Growing berry bushes in summer cottages has long become a tradition, but some of them are only gaining popularity among gardeners. Such is the blueberry, planting and caring for which have their own characteristics. Attention to the shrubs in the garden will have to pay a lot, but it will pay off a hundredfold when the time comes to harvest the delicious yummy sweet berries. Not only blueberry fruits, but also its branches and leaves have healing properties. The reproduction of this amazingly useful plant will not cause difficulties even for novice gardeners.
Types and varieties of blueberries are diverse. Her uncultured specimens are stunted. Their height ranges from 40-100 cm. Wild blueberries are widespread in the northern regions. It prefers wet, swampy soil of coniferous forests and peatlands, where it forms dense thickets.
Growing wild specimens of the culture at the dacha is meaningless. For these purposes, it is better to use saplings of hybrid varieties of shrubs. The answer to the question why is obvious. Preserving the beneficial properties of forest blueberries, they bring more yield, have larger berries, have a high decorative effect and are less affected by diseases and pests. Among them are undersized varieties that are ideal for breeding in the Urals and Siberia. They are not afraid of severe frosts, they are not damaged under a thick layer of snow.
Shrubs of tall garden blueberries stretch up to 2-4 m. It originates from North America. In our country, it is more common in the southern regions. The climate of Siberia is too harsh for it, although it can be grown in the open ground in the Urals, if we take a responsible approach to the preparation of its bushes for wintering: bend the branches to the ground and carefully cover it with lapnik. Canadian blueberries with narrow leaves are becoming increasingly popular among gardeners. It is surprisingly unpretentious, generous on a crop and possesses the increased frost resistance.
The most common varieties of tall blueberries are:
Commercially most cultivated varieties Bleukrop and Patriot. You can plant them in the country. Both varieties are distinguished by high yield and unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention.
To the berries of the plant gained sweetness, they need a lot of heat and light. Therefore, planting a blueberry garden is optimal in places open to the sun. It should be borne in mind that the shrub reacts poorly to drafts. The site should be carefully protected from them by the walls of buildings or a hedge of trees. The varieties Bleukrop and Patriot can grow in the shade, their leaves will not suffer from it, but in this case, the berries collected from them will be sour. Negative impact of light and on their number.
For blueberry preferred loose well-drained land with low groundwater table. It will be right to plant it on peat-sand or peat-loam soils. It is worth remembering that this soil is rich in nitrogen. Due to the increased content of this element in winter, plants can freeze out, and with the arrival of spring, their thawing will take longer than usual. Well developed shrubs only in acidic soil with a pH in the range of 3.5-4.5.
It is important that in the area where it is planned to place the blueberry, do not divorce any other agricultural crops before. If there is no such platform in the garden, you will have to prepare the soil suitable for the shrub yourself using the following rules.
- Loamy soil is diluted with sand and peat mixed in a ratio of 1: 3.
- Sand is added to sour peaty soil at the rate of 2-3 buckets per 1 m².
- If the land on the site contains little organic fertilizer, it is made of complex mineral preparations containing equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
- In the soil enriched with humus they add the same mineral elements necessary for the full development of blueberry, but in a ratio of 1: 2: 3.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Garden blueberries can be propagated in spring or autumn. Professionals advise not to postpone the procedure until September, and here's why. In the summer, in favorable weather conditions for a bush, its saplings will root well, gain strength and grow stronger so that the winter cold will not frighten them. When planting in autumn, the risk of their freezing is much higher.
To breed blueberries on the site was successful, it is important to choose the right variety. You need to focus on the particular climate of the area and the time of ripening of berries of one or another variety. For growing in the regions of the middle band, early-ripening or mid-ripening crops will be suitable (Blyukrop, Patriot, Weymouth).
A guarantee of a good survival rate of blueberry bushes on the site is high-quality planting material. It is recommended to acquire it in specialized stores or nurseries. It is better to choose seedlings, whose roots are covered with soil, growing in a pot or other container. The method of transshipment for their landing on a permanent place will not work. In order for the shrub to quickly get accustomed and to develop fully in the future, its roots will need to be carefully straightened in the hole.
