In addition to traditional materials used in the arrangement of urban and manor infrastructure (asphalt, concrete, gravel, paving slabs), stone blocks have recently gained popularity. Made of natural stone, it has a lot of advantages, but its cost is much higher. An alternative to the natural blind area are products made from artificial fillers, besides an acceptable price, they are distinguished by a variety of types: square, rectangular, polygonal. This was made possible by the existence of many forms for paving stones.
Types and characteristics
The matrix for the production of the bridge stone are baths of various configurations, made of synthetic components. Depending on the material, there are several types of them:
- The plastic form for paving stones is the most common, it is used mainly for the manufacture of rectangular and square products, it can have a different relief and pattern. Strong enough, thanks to stiffening ribs, wall thickness 3 mm. Gives the surface a high-quality gloss. The number of production cycles is about 250.
- The form of polystyrene for paving stones is impact resistant, conveys the texture of natural stones and various patterns. Products receive a mirror surface similar to the polished stone. Thickness of walls is 3 mm, there are stiffening ribs.
- Silicone is available with two types of surface: matte and glossy. Designed for 500 operating cycles. Wall thickness - 4 mm.
- Polyurethane has a high degree of strength. It is intended for the manufacture of a relief surface of a stone with fine details. The number of operating cycles - about 100
How to get yourself a simple form
When planning the improvement of your backyard plot or cottage, you can purchase ready-made elements of a blind area. Making the stone yourself will be a less expensive way. For this, in addition to the filler, you will need matrices that can be easily found from the ad: “I will buy a form for paving stones”. But it is even easier to make it yourself from plastic, silicone or any improvised means - an unnecessary plastic container, a container from water, and so on. To do this, you will need a simple set of tools and building materials: wooden blocks, drill, screwdriver, saw, building level, screws or screws. With all of the above, the shape of your own hands for the production of paving stones can be made quite efficiently and quickly.
- Plastic. First you need to make a frame of wooden bars of the desired configuration, it should be 3 cm larger than the calculated size of the product. Boards are connected with a screwdriver. The level checks the evenness of the surface of the frame. Plastic melted on the fire and poured into the finished matrix. It cools about 1 hour. After it is necessary to remove the finished cliche and process its surface with fine-grained emery paper to remove roughness and burrs.
- Silicone. The frame for the manufacture of the form can be made of any material that meets the requirements of rigidity: wood, metal. Bay in silicone, leave it to freeze for a day.
- Before pouring the silicone mass, you should make sure that there is no rust, dirt, dust on the surfaces of the container, and to degrease it.
- The simplest may be the use of ready-made plastic containers for storing products. For this purpose, a 5 liter plastic bottle can serve, you just need to cut it at a certain height.
The price of the forms for the manufacture of paving stones depends on their configuration, the material used, the size and number of molded products in one matrix. On average in Moscow, the cost of plastic molds is as follows:
What is necessary
As materials suitable for the manufacture of the matrix, you can use:
- Wooden bars.
- Gypsum, etc.
Anyway, the work will require certain tools and fixtures. The final choice usually determines the most accessible and familiar material in the processing.
Making a master model and matrix
Before you mold the form for paving stones, you need to make a master model, which is a project of the future product. You can buy in the store ready sample of stone. The master model is made in the required dimensions. If you have certain skills in modeling, you can make it from clay, plaster, plastic, concrete and even ordinary clay. The main thing is that the surface of the future master model should be carefully worked out, since the polymer forms will repeat even the smallest details of its patterns and relief. Also, the master model can serve as a wooden plank with a well-defined texture, stone-bare or other elements with a textured surface. The process of manufacturing a matrix for pouring polymer forms:
- Install the master model on a sheet of plywood or other flat sheet material.
- Make a frame around the master model, which will prevent the spreading of the polymer material. The distance from the frame walls to the model should be approximately 2 cm. The height of the frame should exceed the model by 2 cm. Thus, the walls of the future shape will be the desired thickness. In order to use the polymer blend more economically, for models of complex shapes, it is better to make frames in the form of polygons, the outlines of which approximately follow the outline of the model.
- Set the frame to the place where the master model lies, so that it is centered.
- So that the liquid polymer material does not leak, you can fasten the joints of the frame with the plane sealant.
