Rosa canina Rosa canina L) is a shrub of the Rosaceae family (Rosaceae), better known as the dog-rose. Rose dog in height
Rosa dog Rosa canina L) - shrub Rosaceae family (Rosaceae), better known as dogrose dog rose.
Rose dog can reach a height of 1-3 m and is a branchy sprawling sprawling plant with arcuately curved shoots.
In old shoots, the bark is gray, in young red-brown or green. The root system is branched, penetrating deeper. Dog Rose often gives numerous root shoots with which the plant can be propagated. On the branches are rare sickle-shaped thorns of straw color, 5-6 mm long, compressed laterally and widened at the base, scattered along the shoot. Leaves are pinnate, 5-11 cm long, with 5-7 green elliptical leaflets having a pointed or pointed edge. Stipules up to 1.5 cm long and 2 mm wide. The flowers are collected in inflorescences of 2-4 pieces, less often arranged singly on pedicels 1-1.5 cm long. The corolla is white, pale pink, or hot pink, not double, 4-8 cm in diameter. At the base of the petal when flowering a bright pink stain appears. Sepals up to 2.5 cm long, shirokolantsetovidnye, fall early, after flowering turned down and pressed to the fetus. The fruit is cynarrodia, which is the numerous nuts enclosed in a fleshy shell (hypanthium), which closes after fertilization. The fruit is bare, smooth, ovate-elliptical, ovate or spherical, up to 2.6 cm long, when ripe becomes a bright orange-red color. The weight of the fruit is 1.7-3.2 g, of which 70.8% is flesh. The flowering period occurs in May-June, fruiting - August-September.
Rose dog cultivated in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Middle Urals, Western Siberia, in the southern regions of Russia. In the wild form found on clearings, forest edges, sparse forests, along the banks of streams, lakes and rivers. Starting from the XII and XIII centuries. The plant was grown in the gardens of Russia for medical and ornamental purposes.
Dog Rose grows well on fertile light, not too sandy-argillaceous deep soils, with good breathability. Poor tolerates clay, stony and saline soils. The optimum temperature for plant growth and development is + 15-22 ° C.
Rose dog valuable for its fruits, which contain large amounts of vitamin C, organic acids, carotene. Fruits are used for medical purposes, as a choleretic and vitamin remedy. Good honey plant. Ornamental plant, is used as a stock for various varieties of roses, with the aim of improving winter hardiness.
Discussing topics: rosehip, pink, rose, ornamental plants
What a dog rose looks like (canina rose)
Shrub looks like a wild forest rose. That is why the second name of wild rose, more popularly known as wild rose. The height of the bush - more than a meter. The bush rises up and around. Due to the thorns that are covered with stems and leaves, it clings to all nearby growing plants and moves in different directions. Rose has beautiful flowers. Their description is different from pink inflorescences. The color varies under the rays of the sun, depending on the soil and climatic features of the territory. They are pale pink, pale red.
Rose hips have no smell. Bud leaf consists of 5-7 individual petals. The shape of his curved ellipse. The fruit develops from the receptacle. It looks like an oval orange-red berry. At the base remains a branched part, inside the nuts. These are seeds.
Places of growing dog rose
The kind of a bush grows almost everywhere. But its main place of growth along the shores of the Baltic and Lake Ladoga. There he is a hedge. It is impossible to pass through it.
Canine rose bush selects different growing areas:
- on the edge of the forest,
- in the bows
- among other shrubs,
How to distinguish Kanin's rose from other types of wild rose
The difference between Kanin's roses and other prickly bushes is possible according to several characteristics: flowers, shoots, arrangement of branches.
The leaves resemble a mountain ash, but the edges are spiky and torn. On each branch there are up to 7 leaf petals. Berries are round. Fruits unite in a bunch up to 7 pieces. The bush is beautifully decorated with flowers that cover the stems from the ground to the top.
Active ingredients dog rose
Useful substances are in the shell of the fruit. The main current content - vitamin C. In addition to the fruits of wild rose are:
groups P, K, A and B. In the seeds - group E.
Other substances and trace elements of the fruit:
- acid compounds of lemon and apple,
Among the chemical compounds contain a large amount of iron Fe, manganese Mg, phosphorus P, potassium.