15 minutes before planting blueberries in the ground, the container with it is placed in water. Then the next bush is removed from the pot and gently knead the soil ball, straightening the roots. Only after such preparation can it be planted in the ground.
In the spring it is important not to be late with the landing dates. The procedure must be carried out before the buds of the plant swell.
Saplings of tall blueberries are placed in previously prepared pits. Their width should be 0.6 m, and the depth - 0.5 m. The distance between the holes depends on the plant variety. Low varieties of blueberry will be enough interval of 0.5 m. Medium-tall and tall varieties (Blyukrop, Patriot and the like) will need more free space. The interval between adjacent plants is made equal to 1 m and 1.2 m, respectively. The optimal inter-row width is 3–3.5 m.
Proper blueberry cultivation of blueberry cultivates the soil at the bottom and on the pit walls. It will facilitate the passage of air to the roots of the plant.
The pit is filled with an acidic substrate consisting of a mixture of the following components:
Fertilizers, especially organic, it is not necessary to make it. The substrate is compacted, then the seedling is lowered into the well and, having straightened the roots of the plant well, is covered with soil. If everything is done correctly, the root neck of the shrub should be deepened by 3 cm. Finish the planting with irrigation and mulching of the pit surface. Coniferous sawdust, fine straw, chopped bark or peat are recommended for this. The thickness of the mulch layer should be at least 12 cm.
In the fall, shrubs are planted in the same way as in spring. If the plant is less than 1 year old, then after placing it in the soil, weak and damaged branches are removed from it. Leave on young blueberries only healthy and strong shoots that are shortened by half. Sapling varieties Bleukrop, Patriot and others who have reached 2 years of age, additional processing after planting is not required.
Watering and feeding
Blueberry farming is pretty simple. During the growing season, the soil around the shrub should be periodically loosened. Too often, the procedure is not recommended, otherwise the risk of overdrying is high. Loosening should affect only the top layer of soil (about 8 cm). If you make it deeper, you can damage the roots of the shrub, which develop in a horizontal direction and are located close to the soil surface. The soil under the plants should always be covered with a layer of mulch, loosening is carried out without removing it. Every 2-3 years it is necessary to pour the mulching material. Blueberry variety Bleukrop does not tolerate the neighborhood of weeds, so you need to carefully monitor the cleanliness of planting.
The plant is moisture-loving, but a long (more than 2 days) stagnation of water at its roots can lead to the death of the bush. Properly water the blueberries as follows:
- twice a week,
- twice during the day: in the early morning and in the late evening, when the sun had already set,
- 1 bucket of water for each plant.
Timely watering at the stage of planting flower buds - in July-August is extremely important. Lack of moisture at this time will reduce the yield and reduce the quality of berries. It will affect next year. If the summer was sultry, you will not be able to manage with one irrigation; you will have to additionally spray blueberry leaves to prevent overheating of the plant. Carry out the procedure in the morning or late afternoon, when the heat subsides.
Well shrub reacts to mineral fertilizers: ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, zinc sulfate, magnesium sulphate, superphosphate. Make them better in early spring, when the plant begins sap flow and buds swell. Organic compounds blueberries only harm. Nitrogen-containing drugs are applied three times per season: in early spring, in May, when the shrub grows leaves intensively, and in June. The need for phosphorus in a plant occurs in summer and autumn. Magnesium, potassium and zinc are necessary for it in small quantities, they enrich the soil with them once a year.
Planting should be periodically carefully inspected in time to detect signs of disease and pests. If the leaves of the plant change color, turn yellow or turn red, become covered with spots, it is worth the alert.
Reproduction of any of the varieties of blueberries, including the most popular - Blueberry, can be done in the following ways:
Usually sown seeds in the fall. It is possible and spring planting, but in this case can not do without their 3-month stratification in the refrigerator. Seeds are laid out in the grooves and sprinkled with a mixture of 1 part peat and 3 parts sand. The nutrient substrate layer above them should be 1 cm. They will give friendly shoots if the air is heated to 23-25C and its humidity is not less than 40%.