Tools and materials for laying pavers.
For the manufacture of molds from the resulting master model, you will need materials and tools such as:
- wooden bars
- liquid plastic (polyurethane, silicone, plaster),
- electric drill,
- building level,
For the manufacture of paving stones from the forms obtained are necessary:
- concrete mixer,
- Master OK,
- putty knife,
- reinforcement mesh
- oil (vegetable or machine),
- protective gloves
- access to electricity and water.
Forms for paving stones made of plastic
It is very simple to make forms from plastic. To do this, you need to make a frame of wooden bars and pour liquid plastic into it. After it hardens, the forms are ready for use.
Drawing of a metal mold for paving stones.
In more detail it is necessary to stop on production of a framework. This requires:
- Prepare 2 bars, the length of which should be 3 cm longer than that of the future stone blocks.
- The other 2 bars should correspond exactly to the future dimensions of the paving stones.
- Screw the bars perpendicular to each other, to get a frame, the internal dimensions of which correspond to the desired pavement. To check the evenness should use the square and level.
- Insert the master model of pavers in the frame and pour liquid plastic.
- After drying of the plastic (about 1 hour), the form can be carefully removed.
- In the presence of roughness they are removed with sandpaper.
Forms for pavers made of polyurethane
Polyurethane mixture consists of two components. It is poured into the matrix and raise the edges by several centimeters. The mixture should independently push out all air bubbles. During the day polyurethane mold should be in the formwork until it hardens. After extraction, it must be left to acquire the final hardness for another 2 days. Only after that the polyurethane mold for paving will be ready for use.
Work with polyurethane should be carried out in compliance with safety rules:
- need to work in a well-ventilated area
- use personal protective equipment
- avoid contact of polymer blends with skin and eyes,
- Avoid contact of polyurethane with water and wet surfaces.
Forms for paving stones made of silicone
The form of use for paving stones.
Making silicone molds for paving stones is an easy process. To do this, use a special silicone for casting, which consists of three components: base, catalyst and hardener.
Rules of work with casting silicone:
- The proportions of the silicone components need to be measured as accurately as possible.
- the shape of the future paving stones must be well prepared, that is, cleaned of dirt and dust and degreased,
- The matrix must also be prepared before pouring silicone into it.
- Prepare a matrix for pouring silicone into it. Ensure its tightness.
- Evenly distribute sculptural non-stiffening clay in the container, avoiding gaps. He must fill the matrix to half.
- Lay on the clay a master model oiled with vegetable or machine oil.
- Mix the components of silicone, following the instructions in the instructions.
- Pour silicone into the matrix in a thin stream, trying to prevent the formation of bubbles.
- Leave the silicone to freeze for a day, and then remove the finished product from the container.
Form for paving stone
Wooden form for paving stones is the easiest and cheapest option. However, only square, rectangular, polygonal or diamond shaped molds can be made of wood. The easiest way to knock the bars together in the desired shape and secure them with corners. But it is better to approach this case more seriously and carefully. Then the form will be reliable and convenient in operation.
For the manufacture of wooden forms for paving stones will need:
- wooden blocks of the required length for the manufacture of the desired shape and a height exceeding the parameter of stone blocks by 2 cm,
- wooden slats of the same length
- screwdriver with screws and screws
- saw or jigsaw,
- masking tape
- sandpaper H-6,
- varnish on wood.
For easy extraction of paving stones, the form must be lubricated.
The stages of making a wooden form should be considered on the simplest example - a square form:
- To make a marking, considering not only external sizes, but also internal.
- Cut into bars of the required length.
- Combine all parts with masking tape. It will temporarily fix them for convenience in the future. Check the evenness of the corners with the help of a square.
- After that, fasten all the details with screws or screws. For the square shape, 8 screws will be enough, which will provide the necessary strength of the structure.
- Sanding the inside of the mold with emery paper to ensure smoothness of the pavers in the future.
- Varnish the inside of the mold. This makes it easy to remove the finished product from the mold. But before each use of the form, it is still necessary to wet it in a soapy solution in order to avoid sticking of the product.
- After pouring the solution into the mold and freezing it, disassemble the mold by unscrewing all the screws. So, it is easy to avoid damage to the paving stones when removing from the mold.