The leaves are rich in tannic elements and phenol carbonic acid compounds:
Wild rose berries are rich in ascorbic acid vitamin:
- 10 times more than in black currant berries,
- 50 times - in the pulp of lemon.
Therapeutic and beneficial properties of the rose Canina
The berries of the shrub due to the huge number of multivitamins and other important components allow you to use them as a healing composition. Actions tinctures and drugs from the rose:
- wound healing
Medicinal compounds help regulate the work of the gastrointestinal tract, preserve the epithelium of the kidneys. There is a normalization of oxidative-inflammatory processes. Medicinal compounds reduce the rate of atherosclerosis, reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood vessels.
- Vitamin of group P strengthens capillary vessels, improves elasticity of walls.
- Carotene strengthens the immune system and the protective properties of the body.
- Vitamins of group B activate the production of enzymes, blood formation.
- Vitamin group K is involved in the formation of prothrombin, returns to normal blood clotting.
With fruits create different consistencies of medicinal compositions:
Useful properties and various compositions help with the following pathologies:
- avitaminosis: an infusion of the fruit.
- anemia: tea.
- atherosclerosis: medicinal infusion of berries.
- scarlet fever: juice and tea concentrate.
- pneumonia: strong infusion.
- Whooping cough: fresh fruit, tea.
- diphtheria: infusion on water and extract.
- uterine bleeding: strong infusion of fruits.
- kidney disease: decoction of the roots.
- eczema: tincture of vodka, which has reached the brown color.
- stomach ulcers, 12 feathers or trophic: fresh berries, oil, infusion.
The compositions help in the healing of wounds that are not treated for a long time, increase the secretory functions of the stomach, and normalize the metabolism.
Collection and preparation of medicinal raw materials
Fruits are harvested in late autumn, sometimes after the first frost. They are dried. But before drying, each berry is cut, in order to remove seeds from them. More often for home-made recipes, only fruits are set aside.Seeds will be required for other formulations. Drying requires high temperatures. Therefore, the raw material is placed on a hot surface.
Sometimes they are dried artificially in special containers. Drying temperature 40 degrees. The finished medicinal material is placed in boxes or bags with tight closing.
Recipes of traditional medicine with a dog rose.
The most popular means of traditional medicine is tea. It is prepared as a prophylactic agent used every day to increase immunity.. Tea is able to relieve symptoms of colds. It is refreshing and exciting. Rosehip has a positive effect on the adrenal glands. Tea is taken when the infection passes on the background of high temperature and weakness. Drink advised to drink to people at the age when the intestine does not perceive the vitamins it needs. Due to pectin composition produces a laxative effect.
Rosa canine or Rosa canina (Rosa canina)
Rose dog, or Dog Rose, or Rose canina (Rosa canina) - deciduous shrub, reaching a height of 1.5 to 2.5 m. It belongs to the group of species of wild roses.
Distributed in Europe, North Africa, Western Asia. In Russia, this is the Crimea, the Caucasus, the European part to Moscow, and sometimes to the north.
According to one version, the name “rose of a dog” appeared as an opposition of the value of this shrub to the value of garden roses. According to another version, dog rose in the 18th and 19th centuries was used to treat dog bites, hence the name.
The dog rose has thick, arcuately curved, less often almost straight shoots. The bark is green, reddening on the sunny side.
Rose dog blooms profusely and magnificently. Usually, bushes are covered from top to bottom in pink, white or cream colors. Flowers of dog rose bisexual and insect-infected. Beautiful and tender, they have a very delicate, almost imperceptible scent.
The flowers of rose canina have five simple petals, slightly concave, sometimes with irregular wavy edges. In the center are yellow stamens and whitish pistils.
The spikes are sparse, sickle-shaped, almost straight on the main stems, abundant on the flowering shoots, always hooked and curved.
Blossoms in May - June.
Fruits contain an insignificant amount of vitamin C. As a vitamin plant, dogrose canine does not matter much.
This is the most common stock for garden roses. Roses grafted onto it acquire its winter hardiness, unpretentiousness and considerable resistance to diseases.
