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Laying hens: the best breeds for the home

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Hello. We live in the Urals in the Orenburg region. Can you please tell us what kind of laying hens it is better to breed in our cold climatic conditions, with the least loss for egg production? Thank you in advance.

Hello. Thank you for contacting us. Now we will try to help you. So let's first determine what productivity your layer should have? There will be two options: the first - about 300 eggs per year, the second - about 200 eggs per year.

To achieve the first option, you need special high-yielding crosses for breeding. These can be: Rhodonite (https://zoohoz.ru/kyri/rodonit-prisposoblennaya-poroda-1277/), Loman Brown (https://zoohoz.ru/kyri/loman-braun-735/) or Haysek (https : //zoohoz.ru/kyri/belye-i-korichnevye-hajsek-140/). And the latter have proven themselves in the best way about the tolerance of low temperatures.

But let us immediately recall - these are factory chickens, therefore for good productivity they necessarily need close to factory conditions of detention. This option, albeit highly productive, but quite expensive. Leghorna also has a good and stable productivity (https://zoohoz.ru/kyri/italyanskie-krasotki-leggorn-847/). However, they are not whimsical to the conditions of detention and get along well in different climatic conditions, but it’s not known how they will behave with you.

Well, now let's talk about the second option. Here breeds of hens bred in Russia go to the front line. This is first of all: Pushkin (https://zoohoz.ru/kyri/nesushka-s-gordym-imenem-1271/), Kuchinskaya Jubilee (https://zoohoz.ru/kyri/kuchinskaya-yubilejnaya-733/) and Orlovskaya (https://zoohoz.ru/kyri/orlovskaya-sittsevaya-1002/). The fact is that these breeds were bred specifically for our climatic conditions. Also, the main requirement that was put before breeders is good productivity with low requirements for the content and diet.

A distinctive feature of Russian breeds is excellent frost resistance and, at the same time, egg production is preserved. As you can see, while this is the most suitable option for you. But not bad have proven themselves in our area and Marana (https://zoohoz.ru/kyri/maran-nesushhie-zolotye-yajtsa-851/). Also an excellent option could be the Icelandic Landrace, of course, if you find where you can buy a bird from you.

Finally, I will say that this list is not complete. I have given only the most reputable breeds. I hope the answer will help you with the choice. Good luck!

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Distinctive features of laying hens

There are a lot of best breeds of laying hens, there are also crosses of these breeds, the females of which also have high egg production. But they all have common features characteristic of representatives of egg breeds.

Layers do not gain too high body weight, they have a special body structure and a special psyche:

  • The main advantage of laying hens is the number of eggs laid per year. The representatives of the best breeds, this figure - above the mark of 300 pieces,
  • precociousness of young stock - already 120 days after the birth, representatives of many breeds are already beginning to trot. Chickens at this age fully fledged, become independent and do not need the hassle of mother hen,
  • The maximum weight of male egg breeds does not exceed 3 kg. Layers usually weigh even less - about 2.3 kg. Such breeds have the ability to fly, and the plumage of the wings and the whole body is better developed than in other breeds of chickens. Wingspan - large, and the tail end elongated,
  • Chickens perfectly assimilate and process all types of feed, the metabolism in their body is accelerated. Feeds should be maximally enriched with minerals. In the period of active egg production, the hens especially need calcium, so that the eggshell is strong enough
  • breeders note the following features in these breeds of chickens - hustle and high activity. Therefore, the hens should be allowed to walk at any time of the year.
  • in the process of selection, the maternity gene was lost in the best breeds of layers; therefore, such specimens do not become hens. In order to breed these breeds in the household, you have to lay eggs in an incubator, or lay eggs to chicks of other breeds.

Comparison of egg production

If we compare the egg production of the best breeds of laying hens, it can be noted that most females are able to carry 290-310 eggs per season. In order to increase the number of eggs to 320-340, it is necessary to create appropriate conditions for them in winter.