Such molds can be used repeatedly. The main thing is that all the bars should be fitted very tightly to each other in order to avoid the solution flowing through the cracks.
In conclusion, we can recommend some useful tips.
It is better to do several identical forms at once. This will save time on making paving stones.
Facilitate the work on laying paving slabs will help ready corner elements. It is better for them to prepare in advance special angular forms. This eliminates the need to cut the whole tile.
Varieties of forms
Today, there is a wide range of paving slabs for sale. They are divided into categories that are determined by the shape of the product and the way it is laid. There are the following types of tiles:
- square, rectangular,
- arbitrary shape
Regarding the method of manufacturing tiles divided into cast, pressed. It is possible to manufacture extruded tiles only in factories that have specialized equipment. Such a process requires significant cash outlay. Therefore, such tiles are not made at home.
Unlike pressed, cast tiles are easy to make yourself. To do this, it will be enough to purchase or design forms for the manufacture of tiles and make the necessary solution.
What are forms made of?
In any hardware store, you can purchase forms for pouring paving tiles. They have a different quality, and therefore a different price. The classification of forms depends on the material from which it is made. Consider the main types of these devices.
The mold for the manufacture of cast tiles can be as follows:
Today, rubber molds are considered obsolete technology. They are rapidly becoming more expensive due to the constant increase in prices for raw materials. Also, these devices are heavy, require parallel use of additional equipment (vibrating table, special rack and shields).
In the process of reducing the cost of forms, the manufacturer adds to rubber technical carbon in large quantities, which negatively affects the quality of products. The service life of these forms will be no more than a couple of months, they can also leave dark spots on the finished tile.
Especially popular are the forms of silicone. Among their advantages are elasticity, ease of use, the ability to decorate tiles with small details. But the price of such forms is not the most democratic.
Silicone mold is designed for home use, with the production of a large number of tiles, it can not cope, because it is not strong enough.
Fiberglass molds are more often used when creating tiles of large size, decorative concrete figures, or any other volumetric product. Forms from fiberglass can not be called quality. Often they are not even geometrically, before the operation of the forms for tiles required lubrication.
Due to lubrication, pores and cavities appear on the finished product, and no glossy surface is created. Such tiles often need additional processing. For these reasons, craftsmen rarely use the forms of this material.
More often, plastic molds are used for independent production of paving slabs. Thanks to modern material, such forms are perfect for home use, as well as for the manufacture of a large number of tiles.
Different types of plastic are used for the production of such products, and the characteristics of the forms depend on the source material. But any forms of plastic are durable, they are not subject to deformation and cracking.
When choosing a form, be sure to review the certificate for the product, which indicates the material and its characteristics. The cost of plastic inventory ranges from twenty to sixty rubles.
How to make a form yourself?
If desired, the inventory can not buy, and do it yourself. Consider in detail how to make the form yourself at minimal cost. The most suitable materials for such a purpose are wood, metal, plastic. It is not necessary to adhere to the classical rules, devices can be of any shape and size.
Wooden forms are made from planed boards or plywood. After preparing the material, form a kind of box without a bottom, giving it the desired shape, install it on the rubber mat.
In order to seal the gap between the bottom and the form, use mounting foam, silicone. After that, the ready-made form can be poured concrete solution. Tiles are removed only after the solution is completely dry.
For the manufacture of metal inventory, you can use fragments of a conventional pipe. The pipe is cut into rings of equal height and give the desired geometric shape. To make a tile with a pattern, the form must be installed on a raised rubber mat. Before pouring the concrete solution, the inside of the metal mold must be treated with oil.
The process of making plastic molds is a little more complicated. Initially, it is necessary to make a wooden frame into which molten plastic will be poured. It is worth remembering that the sides of the frame should have a length greater than three centimeters from the side of the form. For fastening wooden parts, use metal corners, or screws.
The dimensions of the second frame should be identical to the size of the required tile. Next, combine the two frames, set the structure on the base and fill the plastic mass. After complete cooling of the plastic, the wooden structure is removed.
To learn how to make interesting and original forms for paving slabs, view photos and videos of training workshops.
Materials to create forms
There are many options for raw materials, from which, if desired, you can make forms for paving slabs with your own hands. Of these, you can choose the one with which it will be comfortable to work. Of course, it is impossible to make molds for concrete paving slabs at home, but creating a good formwork that is ideal for injection molding technology is quite real.
