties in the south of Russia it is often sown as a crop after harvest (an intermediate crop that is cultivated after harvesting another type of grain in the same year).
Growing millet is beneficial in areas where other crops suffer from drought. Millet is heat-resistant, forms a good crop, even at high temperatures. This grass is an insurance crop: even in the most unfavorable years, it gives yields of 10 centners / ha. If the agrotechnical methods are observed, the sowing density is optimal, then the yield will be 15-17 centners per hectare. The record in this area belongs to the Kazakh farmer Chaganak Bersiyev, which he received in 1943: 200 centners of millet per hectare (about 10 cups of grain per 1 m²).
Place of millet in the rotation
Cultivation of millet will be most effective after leguminous, perennial grasses, winter crops and tilled crops that are free from weeds. It is not recommended to sow millet after corn (as well as in front of it), since both plants are affected by the stem moth.
Millet, in turn, is suitable as a precursor for almost all crops.
Tillage for millet
The main tasks of processing - cleaning from weeds, accumulation and retention of moisture. Based on the climate, predecessors, the degree of debris tillage can be carried out on several systems.
Normal zyab. It is used usually after beet, sunflower and other late tilled predecessors. Plowing is carried out at a depth of about 20 cm. If the predecessor was sunflower, soil disking in two cross directions is used.
Improved zyab. Used after early predecessors in order to destroy root-weed weeds (field sowing and others). Immediately after harvesting the predecessor, the soil is peeled 6 to 8 cm deep. After 2 weeks, after the outgrowth of the rosette outgrowths, a flat-cutting treatment of 12–1 cm or plowing at the same depth is performed. After another 2–2.5 weeks, after the next formation of the outlets with a thistle, the field is plowed to a depth of 20–22 cm with a plow with coulters.
Half-steam processing of zyabi. It is optimal after early harvested crops in flat fields. It requires good crumbling of the earth and wet weather. The usual early plowing with a plow with skimmers and harrows is carried out. Weeds are destroyed as they appear with one or two autumn cultivations.
Zero processing permissible on loose and weed-free soils, especially those treated with herbicides. In this case, after harvesting the previous crop, the ground should be plowed to a depth of 6–7 cm, and in the spring it should be cultivated once or twice as weeds grow.
Spring plowing for millet leads to drying of the soil, grossly violates the agricultural practices of this crop and therefore is unacceptable.
Processing techniques in spring and winter
In winter, on the prospective field, two or three times snow retention is carried out, snowmelt is regulated, and thawing waters are retained.
When the soil dries out in the spring, the plowing harrow is organized. Sometimes in the spring the fall is not harrowed. This is done so that the loosened layer of soil retains moisture, weed seeds can better germinate in it, which will then be easier to remove by cultivation. Cultivations are usually 1 - 2, on a heavily littered field - 3.
To obtain high yields, the cultivation of millet should be carried out using organic and mineral fertilizers. 1 centner of grain (plus the corresponding amount of straw) consumes:
• 1.4 kg of phosphorus,
• 3 kg of nitrogen
• 3.3 kg of potassium,
• 1.0 kg of calcium.
Millet responds particularly well to phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers. In contrast to other cereals, millet does not produce fattening shoots after nitrogen fertilizer application, but brings a higher yield. Ammonia-nitrogen fertilizers should be applied for plowing, the nitrate nitrogen fertilizers during the first cultivation, and P 10 when sowing. During the period of tillering of millet, surface fertilizing of ammonium nitrate has a good effect.
Phosphate fertilizers are applied at the beginning of the growing season, helping the growth of roots. Also, the cultivation of millet will be more productive when seed treatment is applied to those microelements that are lacking in the soil. It can be manganese, iron, zinc, boron, copper, etc. It is possible to reduce the dose of fertilizers or even abandon them on highly fertile soils or well fertilized during the cultivation of beets and potatoes.