  • To do this, you need to ensure that in the coop in winter the temperature does not drop to negative values, the litter is constantly dry, and the floor is warm, there is no draft in the room.
  • It should also be installed in the house fluorescent lamps to bring the length of daylight up to 12-14 hours.
  • In addition, the egg production of different breeds depends on the quantity and quality of feed.

Peace and tranquility - these are the main criteria by which a place is chosen for the chicken coop, which will be inhabited by egg breeds.

Below will be the best in egg production and some other indicators of the breed of laying hens, whose performance can vary from 280 to 340 eggs laid per year.

Another nuance that should be noted in laying hens is that they usually rush for no more than 4 years, and then their productivity begins to decline, so their further maintenance becomes unprofitable. In this case, the females are sent for slaughter, replacing them with promising young.

Egg production of breeds of different productivity:

  • meat breeds of chickens. They have the smallest number of eggs to be demolished - no more than 100-120 pieces per season, since these breeds were bred solely for rapid weight gain and early maturation, and egg production for such breeds is just an additional application,
  • universal breeds of chickens. Layers in this case can carry up to 200-240 eggs per season. In addition, many of the females are excellent chicks,
  • egg breeds. Laying such breeds has the highest productivity genetically built into them (up to 340-350 eggs per year). And when breeding such breeds, breeders try to increase this indicator if possible. But at the same time, hens with high egg-laying rates are not planted on eggs, since such hens are bad mothers and chicks, their task is only to lay eggs.

The best breeds of laying hens with photos and descriptions

In terms of egg production, there are several best breeds of chickens, the cultivation of which pays off not only in small farms, but also on an industrial level.

The main feature of pedigree chickens - they can be reproduced even in a small farm. To do this, it is better to acquire several families of the same breed from different manufacturers (so that they are not related to each other). Then it will be possible to collect eggs for laying in the incubator for further offspring.

Lohman Brown

This breed was bred by breeders from Germany, with Plymouthrock roosters and Rhode Island hens being the basis. The result was a cross Lohman - Brown, which belongs to the egg form of chickens.

  • The standard color of feathers varies in body from light brown to dark brown.
  • The burrows of this breed are calm, so the herd Lohman - Brown can be kept next to other birds in the poultry house.
  • Laying hens Lohman - Brown are not afraid of people, they are characterized by high endurance, as well as a high egg-laying rate.
  • Layers of this breed can be contained both in cages and in aviaries.

The egg mass is about 65 g, the color of the shell is light brown (like all breeds of chickens with brown feathers). During the season, one hen can carry 300 to 330 eggs. Therefore, this breed is very popular not only among small farmers, but also in large poultry farms.

Russian white

Many farmers in our countries prefer to keep chickens of Russian breeds in their compound, believing (and fairly enough) that such individuals are adapted to our climate, are accustomed to domestic food, therefore there will be much less problems with them in the process of growing.

Individuals of the Russian white breed - chickens, whose “parents” were white Leghornies and local individuals, which as a result became larger in size and increased productivity, correspond to all these qualities.

The females of this breed start running from 5 months. The color of the shell is snow-white, the mass of eggs can reach 59 g. During the season, layers of Russian White can carry 190-210 eggs.

The breeds of chickens Hisex Brown and Hisex White are the most popular among farmers in our country, as their merits are undeniable:

  • eggs in this breed are large, superior in taste to most similar products from other breeds,
  • do not require special care
  • perfectly adapted to the conditions of detention in different climatic zones of our country,
  • their immune system is highly resistant to most diseases affecting chickens of different breeds,
  • individuals can gain weight well even on simple feeds.

Adults can gain body weight up to 3 kg. By 5 months, chickens gain at least ¾ of the mass of the adult bird, and the hens begin to lay eggs. And during the season, each chicken lays almost one egg each day. Its mass is 70 g.

Kuchinsky Anniversary

Individuals of the Kuchinsky Jubilee breed belong to the universal variety of chickens - they not only get egg products, but also tender dietary meat.