Agrotechnology young shoots of blueberry includes periodic moistening and loosening of the soil and the removal of weeds. Next spring, the seedlings are fed with nitrogen-containing preparations. You can land them in a permanent place in 2 years. They begin to bear fruit only 7-8 years after sowing.
Most often, shrub reproduction is carried out by cuttings. It is better to cut them from the thickest shoots: they will give roots faster. Their length should be 8-15 cm. After cutting, cuttings are placed in a cool place for a month, where the temperature does not rise above 1-5˚C, and then they are planted under a slope into a substrate of peat and sand, deepening by 5 cm. It is even easier to dilute Blueberry by dividing the bush. It is dug out and cut into pieces so that each of them has a rhizome of 5-7 cm in length. Additional preparation for the delocation is not required, they are immediately planted on a permanent site.
Pruning and possible difficulties
Successful cultivation of blueberries is impossible without regular trimming of the shrub, which helps to increase its yield and decorative effect. It is better to perform the procedure in early spring, when sap flow has not yet begun. Preventive pruning can be done at any time. Sick branches and badly damaged leaves should be immediately removed and burned.
If the blueberry bushes bloom in the first year of life, the buds break off so that the plant develops correctly. At 2-4 years of age they form a strong skeleton, removing weak and damaged branches or frost-damaged branches. We need to get rid of the shoots that lie on the ground, and from the basal shoots.
All varieties of blueberries, and Bleukrop is no exception, subject to fungal diseases. About them will signal the appearance of the shrub. If its leaves turn red, this is a cause for concern. Most likely the plant struck a dangerous disease - stem cancer. It can provoke excessive soil moisture. Such symptoms may also appear with improper care for blueberries. Its leaves often turn red when the branches dry or if the plant lacks minerals: nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium.
American and Canadian garden blueberries are deservedly considered one of the most valuable berry bushes. She has a lot of advantages. Among them are high yields, abundance of useful properties of all parts of the plant, unpretentiousness, cold resistance, durability. It is terrible to imagine, but its bushes live and bear fruit up to 90 years!
The ability of a culture to endure adverse weather conditions makes it possible to grow it almost everywhere. Shrubs can be met in the USA, Western Europe, Ukraine, Belarus, the Caucasus, in the middle lane and even in the northern regions of Russia. Caring for blueberries can not be called difficult. At observance of recommendations about cultivation of culture it will steadily bring a rich harvest.
Adding an article to a new collection
For the first time, Alexander Simagin, a blueberry, tried about 15 years ago as a guest of a Polish farmer. It was then that the Belarusian colleague flashed the thought: what if we were engaged in such a business in our homeland.
In Belarus, this crop was grown at that time. To say that Alexander enjoyed the treat is to say nothing. But more than a young man was impressed by the organization of work on the berry plantation of the Pole - perfect order and cleanliness reigned around.
Uneasy berry business
Gradually, the ghostly idea of his “berry business” developed into a clear vision of the task. Confidence that everything will turn out, gave the support of his wife Raisa. And here, a house in the village of Koski, Minsk region, was inherited from grandmother and grandfather. There also arose the farm "Heather country". Its area is 19 hectares, of which 5 hectares are allocated for blueberries. Now, in addition to the planting material of blueberries, the family of farmers also grows cranberry and lingonberry seedlings.
Raisa Simagina admits that at first it was very difficult: both spouses worked in permanent jobs, and came to the village from Minsk in the evenings and on weekends.
- It was difficult both physically and materially, and most importantly - at that time there was practically no information on blueberry farming. Therefore, progress was made by trial and error. I remember that in one year we bought peat and planted 30 thousand cuttings, which died a month later - every single one. It turned out it was a low-quality peat. What to do? Sit down, cry, and in the morning you get up and start everything in a new way, ”Raisa jokes.
Controversial moments when planting blueberries
Today, finding information on the Internet for the care of blueberries is no longer a problem. True, each gardener has his own methods, sometimes contradictory.