Seed preparation for sowing
Large seeds of I and II classes are used. To increase the germination energy, seeds need to be scattered in a thin layer in air and left for 5-7 days, often shoveling. Before sowing, prevention of infection of the head is made:
• phenor, 70% sp.,
• baytan, 15% sp., Or benlat, 50% sp. 2 kg per 1 ton,
• formalin, 40% ip, diluted in 300 parts of water (from loose smut, consumption of 0.38 l of solution per 1 ton of seeds).
For disinfection the seeds are immersed in the solution, then the floating grains are removed. Suitable seeds are collected in a pile, covered with a dense cloth and aged for 2 hours. Then, airing is performed.
Often together with the processing of formalin and combined fermentation of seeds. In this case, after airing the seeds, they are moistened in 5 to 6 receptions, wetting with small portions of warm water (about 30 ° C). The seeds during this treatment absorb moisture in the amount of 30 - 35% of their mass. After impregnation with water, 20–30% of seeds should be applied. Then they are scattered in a thin layer, dried and sown. The emergence of seedlings is accelerated and their amicability increases.
For sowing millet, the soil should be heated to 12 - 15 ° C. It should be sown when the danger of frost is finally passed.
On the littered fields, millet is sown during the mass occurrence of late weeds (including prosidovye), which are destroyed during cultivation.
Usually in the forest-steppe millet is sown until the middle - the end of May. If early ripening varieties are chosen, the cultivation of millet is possible with the June sowing period. For example, in the south of the central chernozem zone, millet ripens to frost even when sowing seeds on July 1 - 5. At the same time, in other regions, it is impossible to slow down the sowing: this will lead to the drying of the soil and significantly reduce the harvest.
On pure fields, a narrow-row and ordinary ordinary sowing method is used. If the field is littered with weeds or millet is sown in a dry area, it is better to use wide-row single-line (45 cm inter-row spacing) or two-line tape sowing (45 cm between ribbons, 15 cm - between the lines in the ribbon). Belt and wide-row methods help to more effectively fight weeds, which in this case appear between the rows and are removed by two-three cultivations. But it is still more reasonable to clean the field of weeds well before sowing, and then produce millet in the usual way. Such a solution will be cheaper; harvest losses will be lower during harvesting.
Seeding rates and depth of embedment of millet
• Wide-row seeding in arid steppe regions - 2.5 million. germinating grains per 1 ha
• Ordinary ordinary, narrow-row crop - 3 million per 1 ha.
• Forest-steppe zone - 3.5 million per 1 ha.
If conditions for field germination are unfavorable, the seeding rate should be increased by 15 - 25%.
If there is enough moisture in the upper soil layer, the seeds are embedded to a depth of 4–5 cm. In case of drying of the upper layer, this indicator can be increased to 7–8 cm, and on light soils up to 10 cm.
Care of crops
Postseed rolling. For this technique, annular or annular-heel rollers are used. Rolling improves the contact of seeds with the soil, speeds up their swelling, increases yield. In arid conditions it is necessary, but in wet (after rains) it will be superfluous.
Pre-emergence harrowing. Light sowing, netted, zubovy average harrows are used. Well helps in the fight against seedlings of weeds, protects against the formation of solid soil crust. The best time for harrowing is the period of mass appearance of weed seedlings. The root of the millet should not exceed the length of the seed. Harrowing is made to a depth less than the depth of sowing, otherwise the seedlings are injured. Progeny field harrowed across the rows of sowing. The optimal speed is 5 km / h.
Harrowing can also be carried out in the tillering stage, when the plants are well rooted. In the seedling stage, it is very undesirable because it cuts thin crops. If the need for this technique is still great (heavy weeds, soil crust), great caution is needed. In this case, rotary hoes are used.
On the wide-row and belt crops, 2 - 3 interrow weed treatments are carried out. A light hilling will be useful in the tube exit phase.
Against smut and melanosis, as well as pests (millet gnat, stem moth, thrips, aphids, etc.), adherence to agrotechnology is of paramount importance: proper crop rotation, tillage. Treatment of the millet field with insecticides is necessary only when there is a threat of a large yield loss.