The color of the plumage of hens is light brown, the roosters look more beautiful: the red-brown plumage of the body fits well with the tail plumage in black and green.

This breed of the Russian selection differs in unpretentiousness to conditions of maintenance and a diet of feeding, the young growth differs in average early ripeness. 2/3 of the mass of the chickens gaining about 6 months. Around this time, chickens begin to trot. Laying birds for a season can carry up to 175 eggs. The weight of males can reach 3.8 kg, and females - lighter by 900 g.

Isa Brown is a hybrid cross that belongs to the egg variety of chickens. These chickens appeared just a couple of decades ago in the Netherlands, but have since become the favorites of farmers in many countries, not only in Europe, but also on other continents. The basis of the Dutch breeders took known breed - Leggornov and Rhode Island.

And such egg production in females lasts almost up to a year. And then the chickens start to get worse. During the first 12 months, chickens of this hybrid are able to carry more than 370 pieces, the weight of each egg is about 64 g.

Many farmers note that if the diet of the Isa Brown cross-country diet is well balanced, the laying rate of the hens increases dramatically.

This breed is rightly considered the world standard of egg-bearing breed of chickens. And of all the crosses, the Leghorny of the white color are considered the best. The main standards of Leggornov:

  • trunk - wedge-shaped,
  • chest - round, slightly protruding forward,
  • the back is long, wide, slightly concave in the central part,
  • the head is smaller than the average size with a leaf-shaped scallop and a red beard,
  • eyes - orange (yellowish in aging birds),
  • the beak is powerful, strong, painted yellow,
  • neck extended, with a slight bend,
  • the body has a classic for oviparous breeds form - a triangle with the same lateral sides, and the top is a small head,
  • the limbs are not high, narrow, the color is bright yellow, in old age they become whitish with a bluish tint,
  • the tail of the cocks is slightly elevated, in the hens - lowered to the ground.

The main positive qualities of Leggornov:

  • quiet temper, quickly adapt to new conditions, are friendly, so they can be shared with other breeds of poultry,
  • about 300 eggs per season, and the indicators stay at this level for 3-4 years,
  • fertility of chicks - 98-99%,
  • precocity - chickens start to fly from 4-4.5 months,
  • eggs are large in size
  • on average, a rooster fertilizes 9 out of 10 eggs,
  • The highest egg-laying levels of the Laygorn breed are shown in the first year of life.

It is representatives of this breed that most breeders use for breeding new breeds of chickens.

Chickens of this breed are frequent guests in small farmsteads, but are also found in large farms. These chickens belong to the universal type - meat meat. Newborn chickens are rapidly growing, not only increasing muscle mass, but also starting to lay eggs from 17 weeks on. By this age, young animals gain at least 2/3 of the mass of adults (up to 1.5 kg), and adults gain a mass of 2.4-2.7 kg.

By 4.5 months, the laying hen can already carry more than 90% of the eggs of the total number carried by more mature individuals. After 5 months all Tetra chickens should be born. For a year, chicks can carry up to 310 eggs. For the first season of their lives, such females lay up to 220-240 eggs.

The shell is strong, painted in an intense brown color. The weight of most eggs is from 60 to 64 g. The tastes of eggs and meat are high. Gentle, dietary meat of such chickens can even be introduced into baby food.

There are three varieties of this breed:

  • spanish minorca black coloring,
  • breed Minorca white color (according to the English standard),
  • Minorca dwarf.

General advantages of these varieties of Minorca:

  • death rate of newborn chicks does not exceed 2-3%,
  • early maturity
  • laying hens lay eggs throughout the year, egg production starts at 20 weeks,
  • good taste of egg products,
  • attractive and their appearance,
  • meat has a delicate diet flavor,
  • Chickens of this breed are characterized by a calm disposition.