Alexander Simagin is a supporter of growing blueberries in peat, but the farmer believes that the soil must be acidic (pH - not higher than 4.5). To save money, you can mix peat with sand (8: 2) or with sawdust (6: 4). Only sawdust fit stale, rotted.
Many people confuse highland (sphagnum, red) peat with lowland (black), similar to black soil, in which blueberries, alas, do not grow. This culture does not like fat, fertile soil at all. And no organic matter, manure. Do not tolerate blueberries and ashes! Planted plants with a closed root system can be throughout the growing season. Choose to land a sunny plot. The diameter of the pit - 50-60 cm, depth - 40-50 cm.
How to plant blueberries
Many farmers advise to dig holes 1 × 1 m in size. But it makes no sense to make such large holes, because blueberries have a shallow root system, and even a 10-year-old bush does not always reach 50 cm in diameter. So why initially dig huge pits and think where to immediately get so much suitable peat?
It is better to do the following: when the blueberry reaches 6-7 years of age, the crown of the bush will indicate what the diameter of the roots is at this time. And if you understand that it has reached loam, around the perimeter of the stalk zone, dig a trench around the bayonet of a shovel, which you will fill with fresh high-moor peat. So you will gradually expand the planting pit and you will rationally use peat.
Does the blueberry seedling roots spread out when planted?
“At the same time, as a rule, it is impossible to avoid ruptures of roots, their damage, which in turn leads to plant diseases. And if the bush does not die after such an execution, it will not develop for at least a year. In general, recommendations to straighten the roots relate to 3-4-year-old seedlings, the root system of which has already braided the walls of the container. But even in this case, taking the plant out of the tank, all that needs to be done is to lightly “scratch” the root ball around the circumference, then put it in water for 15–20 minutes and plant it in the planting hole to such depth as the seedling grew container.
It is better to purchase 2-year-old seedlings. They do not need to touch the roots, after soaking them immediately roll over into the hole. Just do not forget to remove the container, do not plant right in it, as inexperienced gardeners sometimes do. After this, water the plant well. If there are branches that fall on the ground or move away from the base at right angles, remove them. All shoots should look strictly upwards.
Than to mulch blueberries
Planting should be covered with chips of 8-10 cm. You can use steamed bark. Мульчирование уменьшит суточные колебания температуры почвы, не даст влаге испаряться, улучшит образование многочисленных мочковатых корней.
Многие советуют в качестве мульчи использовать иглицу. Но в жару уже через пару дней она превратится в труху, т.е. перестанет выполнять свои защитные функции. If you use sawdust, keep in mind that every year they have to pour.
When and how to feed blueberries
It is best to do this immediately after landing. Overfeeding plants is not worth it, but not completely dispensed with mineral fertilizers. The first feeding is at the end of April, the second at the end of May. It is better to use special complex mineral fertilizers for blueberries. If you feed the berries in the summer, not all bushes will have time to mature and may freeze in winter. So this is a risky move.
Blueberries do not tolerate chlorine, therefore fertilizers with this element should not be applied under plants.
After harvesting (but no later than September 15), feed the blueberries a third time. Fertilize without nitrogen to this top dressing (special autumn fertilizers or a mixture of superphosphate and potassium sulfate - according to the instructions). You can do it later, if according to all forecasts the autumn will be warm.
How to acidify the soil for blueberries
If the landing pits are filled with good high-moor peat, then it will be enough for a year or two. In the future, the acidity can be lowered with sulfur derivatives - sulfuric acid (10-15 ml per 10 l of water), unused electrolyte (30 ml per 10 l of water - this solution is enough for 1 square meter), 9% vinegar ( 100 ml per 10 l of water), oxalic acid or citric acid (1 tsp. Per 3 l of water).
Protecting blueberries from frost and pests
In winter, blueberries love to eat hares, so you can cover the bushes with a cloth, but not a film. Blueberry flowers can withstand frosts down to –5 ° С. In the spring, make sure that the ovary does not fall under the returnable cold. If the temperature drops to –1 ° C, you can lose part of the crop.
It is possible to protect blueberries from returning spring frosts, if non-woven material (spunbond, lutrasil, agril, etc.) is thrown onto the bushes before cooling.