Cultivation of millet is complicated by the fact that it ripens inappropriately and crumbles heavily. Most often, this culture is cleaned in a separate way. When 80% of the grains ripen in the panicles, the millet is cut with reapers. Grains in the upper part are fully ripe, in the middle they reach waxy ripeness, and in the lower part they are still in the milky state. That is why the wheat after harvesting ripens in rolls.
When mowing, stubble should be left at least 15 cm. Rolls are stacked across the rows. Selection and threshing are carried out at 14 - 15% grain moisture using sealed combines.
On admission to the current, the grain is immediately cleaned from straw and other impurities, and then dried.
Millet growing technology
author: Chekalin N.M., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Tishchenko V.N., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Bilavskaya L.G., Ph.D. of science
- source: Crop varieties of breeding of the Poltava State Agrarian Academy // N.M. Chekalin, V.N. Tishchenko, L.G. Bilavskaya
Grade of millet yellow White altanka
When mastering the technology of growing millet, we will first consider its biological features and stages of organogenesis.
Millet belongs to the heat-loving crops. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 8-10 ° C, but uniform germination is observed when the soil is heated to 15-16 ° C. It is sown when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm is 12-14 ° C. Plant shoots can withstand slight frosts - up to minus 2 ° C. When the temperature drops
to - 2-3 ° C are severely damaged, and when frosts below -3 ° C - die.
Millet is demanding in all phases of growth. During germination-tillering, it grows best at 18 ° C, tillering-ejection of volices - 20 ° C, ejection of volote-flowering - 23 ° C, flowering-ripening - 21 ° C. The sum of active temperatures for early-ripening varieties is 1500 ° С, medium-late ones - above 1600 ° С, and in cool and wet years - more than 2000 ° С. Millet tolerates high temperatures better than cereals of the first group. It can withstand a temperature rise of up to 38-40 ° C for 48 hours.
Requirements for moisture.
Millet is little demanding on moisture. For germination uses only 25% of the water by weight of the seed. Millet is capable of forming nodal roots with minimal soil moisture. It is grown in the driest areas. The drought resistance of millet is explained by the ability to temporarily suspend growth, to fold the leaves, which reduces the evaporation of moisture.
Requirements of millet to moisture increase during the period of going into the tube, when important stages of organogenesis pass and the vegetative mass is formed. Millet uses precipitation very well in the second half of the summer, whereas for the loaves of the first group they no longer provide any benefit.
Requirements for the light.
Millet - light-loving culture of a short day. When placing the rows from north to south, lighting conditions improve and increases by 6-10 ° C, grain yield. Cloudy weather in the second half of the growing season depresses millet and delays the growing season. In the northern regions, the growing season is longer than in the southern ones. Depending on the variety and growing conditions, it lasts from 70 to 120 days.
Requirements for the soil.
Millet grows well on fertile soils with an ample supply of easily accessible nutrients. The best soils are chernozems, chestnut. It can be sown on other soils with the appropriate fertilizer system, since the millet root system has a low digestible capacity. Millet is a salt-tolerant crop, does not tolerate increased acidity of the soil and grows better with a neutral reaction of the soil solution (pH 6.5-7.5).
THE STAGES OF ORGAN ORGENESIS
On Stage i the formation of the primary cone of the growth of the top. In all samples, it begins as early as the formation of bud seeds in the embryo and ends in the germination phase during the passage through the vernalization stage.
To Stage II organogenesis plants pass immediately after germination (at the end of the stage of vernalization). The cone of growth is slightly stretched in length, on it are laid the beginnings of future sheets,
"> At the base of the cone, the first internodes of the stem begin to form.
Stage III coincides with the transition of plants to the tillering stage. The cone of growth continues to stretch in length. On it are laid segments of the main axis of the inflorescence in the form of inconspicuous rollers. The stage is very short, corresponding to the completion of the tillering phase by the plant and its transition to the stage of booting and the end of the light stage of development. In the sinuses of the embryonic sheets (leaf rollers) are formed the cones of growth of the axis of the second order,
"> they are stretched in length and spikelet shovels, germinal spikelets, are formed on them.