Wood became almost the very first material from which the molds were made for pouring concrete products. Working with her is quite simple and pleasant. But there are drawbacks that can be encountered if you prefer the tree as the basis for the formwork:
- using it, you can make only simple geometric shapes - rhombus, square, rectangle, hexagon. The front surface, if desired, is decorated with the help of mock-up images purchased in the store or made by hand,
- the tree is short-lived. Pour with a single sample can be no more than 20 pieces of concrete products. But if a small amount of work is planned, then in principle this fact can be ignored,
- assembly mechanism is not very convenient in operation.
The use of wooden forms gives an excellent opportunity to reinforce products, to increase their service life.
For the apprentice, who owns the welding technique, it will not be difficult to create metal forms for paving tiles. The resulting formwork will differ not only in long service life, but also in fairly accurate geometry.
Especially it is convenient for casting plates on the spot. With this method only one formwork will be needed. In addition, it can be successfully used for driving products with subsequent drying. The metal form perfectly "releases" the concrete product and is easily cleaned from the remnants of the solution.
Gypsum has long held a leading position in the unofficial rating of materials for the manufacture of paving slabs. He deserved such popular love with his undeniable advantages:
- low cost
- the possibility of embodying the most complex forms
- the simplicity of the creation process.
But all these wonderful qualities are balanced by a serious drawback - gypsum products are very fragile, especially under the condition of constant use.
Most of these forms are suitable for the creation of decorative plaster products that imitate natural stone and are used in interior design.
You can make interesting shapes with a complex pattern using special plastic. This is a fairly new home technology, but it has already gained widespread acceptance. The formwork of it has a precise geometry, with high performance and ease of use. With such forms, you can even pour the hard mixture, compacted using a vibrating table.
Rubber special varieties have long been used in this area of construction. But it is impossible to manufacture rubber molds independently in ordinary living conditions. To do this, you need special pressure equipment and tools. Yes, and in use, such formwork is fastidious enough, it can only be poured concrete, followed by compaction on the vibrating table. Therefore, this technology is considered obsolete and it is difficult to find the necessary material and tools for its implementation.
Polyurethane and silicone
Today, silicone and polyurethane are the leading materials for mold making. Especially they are indispensable in cases of release of formwork in large quantities. In addition, these polymers allow you to create a variety of geometric combinations.
But choosing between polyurethane and silicone is best to give preference to the first option. Silicone homemade form for paving slabs very quickly destroyed, as the source material itself is afraid of alkali, when the formwork of the polyurethane compound is almost eternal. Polyurethane works so well with concrete that forms made of it are used even in serious manufacturing plants.
Types of paving stones
Paving, among other things, is different due to differences in the materials from which it is made. According to this feature, it is mainly divided into three types:
- clinker tiles
- tile made of natural stone.
This type of paving stone has its own characteristics:
- Stones of such paving stones are not made of pure concrete, but with additives that improve its quality both in terms of performance, and in terms of appearance.
- According to the manufacturing process, concrete pavement is divided into molded with compaction by means of vibration and extruded under high pressure.
The clinker stone obtained by firing pressed clay possesses quite high performance properties due to the lack of pores in it, which gives it moisture resistance and resistance to temperature differences. In addition, this stone is easy to install, because it has the same surface on both sides, and can be two times thinner than concrete paving. Decorative properties are also high in clinker, but its value is also higher than that of concrete stones.
A natural stone
The stone blocks from a natural stone are strong and durable. Especially well suited for this purpose granite. In the process of use, it practically does not give in to erasure, moisture and temperature drops, does not crack and withstands enormous loads. But it costs much more than other types of paving slabs.
To make stones paving stones, you must first make special forms, also called matrices. They poured a solution of a certain composition, which after hardening repeats all their geometry and texture.
From the form for the manufacture of pavers required:
- high resistance to mechanical stress
- high abrasion resistance
- chemical resistance.
The house master is independently able to make the matrix:
Learn how to cast paving tiles for the suburban area yourself, make a path from wood cuts, concrete and lay paving tiles.