To control pests and diseases in early spring and autumn at the same time when the orchard is being processed, it is necessary to spray blueberry bushes with approved insecticides and fungicides.
Follow the advice of a farmer from Belarus, and on your berry plantation there will be not only an ideal order, but also an excellent harvest. More advice from experienced gardeners on growing and caring for plants can be found on the pages of the publication Gardener and Gardener.
Planting and care for blueberries (in short)
- Landing: it is possible in the spring, before the buds swell, but it is better in the fall, during the fall of the leaves.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: rested and restored for several years under steam, well drained, peaty-sandy or peaty-loamy, with a pH of 3.5-4.5 pH.
- Watering: in the mornings and evenings, twice a week with the consumption of every adult bush no less than a bucket of water. That is, under each bush, you should pour twice a week in the morning and evening on a bucket of water. On the hottest days, blueberries are not only watered, but also sprayed early in the morning or after 5 pm.
- Pruning: in spring, before bud swelling.
- Top dressing: only with mineral fertilizers at the very beginning of the growing season.
- Breeding: seeds, cuttings and division of the bush.
- Pests: May beetles, crunches, silkworm caterpillars, scale insects, aphids, leafworms.
- Diseases: gray rot, monilioz of fruits, fizalsporoz, septorioz, fomopsis, double spotting, stem cancer, dwarfism, red ring and necrotic spotting, filamentous branches, virus mosaic.
Blueberry garden - description
Scientists identify the Vaccinium genus as lingonberries, cranberries, blueberries and blueberries, with which some botanists identify blueberries, although this does not seem fair to all experts. The root system of blueberry is fibrous, without root hairs, the branches are erect, cylindrical, covered with dark gray or brown bark, the shoots are green. The blueberry bush reaches a height of only one meter, the tall blueberry species grows to a height of two meters or more. Small, hard, solid smooth blueberry leaves up to three centimeters in length and up to two and a half in width grow in regular order on short petioles. They have an obovate or lanceolate form with a blunt tip and slightly curved down edges, the upper side of the leaf plate is a bluish-green shade due to the wax coating, the underside with strongly protruding veins of a lighter shade. Small drooping five-prong flowers with a pinkish or white pitcher corolla up to 6 cm long and 8-10 stamens sit on a few pieces on the tops of last year’s branches. Blueberry berries oblong, up to 12 mm long and weighing up to one gram, blue with a bluish bloom, thin-skinned, with greenish flesh. The berries of American tall blueberry weigh from 10 to 25 grams, from one bush in America they harvest up to 10 kg, in our conditions in warm areas and under favorable weather you can get up to 7 kg of berries from one bush of tall blueberry. The fact is that not all foreign varieties are suitable for cultivation in our climatic conditions, since those of them that start to bear fruit late have time to ripen only by 30%. Therefore, for those who wish to grow this wonderful berry on their land, it is better to cultivate common blueberry or to acquire early and mid-season cultivars of blueberry.
When to plant blueberries.
Planting of blueberries is carried out both in spring and autumn, but spring planting is safer than autumn, because during the summer season, blueberry seedlings have time to settle down on the site and grow strong enough that the risk of freezing in winter is minimal. In this article we will introduce you to the agrotechnics of the plant and describe in detail how to plant blueberries correctly, how to grow blueberries and how to care for blueberries, namely how to feed blueberries, how to water blueberries and how to propagate blueberries. Growing blueberries is a simple process, it will be harder to harvest and preserve the harvest, but we'll also tell you about this.
Soil for blueberry.
If you decide to grow blueberries in your garden, make a place that is sunny but protected from the wind, and do not try to hide it in the shade - there will be few berries and you will not like their taste. Take seriously the choice of soil for blueberries, because it can only grow on acidic soils - the optimum pH for it is 3.5-4.5. In addition, it is very desirable that the area where you plant blueberries was under steam for several years: blueberries do not tolerate their predecessors. So, in a sunny quiet place with well-drained peat-sand or peat-loamy soil, blueberries will show you their best qualities. If in your garden there is no plot with soil, which will taste like blueberries, do not be discouraged, you can create it manually.