On Stage IV the sizes of the panicle and the degree of its ramification, and the nature of synchronicity in the development of various tiers are determined. The development of a large number of full-fledged twigs is an important prerequisite for obtaining a high yield. Favorable environmental conditions at this stage are particularly important in shaping the quantity and quality of grain.
"> Therefore, during this period it is especially important to provide the plants with the necessary nutrients and moisture, to create sufficient illumination for them and the optimum temperature.
Stage V It takes place in the stage of booting and is characterized by the differentiation of spikelets with the formation of flowers in them. This process begins at the top of the panicle and, gradually lowering down, moves to its center. In the lower flower, the outer (lower) flower scales are laid, and other organs are reduced. In the upper flower two flower scales are laid, then the rudiments of stamens and pistil are formed and after that all the organs of the flower begin to grow, the differentiation of the arboric tissue begins. The duration of the stage is less in the early forms and in plants of late terms of sowing.
"> The air temperature below 20 ° C significantly inhibits the formation and growth of flowers at this stage in plants of the first term of sowing.
Stage VI passes shortly before throwing out the panicle. In the flowers of millet at this time the formation of anthers and ovaries. Plants at this stage need a certain duration, intensity and quality of lighting, as well as good moisture supply. A temperature not higher than 20 ° C favorably affects the development of millet.
"> High temperatures and lack of moisture lead to the deformation of pollen grains and the underdevelopment of the embryo sac.
Stage VII passes in front of or in the ejection phase of the panicle. It is characterized by enhanced growth of the inner flakes of the flower, inflorescence segments and the upper internodes of the stem.
"> Anthers are in the process of gametogenesis.
VIII stage proceeds to the phase of ejection of the panicle, when the further growth of panicle segments and individual elements of the flower slows down.
"> At this stage, the process of gametogenesis ends.
Stage IX corresponds to the flowering phase. The leading processes of this stage are fertilization and zygotogenesis. By this time, the internodes finish their growth and the stem reaches a normal value.
"> The main growth of the stem at this time is due to the upper internodes.
"> On X stage the formation and growth of grains and the process of embryogenesis.
">XI and XII stages pass in the phase of ripening.
">Использование морфофизиологического метода позволяет увидеть существенные различия в характере развития органов плодоношения проса в зависимости от биологических особенностей растений (эколого-географической группы), от агротехнических факторов (сроков сева) и от погодных условий.
Таким образом, исследование этапов органогенеза генеративных органов у образцов проса раннеспелого (монголо-бурятский экотип), среднеспелый (лесостепной экотип) и позднеспелого (восточно-азиатский экотип), проведенное Н. П. Агафоновым (ВИР), показало различия в темпах прохождения отдельных фенофаз. У скороспелых форм растения переходят к III-IV этапам органогенеза в фазу 2-4 листьев, у позднеспелых — эти этапы начинаются только в фазу 4-6 листьев. The phase of entering the tube in early-ripening forms begins at the end of the fourth stage of organogenesis, which coincides with the beginning of the formation of flower tubercles,
"> in the middle of stage IV - in the period of branching of the spikelet axis.
"> With late seeding (late May - early June), the duration of the stages of organogenesis of the generative organs of millet is significantly reduced compared with early crops - in the first decade of May.
Ultra Early Millet belongs to the group of early ripening varieties and is suitable for postharvest sowing and obtaining a second crop per year: they are sown after winter barley, winter wheat, winter rape, annual grasses.
"> The main terms of sowing such millet are extended until the end of July, and the duration of the stages of organogenesis of the generative organs of ultra early ripening millet is short.
TECHNOLOGY OF CROP PASS
The intensive technology of growing millet requires good predecessors. The best predecessors for millet are winter crops that are sown in busy pairs. Millet grows well after cultivated crops: corn, potatoes, sugar beets, under which a sufficient amount of organic and mineral fertilizers are applied. Leguminous crops and perennial leguminous grasses are also good precursors, but these precursors are mainly used for winter crops.
"> We propose to use the predecessor, sunflower, in the cultivation of our varieties of millet.