The matrix of plastic is the most reliable and durable form that can withstand up to a thousand fills without cracking and without losing the original form over time. In addition, the plastic matrix extremely accurately conveys to the stone the required geometric shapes and the necessary texture. Silicone matrices are characterized by high elasticity, making it easy to get finished products out of them.
In addition, silicone forms are different:
- high tensile strength
- relatively low cost
- ideal qualities in the manufacture of molds for gypsum.
Their disadvantages include:
- low resistance to chemicals,
- the possibility of air bubbles in their manufacture that adversely affect the quality of the forms.
Wooden forms for the manufacture of artificial stones are made of uneven bars. The texture is provided by a special plastic substrate.
The advantages of this type of matrix include:
- low cost
- ease of manufacture.
And their disadvantages are:
- poor tightness
- very short service life
- unsuitability for the manufacture of shaped plates.
Polyurethane forms belong to the popular types of dies for the manufacture of artificial stone. Their undoubted advantages are:
- dimensional stability
- chemical resistance
- low inertness
- increased abrasion resistance.
How to make yourself
Before making a matrix for casting artificial stone, you must have a master model that represents a sample of the future product. For its production in full size used gypsum, clay, concrete, plastic or clay. Natural stones of the required size are suitable for it, and a tree with a suitable texture, and other material having a characteristic texture.
And to make a form with which polymeric matrices are poured, it is necessary to perform the following steps:
- Fastening the master model on plywood or similar sheet material.
- Preventing the spread of polymeric material (for which the template model is surrounded by a frame at a distance of two centimeters from the frame wall to the model surface). The height of the frame should exceed the master model by a couple of centimeters.
- Sealing the joints of the frame walls with a flat surface with a sealant to prevent leakage of liquid polymer under the walls.
- Filling the liquid between the polymer material space between the model and the walls of the frame to their full height.
To create a form using a master model, use:
- bars of wood
- polyurethane, plastic, silicone,
- electric drill,
- building level,
- self-tapping screws.
The process of making molds from plastic
In the presence of a master model, the main work here is to create a frame around it. To do this:
- Prepare wooden bars in such a way that, surrounding the model, the frame of them would leave at least two centimeters between the model and its walls. And the height of the bars should be at least two centimeters higher than the model.
- Connect the bars between the screws and nails.
- Set the master model exactly in the frame center, making sure that the gap between it and the frame walls is the same around the perimeter.
- Fill this gap with liquid plastic to the height of the frame walls.
- After about an hour, the finished matrix should be removed. For this framework, you can simply disassemble.
- If you get any roughness, they can be easily removed with sandpaper.
Silicone mold making
Ingredients of special casting silicone:
For the manufacture of a matrix of it is necessary:
- Surround the master model with the frame of the previous example.
- Lubricate the model with any kind of oil.
- Put it in the center of the frame.
- Mix the silicone components exactly as indicated by the manufacturer.
- Pour the resulting solution in a thin stream into the space from the frame to the model. Air bubbles should not occur.
- After the silicone has hardened within 24 hours, remove the ready-made matrix.
Making wooden forms
From this material only square, rectangular, polygonal, diamond-shaped forms are obtained. This requires:
- wooden bars with a length that provides a 2-cm gap between the frame and the model, and 2 centimeters greater height than the model,
- saw or jigsaw,
- masking tape
- varnish for wood
- self-tapping screws.
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And for the manufacture of the simplest square shape you need:
- Mark the surface on which the structure will be created.
- Prepare 4 bars with a given length.
- Collect a frame from them and pre-fasten it with masking tape.
- Strengthen the frame with screws.
- The inner side of the frame to process sandpaper.
- Varnish it to facilitate removal of the finished stone from the mold.
- The joints between the bars to process the sealant to prevent leakage.
Manufacturing of polyurethane forms
Polyurethane matrixes are durable, reliable and durable. For their manufacture should:
- Polyurethane mixture pour into the construction of the bars and master models, following the example of the previous options.
- The edges of the surface on which the structure stands should be raised a couple of centimeters to facilitate the release of air bubbles from polyurethane.
- Leave it freeze for a day.
- After removal from the frame, the resulting form should be left for another two days for final hardening.