Planting blueberries in the spring.
Blueberries spring planted in the ground before the buds swell. Before you plant blueberries, you need to decide which type or variety will best grow on your site. In areas with a cool climate, it is preferable to grow undersized Canadian blueberries, and in warmer areas, where summers are hot and long, you can cultivate varieties of garden blueberries. The most important thing when making a choice is to match the ripening time with the climatic features of your area, otherwise the blueberry may not have time to ripen, and then your selfless care for garden blueberries will be in vain.
It is better to purchase seedlings with a closed root system - in pots or in containers, but you cannot simply transfer them from the tank to the pit, because the fragile blueberry roots themselves will not turn in the ground, and the plant will not be able to fully develop. Before planting blueberries, Lower the container with the seedling for a quarter of an hour into the water, then remove the seedling from the container and try to gently stretch the earthy ball and straighten the blueberry roots.
Planting garden blueberries, like blueberries, it is preceded by digging holes 60x60 in size and half a meter deep at a distance of half a meter from each other for short growing varieties, one meter for medium growing varieties and 120 cm for high growing varieties. Between the rows, the distance should be from three to three and a half meters. It is advisable to loosen the walls and bottom of the pit so that they can pass air to the roots. Then it is necessary to create a sour substrate in the pit so that blueberries develop normally - place riding peat mixed with sawdust, pine needles and sand on the bottom, add 50 g of sulfur to the soil to oxidize the soil, mix everything thoroughly and compact. Do not add to the substrate any fertilizer, especially organic, which alkalize the soil - there is time for everything. Now you can lower the seedling into a hole, straighten its roots in different directions and sprinkle them with soil so that the root neck is immersed in the soil by 3 cm. After planting, the seedlings are watered and the soil around them is mulched with a twelve-centimeter layer of conifer sawdust, bark, straw or peat
Planting blueberries in the fall.
The order of planting blueberries does not depend on the season, and it is described in the previous section, however, after the autumn planting, all weak branches should be removed with a pruner from a seedling of the first year of life, and it is desirable to shorten the developed ones by half. If the seedling is more than two years old, pruning is not performed after planting.
Growing blueberry garden.
Several times during the season you will have to loosen the soil in the area with blueberries to a depth of about eight centimeters, but try not to overdo it, because too often loosening can dry your blueberry and too deep to damage the horizontal root system, which is only fifteen centimeters from the surface . And that is why the mulching of the soil on the site is of particular importance. It is possible to loosen the soil without removing the mulch, which must be replenished every two to three years. Do not allow weeds to grow on the plot with blueberries, remove them immediately after detection.
In addition to loosening and weeding, care for blueberries provides for timely watering, pruning and feeding of blueberries.
Top dressing blueberries.
The blueberry, which is not particularly demanding on soil fertility, nevertheless responds well to mineral fertilizers, which are best applied at the very beginning of spring, during the period of sap flow and bud swelling. Organic blueberry fertilizer categorically contraindicated! The best fertilizers for blueberries are ammonium sulphate, potassium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, superphosphate and zinc sulphate. These forms are absorbed by blueberries best. Nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulphate) are applied in three stages: during the start of sap flow, 40% of nitrogen fertilizers needed by blueberries per year are applied, in early May - 35%, and in early June - 25%. On average, this is 70-90 g of fertilizer per bush. From summer to next spring, blueberries will not need nitrogen fertilizers. Phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate) are applied in summer and autumn at the rate of 100 g per shrub. Magnesium sulfate is applied once per season at the rate of 15 g per bush, and potassium sulfate and zinc sulfate - once per 2 g per bush.
Reproduction of blueberry.