"> It is not advisable to place the millet after the early spring grain, as the soil after them is usually depleted, and most importantly littered with weeds, to which the millet is very sensitive.
After corn or before corn, millet is problematic to place, since both cultures are affected by the corn moth.
"> Re-sowing on the same field can lead to mass reproduction of parasitic fungi (Fusarium, helminthicorium, etc.).
When millet is placed after grain and leguminous crops, the main tillage begins with stubble peeling with LDH-10 and LDG-15 disc shears to a depth of 6-8 cm.
Fields littered with root-weed weeds (chaff, birch, couch grass) are treated with plow-leaf sheller PPL-10-25 and PPL-5-25 to a depth of 12-14 cm. After sugar beet, potatoes are plowed at once.
"> Pike plowing for millet should be carried out at an early date to a depth of 25-27 cm. On less fertile soils, plowing depth is 22-25 cm.
Early autumn plowing is carried out with combined units consisting of K-701 with PTK-9-35 and TsVR-3.5 or T-150K with PLP-6-35 ha PVR-2.3. The IHVR-3.5 and TAC-2,3 devices are used, if necessary, for grinding lumps of soil, compaction of the upper layer and its leveling. With the same purpose, it is possible to complete the units with ring-heel rollers ЗККШ-6А, 2ККН-2.8 or КЗК-10.
"> Early autumn plowing provides an increase in the yield of millet by 2-1 q / ha.
Spring tillage for millet provides for spring closure of moisture with heavy harrows (BZZTS-1.0) at an angle to autumn plowing in two tracks to a depth of 3-5 cm. By sowing, it is possible to clean the field of weeds by “surface” cultivation. The first cultivation to a depth of 10–12 cm is carried out 10–15 days after the closure of moisture, while destroying a wave of sprouted weeds. After two weeks, the field is cultivated a second time to a depth of 8-10 cm, while destroying the second wave of weeds. When sowing in the second decade of May, such surface treatments for the destruction of germinated weeds can be carried out three. In the conditions of early and dry spring, the depth of tillage during cultivation should be shallow by 5-6 cm. For the last treatment (pre-sowing), use combined units (RVK-3,6, LK-4, Evropak, Kompaktor). They provide high quality soil preparation and create good conditions for high field germination of millet.
"> The depth of the opening of the loosening paws during pre-sowing treatment should correspond to the depth of sowing of millet - 2-4 cm.
Seed preparation for sowing begin immediately after harvesting. To protect against damage from smut and other diseases, seeds are etched with such preparations: Vitavax, fundazol in the norm of 2 kg / t.
"> It is advisable to add film-forming substances - KAKMS or PVA.
The intensive technology of growing millet needs a crop fertilizer system. Millet uses 3.0-3.2 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, 1.3-1.5 kg of phosphorus, 2.0-3.4 kg of potassium, 1.0-1.3 for the formation of 1 centner of grain and the same amount of straw. kg of calcium. Korneusvaevae ability of the culture is weaker compared with other spring grains, therefore, to obtain high yields of grain it is necessary to make fertilizer. Organic fertilizers are applied under predecessors, millet uses their aftereffects. Directly under the millet make manure impractical because it has a lot of weed seeds. Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are best applied for autumn plowing, and nitrogen fertilizers - in the spring under the first cultivation or before sowing.
"> To obtain 45-50 centners per hectare of millet, the approximate norms of mineral fertilizers are:
"> for Forest-steppe - N70-90R45-60K45-60,
"> for Polesia - N70-90R60-70K60-70.
If there is little mineral fertilizer, they are applied at the time of sowing at the rate of 10-15 kg / ha for nutrient. Feed nitrogen fertilizers (N20-30) at the beginning of the plant in the tube.
"> When out-feeding, it is very effective to use the complex fertilizer Crystalone, which contains nitrogen, phosphate, potash, mineral fertilizers and 9 microelements.