How to prepare a mixture for the manufacture of paving stones
To get high-quality paving stones, you should pour in a good form at least a good mixture. She needs to have:
- low water absorption
- resistance to temperature extremes,
- abrasion resistance
- resistance to mechanical stress
- minimally porous structure.
In the manufacture of paving slabs used two methods of manufacture:
- using vibratory casting,
- by vibropressing.
The vibratory casting, in the course of which you can use the simplest vibrating table made with your own hands, is the only method available for home craftsmen to get paving stones at home. For vibropressing requires special expensive equipment and certain qualifications for its maintenance. High-quality paving stones, made by our own, are usually made double-layered with reinforcing additives between the layers (but, of course, single-layer tile also has the necessary characteristics and is also simpler to manufacture). First, the face layer is made, after which it is made basic. Therefore, the mixture for the manufacture of pavers are of two types. Between the two layers of tile is laid reinforcing material, which is a segment of metal rods, laid so that they form a grid. This operation can be replaced by adding reinforcing synthetic fibers to the solution. Important!The time interval between these two processes should not be more than 25 minutes in order to prevent the delamination of the tile.Blend for facial layer. To obtain a square meter of the colored surface of the pavement, which is strong and frost-resistant, requires:
- cement PC500 - 3 buckets,
- small crushed stone and river sand mixed in equal proportions - 6 buckets,
- dispersant and pigment dye in the form of a solution - 0.8 l,
- water - 8 l.
Cement must be poured into a mixture of sand and plasticizer and, after thorough mixing, add crushed stone and finally pour water in small volumes. The density of the resulting solution should resemble thick cream, but the solution should retain the ability to easily be distributed throughout the volume of the form.
Video: preparation of colored concrete for paving stones and tiles
The quality of paving stones is significantly improved when used during the filling of the matrix of vibrating tables. Vibration frees the mixture from air bubbles, minimizes the number of pores inside the product and thereby makes it stronger.
Blend for base coat. It is prepared in approximately the same way as in the case of the facial layer, but it does not apply a dye and dispersant. Dispersant can replace not so expensive plasticizers, for example, in the form of thick detergents. Some changes are undergoing and the ratio between the sand-gravel mixture and cement, which is now 1: 3. Important!When making molds for paving stones, it is recommended to simultaneously produce angular matrices that allow you to make corners and thus not to cut into whole stones. Both layers in the form - both facial and basic - must be at least two centimeters thick. Flooded forms should be held on the included vibrating table for 5-10 minutes, then level the surface, cover the forms with a film and leave to dry for 1-2 days at a temperature of +15 to +25 ° C.
Unusual forms of ordinary things.
To fill small-piece concrete products, you can use any form that you find in yourself. This can be a variety of plastic containers: disposable boxes, glass containers, plastic bottles, containers for lunch, packaging from under the cake. In general, anything, as long as the form itself is sufficiently rigid.
Alternatively, you can cut a plastic barrel, a five-liter eggplant or a pipe into rings of the desired thickness and use them to drive concrete elements.
Another creative idea that blew up the Internet - instead of forms, a huge sheet of any plant is used, onto which a concrete mix is applied without treatment. Of course, to lay out the site with such products will not succeed, but to make an interesting garden alley easily.
This type of forms for paving slabs most budget and simple. However, it is worth considering that this formwork is disposable. Therefore, she will have to stock up in advance.
What tools may be required
The use of tools depends on the choice of material. Definitely useful standard set - handsaw, screws and a screwdriver (screwdriver, drill), hammer. For working with metal can be useful welding machine, metal drills, riveting material. Practice shows that during such work there are no unnecessary tools., non-standard decisions can be made for which a variety of adaptations will be needed.
Some forms for pouring paving slabs need to be protected from moisture with drying oil, paint or varnish. This will require a brush, paint with solvent. Выбор защитного покрытия не столь принципиален, the main thing is to provide a cutoff from the water.
Sanding finished products will require sandpaper, grinder or drill with a nozzle for grinding.
Find out on the pages of our site how to clean cement paving slabs! Let us tell you what tools and materials you need for this.
And in this article you will find some useful recommendations on how to clean the grass between paving tiles!
We also prepared step-by-step instructions for you on how to make paths from paving slabs! Look for details in the following material.