Features of wild rose
In June, fragrant flowers appear from small buds, reaching 5 cm in diameter. Rosa canina has many-flowered inflorescences with pale pink, pale pink and white petals. In addition, each flower consists of 5 large petals. In August, rounded or elongated orange-red fruits are formed on the bushes. The dogrose is a dense, widely growing shrub, 2-3 meters high. It has spreading, arched branches of reddish coloration. The leaves are small, consisting of 5-7 gray or green leaves. The shoots are dotted with large paired spikes of a curved crescent shape.
All varieties of Rosa canina are refined plants, which are distinguished by a small number of thorns and abundant flowering. By crossing Rosa gallica with Rosa canina, an Andersonii variety was obtained with carmine-pink flowers with a diameter of up to 7 cm. The variety of Abbotswood is distinguished by semi-double pink flowers and elongated fruits. Very beautiful Kiese variety with simple cherry-red flowers with white center. Many varieties, such as Pfanders and Inermis, are used as rootstocks for other roses.
Growing Rosa canina
Rosehip grows well and forms dense thickets. It is often planted as a hedge or used for landscaping slopes. Beautiful varieties can be planted in the composition of the decorative and windproof fences. In large gardens, they can be grown in groups of 3 plants at a distance of 1 m. In general, Rosa canina is a real find for any garden, because it attracts insects well.
As partners it is better to pick up other shrubs and trees. Well suited hawthorn, elderberry, Euonymus. A remarkable background for wild rose will be dark green conifers and evergreens (yew or holly).
Planting and care
For planting pick up a sunny place or area in partial shade. The soil is preferred calcareous, permeable, well drained. Plant seedlings in spring or autumn. Before planting, place them in a bucket of water overnight. In the morning, dig a hole 50x50x50 cm a meter and a half from the fence. Shorten long roots and cut the shoots to the same length. Mix the earth with the compost and pour some of the mixture into the bottom of the pit. Place a rose there so that the grafting site is at a depth of 3 fingers from the surface. Arrange a watering circle and water the plant. Then prikopite it, making a small mound.
Rosa canina needs a little feeding. Feed it in spring with compost. Rosehip will bloom from June, and in August there will be red fruits. Regularly cut young shoots, it is also possible to carry out anti-aging pruning.
The dog rose was first described by Karl Linnaeus in 1753, and his the international scientific name sounds in Latin like Rosa canina L. This species belongs to the Rosaceae family.
The plant is represented by a large shrub capable of growing 2 m in height. It has arcuate branches, their surface is covered with a brown or greenish crust, on which there are numerous durable crescent-shaped spikes.
The bush has single-pinnate leaves, consisting of 5-7 large elliptical leaves, up to 5 cm in length. Most often there are single flowers, but sometimes they are collected in several pieces and are located on pedicels, about 3 cm long. The diameter of large flowers can reach 8 cm, they are painted in white or pink.
The fruits of the shrub are small, round, sometimes elongate-ovate. They have a light or bright red color. Flowering occurs in June, and ripening occurs in September.
Rosehips contain a large amount:
- malic and citric acid,
- essential oils
- vitamins A, E, C, PP and K, vitamins of group B,
Quite often, wild rose is used to fight colds. Due to the high content of vitamin C in the broth, you can prevent dehydration, reduce the temperature, as well as destroy viruses.
Rose hip preparations help strengthen the immune system and improve the production of antibodies. They are used for the treatment of such diseases:
Rosehip has an excellent choleretic property, and is also very useful for blood formation. Due to the presence in the composition of vitamin K, improves the synthesis of prothrombin, necessary for the normalization of blood clotting. This component allows you to quickly stop uterine bleeding.
The presence in the composition of vitamin P helps to strengthen blood vessels, and vitamins B2 and B1 are actively involved in the production of blood. Dogrose can prevent atherosclerosis, because thanks to its components, the blood vessels are cleared of cholesterol.
In addition, the plant has the following properties:
- wound healing
A decoction of rhizomes is able to dissolve stones in the body, and tea from leaves can be taken to relieve pain and improve gastric motility.