Blueberries are propagated in both seed and vegetative ways. From the full-grown berries collected from healthy bushes, seeds are extracted, dried slightly and sown in the fall on training beds dug up with sour peat. If you decide to sow the seeds in spring, they must first be stratified for three months in the refrigerator, and then sown into the grooves to a depth of one centimeter, covered with a mixture of peat and sand in the ratio 1: 3. Seeds for germination need to create the conditions: air temperature 23-25 ºC, humidity about 40%, and also to provide regular watering, loosening the soil and weeding. Fertilizing seedlings with nitrogen fertilizer is carried out in the spring only in the second year of growth. After two years, seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
Reproduction of blueberry cuttings gives faster and more reliable results than generative reproduction. To do this, use rhizomatous cuttings of blueberry, which are cut in late autumn after leaf fall or in early spring before the start of sap flow. The optimal length of the cutting is 8-15 cm, and it is better to take a shoot thicker so that the roots are formed faster and growth begins as early as possible. To increase the survival rate, cuttings are stored at a temperature of 1-5 ºC for a month, and then planted obliquely into a mixture of sand with peat in a ratio of 3: 1, and a layer of the same substrate 5 cm thick is poured in from above. If you properly care for cuttings, two years, you can get well-developed seedlings that can be planted in a permanent place.
Blueberry is propagated by dividing the bush. Part of the dug bush is divided in such a way that each part has a rhizome of 5-7 cm in length, the delenki are immediately planted in a permanent place. The bushes obtained by the seed method start to bear fruit in the seventh or eighth year, and those obtained with the vegetative propagation method can begin to bear fruit already in the fourth year.
Blueberries in the fall.
Harvesting blueberries after the start of fruiting is carried out once a week, and it is better to do this in the morning after evaporation of dew. From the moment of purchase of the desired color by the berries, they should ripen on the bush for several more days until they become soft from the dense ones. During this time, the mass of berries increases and the sugar content rises. The collected fruits are immediately placed in the refrigerator and stored at a temperature of from 0 to +2 ºC for up to two weeks, isolated from other products in order to avoid the absorption of foreign odors by the berries. For longer storage, washed and dried blueberries are laid out in a single layer and placed in the freezer, after freezing through them poured into a container and again placed in storage in the freezer. You can also dry the berries of blueberries and in winter make compotes from them, make medicinal decoctions and infusions.
If there are severe frosts in your area, you will have to cover blueberries, because at a temperature of -25 ºC, it has every chance of freezing, especially if there is no snow during frosts. Preparing blueberry bushes for winter begins after harvest - blueberry branches should be slowly pulled to the ground, throwing a twine or wire loop on them, then fasten the bush on the surface of the plot and cover it with sacking (it is better not to use polyethylene breathe) and throw over the spruce branches from above. When or if snow falls, it is good to sprinkle blueberries on the branches with snow. Remove all layers of protection from the cold will be possible only in the spring. If there are no such cold winters in your area, you can not cover the bushes for the winter, especially if you grow winter-resistant varieties on the site.
Planting and caring for garden blueberries should be carried out in accordance with agronomic rules, and then your plants will be healthy and immune to disease, but sometimes healthy plants have to be protected. Most often, blueberry berries suffer from birds that peck ripening fruit. In order to preserve the harvest of blueberries, gently pull the grid with small cells on the bushes. As for insects, they do not cause noticeable damage to blueberries, although they are not necessary for a year, and sometimes in the spring blueberry bushes can be attacked by May beetles and lumps, gnawing leaves and eating away plant flowers, from which the blueberry yield is reduced. In addition, the larvae of beetles eat up the roots of the bushes. Blueberries can also suffer from caterpillars of pine silkworm, leafworm, shield insects and aphids. Beetles and their larvae must be harvested by hand and drowned in a bucket of salt water, and in the fight against other pests the best remedy is spraying of blueberry actellic or karbofos plantings, both preventive (in early spring and after harvesting) and medicinal, when you discovered blueberry pest.
Blueberry suffers most from fungal diseases, such as stem cancer, branch drying (fomopsis), gray rot (botrytis), fruit monoliosis, fizalsporoz, white spot (septorioz) and double spot. You should know that almost everything garden blueberry fungal diseases provoked by the stagnation of moisture in the roots of the plant, arising due to improper watering or insufficient permeability of the soil. Understand this issue until fungal diseases have destroyed all the blueberry bushes on the site. As a preventive measure, we recommend treating the plants using Bordeaux mixture every year at the beginning of spring and after harvest, and as a cure for diseases, a double-triple treatment of planting with topaz at an interval of a week. Instead of topaz, you can use the same Bordeaux mixture, as well as topsin or foundationol.