The process of creating forms
Whatever material you choose to create a unique formwork, think carefully about all the nuances:
- to understand the design - draw it. The scheme is especially necessary if a collapsible form mechanism is provided,
- think carefully about the geometry. Manufactured products should ideally be connected, this will not only simplify the process of laying, but also greatly improve the aesthetics of the finished track,
- make the half and corner parts so as not to cut whole products, which will significantly speed up the masonry work.
To create one form, it will take an average of 1.5 linear meters of wood and an hour of free time. But these data are purely individual, it all depends on your plans.
- pieces of wood more than 15 mm thick,
- building level,
- furniture corners,
In order to properly carve out the constituent elements of the form, it is best to make a small diagram in which the places of their connections will be clearly visible.
Measure all parts carefully and cut them from the bar.
If the wood has strong irregularities or roughness, it is best to clean the surface with sandpaper. Such small flaws can impede the perfect docking of future products.
Before you firmly fix the parts of the form, use the building level to measure out exactly all the corners. Take into account that it is necessary to do the fastening carefully: it must be reliable enough so that the solution does not leak out, but at the same time there is a chance to easily disassemble the formwork after the concrete has set. To facilitate the process of pulling out the product, after the concrete begins to harden, but has not yet gained sufficient strength for stripping, loosen the fastening slightly.
After the form is ready, place it on a flat surface and check again with a level.
You do not know how to make a concrete surface relief? Use your favorite option:
- instead of the bottom, at the stage of form assembly, you can attach a multi-faceted surface, for example, plexiglass or foam ceiling plate material,
- Get special stencils or rubber mats that can be simply pressed into the concrete body during the pouring phase.
The process of creating forms for paving slabs of metal is very similar to the algorithm of work in the manufacture of wooden formwork, with only one difference - the attachment points are not tightened with screws, but simply welded. For convenience, you can attach small handles of round timber. But if in plans to create a form in order to withstand concrete in it until it hardens, then from a constructive point of view, it is best to come up with an understanding model.
To make the form, in addition to the most basic material - dry gypsum coarse and fine grinding, you will need:
- a model that takes the form of a future form
- oil or petrolatum,
- dry paint
- metal plug,
- wooden frame. Choose it taking into account the thickness of the future plaster formwork, as the dimensions of the original shape will be reduced by 5 cm,
- thin metal wire.
Prepare a wooden frame of the required size, which will become a kind of future wall shape.
Put the model in the middle of the wooden formwork and cover it abundantly with oil. If you want the walls to be made of plaster, then the wooden frame also needs to be lubricated.
Dissolve the composition for the first layer. For it you need to take:
- 7 grams of paint
- 1 liter of water
- some finely ground plaster.
To interfere with the ingredients you need to obtain a homogeneous mass of thick consistency.
Dissolve coarse-ground gypsum with water in sufficient quantities to cover the greased surface by about 5 cm. Be careful and observe a uniform layer thickness.
Apply the first gypsum compound to the working surface with a thickness of 8 mm.
Once it starts to dry, scratch the surface with a fork - for better grip and quickly apply a second compound. For greater strength in the middle of the second layer, brick up the wire.
After complete curing of the gypsum - an approximate time of about a day - carefully remove it from the model. To do this, place the form briefly in the water, it will help send gypsum more plastic. Insert pegs between the model and the plaster mold and gently loosen. So without damage to the formwork and models you can remove the resulting product.
The production process of formwork made of plastic is so simple that even the beginner form-making company can deal with it with a little care and diligence.
Observe safety precautions when working with red-hot liquid plastic! Be sure to use protective gloves and goggles. It is also important that the body is completely clothed in thick clothes.
Required materials and tools:
- boards longer than the planned dimensions of pavers,
- construction level and tape measure,
- tiled model, the outlines of which are printed on the front side,
Assemble the wooden frame of the desired shape, given that the dimensions of future products will be equal to the size of the internal shape of the resulting formwork. In this case, be sure to use the level to ensure its evenness. Remember that plastic exactly repeats any shape. So that the ends are smooth after the frame is assembled, sand it well from the inside.
At the bottom of the resulting wooden box, place the model with decorative veneer. At the same time, it should move about 2 cm from the walls of the frame.
Plastic melt at any convenient container and pour into the form.
After it is completely cooled down - approximately 60 - 70 minutes - the finished product is extracted.