Sow millet in a narrow-row fashion with a 7.5 cm inter-row width with SZU-3.6 planters, lower-case with 15 cm inter row spacings with maple drills 4.5, SZ-3.6, SZA-3.6, SZT-3.6, wide-row ( 45 cm) by the method SST-12A, SST-12B beet planter equipped with special seed devices STYA-23000. With the wide-row method of sowing, it is possible to destroy weeds on crops with the help of inter-row loosening. Despite the fact that millet has small seeds, it is not afraid of deep seeding in the soil. With sufficient soil moisture, the seeds are buried to a depth of 2-4 cm, and in dry years and on light soils 5-7 cm. Millet is a culture of late sowing. When millet is sown in insufficiently heated soil, it becomes heavily clogged with faster sprouted weeds. Sow it at a soil temperature to a depth of 10 cm, not lower than 12-15 ° C. In the Northern Forest-Steppe and in Polesye, this soil temperature occurs in the first or second decade of May,
"> in the Southern Forest-Steppe and the North-Western Steppe - in the third decade of April and the first decade of May.
It is very important to prevent a gap in time between the pre-sowing tillage and sowing, in order to sow the seeds in its wet layer.
"> The optimal rate of sowing seeds in a row sowing method for: Northern Forest-Steppe and Polesia - 3.7-4.0 million / ha (28-30 kg / ha),
"> Central Forest-Steppe - 3.3- 3.5 million / ha (24-26 kg / ha), Southern Forest-Steppe - 2.5-3.0 million / ha (18-22 kg / ha),
"> Steppes - 2.3-2.5 million / ha (16-18 kg / ha).
With the wide-row method, the seeding rate is reduced by 3.5-4.0 kg / ha for the Steppe and the Southern Forest-Steppe and by 5-7 kg / ha for the Central Forest-Steppe and Polesia.
"> If sown in a narrow-range way, the seeding rate is increased by 0.5-0.7 million. Vigorous grains per 1 ha.
The first and important measure of planting care is rolling in the soil after sowing with simultaneous harrowing with light harrows. At the same time, the contact of seeds with the soil improves, the moisture enters the seed layer better, the temperature rises. All this contributes to friendly germination of seeds, the emergence of seedlings is accelerated for 1-2 days. On 3-5 days after sowing, pre-emergence harrowing with light harrows is carried out to destroy weeds in the “white thread” phase.
"> Post-harvest harrowing with seed harrows SMP-06A is carried out in the tillering stage, when the plants are well rooted.
Weed control in millet crops is most effective when combined with agrotechnical and chemical methods. Millet is the least sensitive to the action of herbicides from germination to tillering.
"> On the millet use such drugs - agritox (0.7-1.7 l / ha), 40% dialen (2.0-1.0 l / ha), lontrel (0.2-0.7 l / ha ).
The problem of protection against diseases is mainly solved by the treatment of grain.
"> Protect crops from pests (millet gnats, aphids) using the Bi-58 new (0.7-1.0 l / ha).
Millet has a long period of formation and ripening of grain. Due to the fact that millet varieties of PGAA selection belong to early-ripening varieties, they can be harvested by direct combining, which makes it possible to obtain additional green mass, hay. In direct combining, millet should be harvested when 100% of the grains have ripened. After threshing the grain, it must be passed through the SMF-2.1 two times, and then divided into fractions on an aerodynamic separator (SAD-1, SAD-5, SAD-10) or on a Petkus grain-cleaning machine. When harvesting in a separate way, millet is mowed into rolls during the period when 75-80% of the grains have ripened on the plants and finish when 80-90% of the grain has ripened. The height of the mowing on the rolls is 12-18 cm. The rolls are threshed after 3-5 days, when the grain moisture decreases to 15-16% and the cut weight will dry well.
"> The cleaned grain is dried and stored at a moisture content of 13-14%.
"> To help commodity producers, we have created varieties of ultra-early millet: | Poltava gold | Cinderella | White altanka |
Grade of millet "White altanka»Has the largest mass of thousands of grains among the varieties on the Ukrainian market - up to 10.6 grams.
"> Twice the grain of the varieties of domestic breeding!
You can purchase elite seeds of millet Poltava breeding here!