In addition to fungal diseases sometimes affect blueberries viral or mycoplasma diseases - mosaic, dwarfism, red ring and necrotic spotting, filamentous branches, from which it is impossible to cure the plants, will have to remove and burn the diseased specimens.
There are problems with blueberries in violation of the rules of agricultural technology. For example, sometimes you can hear complaints that the blueberry turns yellow - the leaves first become light green and then yellow. Most likely, the problem is that the soil at the site is not sufficiently acidic - add peat to it, and gradually the appearance of the foliage will become the same. Rather, new leaves will grow green. Yellow leaves at blueberry и в результате недостатка азота, кроме того, по этой причине ягоды становятся мелкими, а побеги перестают расти. Вносить азотные удобрение в грунт на участке голубики нужно ежегодно весной в три этапа, помните об этом. А вот если у голубики краснеют листья, то это первые признаки рака стебля или засыхания ветвей.
Полезные свойства голубики.
The harm and benefits of blueberries have long been interested in scientists, and as a result of scientific research, they found that this berry has a number of unique qualities. It protects the body from radioactive radiation, improves the functioning of the intestine and pancreas, slows down the aging of nerve cells, strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Blueberry has a choleretic, antiscorbutic, anti-sclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and hypotensive action. Blueberry fruits contain provitamin A, vitamins B1, B2, C, PP, which are responsible for the elasticity of the capillaries of the skin and reduce the risk of varicose veins, six essential amino acids, calcium, phosphorus and iron, which is almost in blueberry form fully absorbed by the human body. Blueberries are effectively used in the treatment of rheumatism, atherosclerosis, hypertension, capillary toxicosis, quinsy and other diseases.
Juice from blueberry berries is prescribed for diabetes, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, fever. Blueberry berries remove eye cramps and help restore vision, the pectins contained in them help to bind and remove radioactive metals from the body. And due to the content in the berries of highly active antioxidants, blueberries prevent the formation of cancer cells in the body.
In folk medicine, blueberries are eaten raw, as well as decoctions, tinctures and tinctures. The benefits of blueberry are obvious both to the sick and to healthy people, who, by eating fresh berry, strengthen their immunity and saturate the body with vitamins. However, not only berries, but also blueberry leaves and shoots are used as raw materials for medicines.
Blueberry decoction is indicated for heart disease. It is prepared this way: two tablespoons of crushed young branches and blueberry leaves are put into an enameled pan, poured with one glass of boiled water, covered with a lid and put the pan for half an hour in a water bath, then removed, cooled, filtered, squeezing the remains. The resulting amount is added to boiled water to make a glass of broth, which cores need to take one tablespoon four times a day.
For dysentery or diarrhea, pour a tablespoon of dry berries with a glass of boiling water, warm for five minutes on the fire, remove and leave for a quarter of an hour under the lid. Take this infusion also need one tablespoon four times a day.
In case of diabetes, they use such a decoction: one tablespoon of crushed dry twigs and leaves of blueberry pour two cups of boiling water (400 ml) and heat over low heat for five minutes, then remove from heat, cover, let it brew for an hour, strain and take before eating 100 ml three times a day.
Blueberries - contraindications.
As for the contraindications, the blueberry does not have them, but this does not mean that you can eat it in kilograms. Even products that are beneficial to the body can be harmful if you forget about the sense of proportion. When overeating, blueberries can cause nausea, vomiting and even an allergic reaction. And an excess of antioxidants can lead to a decrease in the supply of oxygen to muscles and, as a result, to a violation of the muscular functions of the body. If you use fresh blueberries in seasonally in moderate season, and in the spring and spring you can make compotes, decoctions and infusions from it, then perhaps you will not only improve your health, but also be able to go into the category of long-livers like blueberries, whose shrubs with good care is able to grow and bear fruit for a hundred years.