The algorithm for creating a polyurethane form for paving slabs with their own hands is similar to the previous one. But there are subtleties of working with a polyurethane compound that must be considered. In addition, the basic material will require the following:
- a wax-based solution or ordinary dishwashing detergent,
- putty knife,
- self-tapping screws
- object taken as a pattern to create a decorative layer. This may be a ready-made concrete product, any object with a pattern, wooden plates and even textiles.
Place the model on which the mold will be cast on a flat surface.
Assemble the plywood frame so that it turns out to be a good frame, at least 2.5 cm high, and it should be 2 cm away from the model from all sides.
Thoroughly treat the frame and model with wax grease or detergent. This makes it easy to separate the polymer form after curing.
Prepare the polyurethane according to the package instructions. At the same time strictly follow the precautions. All work must be carried out either in a well-ventilated area or in fresh air.
Pour the prepared sample as soon as possible. At the same time, hold the container with silicone 2 cm above the formwork. This will release air bubbles from polyurethane.
The hardening of the polymer occurs in about one and a half hours, depending on the material and manufacturer. After the time, you can easily remove the finished form. The detailed casting process is described in the video.
Making plaster molds - simple and affordable wayThe only condition is the presence of a sample or master model.
The principle of manufacture is simple - a wooden box is made, measuring 10 cm larger than the model, plaster is poured into it and a model cast is squeezed out. As an option - the model is poured with a layer of gypsum and carefully removed. The surface of the model must be coated with varnish or wax mastic so that the plaster does not stick to it.
It is recommended not to use gypsum in its pure form., and to make a molding mixture, which is much stronger and does not give cracks and shrinkage during solidification. The finished cast must be soaked several times with linseed oil or varnish to prevent disintegration during work.
The advantages of this method are the cheapness of the material and ease of manufacture.
On our site you will also learn what patterns of paving slabs can be! We offer to see the 5 most popular options for drawings.
And in this material you will find a training video on paving technology! Learn all about the features of the work with this material.
What material is better
In terms of surface quality, flexibility and durability the leaders are polyurethane, silicone, plastic. They do not react to moisture, they are easily cleaned, they tolerate a large number of work cycles without any special problems. However, they are much more difficult to manufacture than wood products, less durable than metal ones, and much more expensive than plaster.
Wizard training should be considered.. For one, working with wood is preferable, for the other, with metal, etc. The end result is largely determined by the level of professionalism of the manufacturer.
Any product bears the imprint of the master's personality, so it is difficult to unequivocally name the best material.
Preparation for pouring
And how to lubricate forms for paving slabs? First of all, it is necessary to soak or coat the form with linseed oil, varnish or similar materials, excluding its contact with water. This does not apply to plastic, silicone or polyurethane products. Before pouring, the mold must be lubricated with wax.that will facilitate the extraction of frozen tiles. The layer should be even and thin, without drips and drops.
It is recommended to supply the form with handles or grips to facilitate knocking tiles, since the weight with the concrete is quite large, it should be possible to keep the shape and eliminate the risk of falling.
Possible mistakes, tips
In the manufacture of the matrix, if possible, it is necessary to withstand a slight inclination of the walls outwards.
Too thin walls, especially when working with plastic, will lead to rapid mold failure. The thickness should be such as to allow lifting and carrying the container with the concrete poured without destruction.
Wood and plaster should periodically cover paintwork, updating the existing layer. Thus, the surface will be protected from moisture and warping.
As forms for the tile can be used finished plastic containers, trimming plastic pipes or other specialized parts.
Safety measures at work
- All operations with chemically active elements should be carried out in a well-ventilated area or outdoors. Respiratory organs, eyes should be protected by a respirator and goggles. This is especially true when working with polyurethane.
- Welding should be carried out according to the rules, in a safe room with the presence of fire extinguishing agents, as well as in compliance with electrical safety rules.
- In any case, before starting work, you should familiarize yourself with the safety rules for this area and ensure their implementation.
The creation of dies for paving slabs with your own hands is a wide field of activity for creative people, giving an opportunity to show their imagination, originality of thinking and skill. At the same time, the quality of production can be no worse than factory samples. In addition, saving money and time searching for the right tile is often crucial.