These representatives of the meat-breeding breed are the result of the breeding work of scientists from the United States. The color of the body of the hens is red-brown. The cocks on the back are dominated by blue-black plumage, and the tail is green with black tint. Limbs - strong, powerful, wings - small in size, tightly pressed to the body. Scallop - upright, red, beak - bright yellow, strong.

Birds of the Rhode Island breed are popular with farmers in many countries of the world, since individuals differ in relative precocity, by 7 months youngsters push more than 2/3 of the weight of an adult bird, and chickens at this age are already beginning to actively sweep.

The weight of an adult male can reach 4 kg, and the weight of the female - up to 3 kg. For a year, a hen can carry 190-210 eggs. The taste of meat and eggs is excellent.

New hampshire

This breed was created over a hundred years ago in the United States as a species of Rhode Island. But over time, thanks to the ongoing breeding work, New Gemshire was listed in a special edition of poultry breeds, as a separate breed.

The mass of females does not exceed 2.7 kg, and males can weigh almost 4 kg. In the first season, laying hens lay up to 190-210 eggs, without interrupting the clutch during the winter period. The shell is colored brown with a yellowish sheen. Egg mass - about 60 g.

The survival rate of young stock is up to 87%, and in adult birds this figure is higher - about 93%.

Top breeds for content

Chickens are the most unpretentious among all types of domestic birds. Therefore, most often novice poultry farmers begin to engage in the breeding of hens. For the cultivation of any suitable utility room, which is in the garden. The main thing that it was not drafts, na house stood away from the noisy road.

Depending on what the owners want to get from farmed poultry (meat, eggs, or all together), you should choose the appropriate breed of chickens.

The main species of these domestic birds are:

  • meat, which is characterized by rapid weight gain and large size. Egg production of such breeds is average (or below average). The best breeds are broilers, kohinkhin, bromine and some others,
  • Egg - with a low weight, but high productivity egg products. The best breeds are Leghorny, Russian White, Minorca, Rhode Island,
  • meaty. Chickens of these breeds are most often grown in small farms, as the owners can get both eggs and delicious tender meat. The main breeds are May Day, Poltava, Kuchinsk and some others.

Egg breeds

Representatives of the egg direction are distinguished primarily by low body mass, since they have completely different tasks. They grow quickly and go through a puberty phase. The average productivity is from 200 to 300 eggs per year from one head.

The most popular and productive breed of the egg direction, has a high prevalence rate. The breed appeared from the crossing of Minorca and the White Italian Chicken. Bred in 1859, it was introduced to Europe in the 70s of the last century, from where it came to Russia. Visually, egg breeds are quite similar to each other, but Leggorn is distinguished by:

  • wide chest and wedge-like body,
  • an unusual comb, more like a leaf, which in cocks clearly stands straight, and in hens it hangs on its side,
  • plumage color is the most diverse: from white to quail, but the most common is white,
  • plumage color in adult livestock is white, in young stock is yellow,
  • the head is average, red catkins and the dark color of the beak,
  • the neck is long and not thick,
  • adult iris is yellow, orange is young in young,
  • ноги тонкие, средние по длине,
  • хвост распушен, расположен под углом порядка 40° по отношению к телу.

Среднестатистический вес несушки — 1,5-2 кг, петуха — 2,5-2,8 кг. Половое созревание достигается в 17-18 недель. Eggs begin to carry in 4-4.5 months, the highest rates - in the first year of laying. The efficiency of the hen is 300 eggs per year. Laying fertilization reaches 95%. The output of young - 87-92%. The instinct of incubation is completely absent.

Meat-egg breeds

Farmers love this type for versatility. Here are embodied and high rates of egg production, and a large body weight, i.e. meat characteristics. Today, the most popular breeds of this direction have taken root in the Urals, let's consider them in more detail.

In some sources - Amroks, the breed is bred by German breeders. The predominant type of color - alternating horizontal gray and white stripes. But the clarity of the lines is more diffuse compared to the Plymouthrock breed, on the basis of which this species was derived. The breed is autosex, that is, in 80% of chickens on the first day, the presence of a light spot on the head determines that it is a female.