Properly prepared infusion is recommended for use in diseases of the bladder, kidneys, liver ailments and biliary tract ailments. Also, the infusion can be drunk for general body strengthening.
For its preparation you will need:
- canine rose fruit,
- 500 ml of water
- 20 grams of sugar.
Use in gardening
Except for medicinal purposes, wild rose is actively used as an ornamental plant. Often it is planted in well-lit areas or along fences to create a shadow and thereby get a hedge.
Also, it is possible to plant cultural roses on a dog rose - such a plant will have a beautiful and original look.
How to distinguish a dog rose from the usual
Unfortunately, because of the high availability and cheapness of a dog rose, sellers often give it up for a regular (May) dog rose. The main difference of a dog rose is that it has small bracts that are pressed to the branch. In an ordinary dog rose, they should stick out. May (normal) dog rose However, sellers often completely break them off before selling the plant, therefore, it is problematic to determine the variety.
Choosing a place
The choice of planting site is of great importance for the further development of the plant. The dog rose feels well in sunny, well-lit places, so you should not plant it in a shaded area. The plant does not like strong moisture, but it also does not like dry air - therefore the indicator should be average. Rosehip is a cross-pollinated plant, so several bushes should be planted nearby.
Planting and breeding
The plant propagates by the seed method or with the help of seedlings. Consider these methods in more detail.
Seed collection is recommended in August - for this purpose unripe fruits with brown color will do. This period is the most successful, since the seed has a not too hard shell and, accordingly, it will germinate well.
Both spring and autumn are suitable for disembarkation, but it is better to give preference to the second variant. It is recommended to land in October. Immature fruits of dog rose. Procedure:
- It is necessary to make a furrow on the chosen place.
- Sow seeds in rows.
- Then dust the rows with humus and sawdust, leaving a small distance so that chopper can pass between them.
- For better germination with the arrival of spring, it is necessary to install a frame and pull polyethylene on it.
- As soon as you notice the first two leaves on the seedlings, it is worthwhile to arrange them.
If planting is planned for spring, stratification of seeds is necessarily carried out for their best germination. After the seeds are extracted from the fruit, they must be mixed with peat and sand (1 to 4).
This mixture is placed in a box and stored until March in a cool place at a temperature of 2-3 ° C. During the winter months, the mixture is stirred from time to time.
When choosing such a method, it is best to plant in the fall. Ideal for this procedure is October or November.
- The planting hole is dug - its depth should be about 20 cm.
- If the soil is with high acidity, it is necessary to make lime fertilizer, add compost and rotted manure.
The plant tolerates dry weather, and therefore does not need frequent watering. During the dry period, you will need 2-3 buckets of water to irrigate one young bush, and 5 for fruit-bearing ones. Watering is done 3-4 times throughout the season.
After 2-3 seasons after disembarkation, the bush is pruned. To improve productivity, form a shrub containing only 15-20 branches. It is good if the age of the branches is different, but not more than 7 years, since after this period the branches start to bear fruit badly.
Usually pruning is done in spring. Many sources of information indicate that pruning should be done in the fall, after the bush has dropped the leaves, but this is not necessary. The fact is that fresh sections of the plant do not tolerate frosts poorly and the bush may die.
When doing pruning, do not overdo it - if you shorten the shrub too much, next year you will find a lot of young plants that will not yield crops.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Fruits are harvested in the autumn, during full ripening, before the onset of frost. If the fruit is frozen, they lose their vitamins and are easily destroyed during harvest. For picking off fruits, you should wear protective mittens and sleeves. The fabric should be tight, you can use a tarp. Also wear an apron, which has large pockets. After collecting the raw materials must be dried at a temperature of 80-90 ° C. For this, there are special ventilated dryers.
Fruits need to be expanded in them in a thin layer and constantly mixed. To determine the end of the process can be the fragility of the fetus.
Dried berries are packed in paper packs or glassware and stored in a dry place for 2 years.
Rosehip dog - a unique plant that attracts attention not only beautiful, but also the presence of a large number of useful properties. If desired, you can grow shrubs yourself - in this case, you can at any time use infusions based on it, which contribute to the overall strengthening of the immune system and help get rid of many diseases.