Amrok's visual characteristics:

  • head shape is average,
  • a small red fleshy comb falling to the side,
  • eyes a little on the roll out, red-brown,
  • yellow beak,
  • volumetric oblong croup, with a broad base at the tail and with a straight broad back,
  • chest deep and wide. Noticable lower legs.
  • the color of the rooster is somewhat lighter than that of the chicken. In adults, moderately loose plumage.
Heavy breed of chickens, the average weight of a male is up to 4 kg, and females up to 2.5 kg. Survival of young stock - up to 97%. Egg production is about 200 eggs per year. The instinct of incubation is well developed. The character is not aggressive, balanced, gets on well with the inhabitants of the yard and farm.

The most popular English breed, bred in the old English county of Sussex - hence the name. The original color of the eggs, mostly beige, but can come across brown and even green. They are not whimsical, take root in any conditions. Not aggressive in nature and besides beautiful hens.

Externally, the birds look like this:

  • the colors are the most diverse, but the most common is Colombian (like a cuckoo),
  • small head, wide,
  • dark, slightly curved beak, lighter on the tip,
  • eyes of red and orange colors
  • comb and earrings bright red, erect comb, 4-6 teeth,
  • neck is covered with plumage, small, tapers to the head,
  • rectangular body, narrowing to the tail.
  • the back is wide, large belly,
  • chest powerful, wide,
  • the wings, tight to the hull, are set high and rather short,
  • tail raised, tail feathers covered with braids,
  • the musculature of the tibiae of medium size is very developed, the fingers and tarsus are small and light.
Impressive in size: hen's weight - from 3.2 kg, rooster - from 4 kg. Masonry starts at 5-6 months. In winter, productivity decreases. The average efficiency of the hen is 160-190 eggs per year, but sometimes it reaches up to 250 pieces from one unit. Egg fertility is high, the survival rate of young stock is up to 98%.

Another representative of the English selection. Officially, the standards recorded 11 types of colors. Orpington has visual features that are common to both genders:

  • plumage scanty, tight to the body,
  • very large croup, massive and wide, low planted,
  • large, developed chest,
  • high body, vertical posture,
  • very straight back line
  • pronounced muscular legs,
  • neck is arched
  • the head resembles the head of a bird of prey, a very gloomy look.
The following visual standards are inherent to roosters:
  • massive, wide body,
  • well feathered, medium neck has a slight tilt,
  • small rounded head
  • the face is not feathered
  • the comb is ordinary, medium round earrings,
  • strong beak
  • eye color depends on plumage, varies from orange to black,
  • the chest is especially volumetric,
  • a strong shoulder girdle, a wide back starts from it, turning into the tail,
  • wide low belly
  • the tail is short with lots of feathers,
  • medium small wings
  • hip is feathered, paws are not,
  • legs of medium length.
Layers are distinguished by the fact that their body is more stocky. They can see a clear line neck - back - tail. The tail is short, very wide, densely feathered. The average live weight of the rooster is 5-7 kg, layers - 4.5-5.5 kg. Survival rate of young stock - 93%. Egg production - 140-160 eggs per year.

Oryol chickens

The uniqueness of the breed - more than 200 years of history and that it is completely domestic. Moreover, it was used universally: from meat and egg directions to participation in cockfighting and as a decorative breed.

The breed is very comfortable in maintenance: do not experience stress from either the heat or the cold. And visually you can’t confuse them with anyone, besides a very beautiful color, nature gave them a beard and tanks. Visually, there are small differences in roosters and chickens. At the male:

  • proud fighting stance and figure (the female has a more squat, horizontal shape),
  • elevated torso steadily rests on very strong high legs,
  • the tail is long and well feathered,
  • the neck is long, magnificently feathered, with a warlike bend,
  • earrings are poorly developed and practically hidden under the plumage,
  • the crest is small, standing, crimson, feathery with feather bristles,
  • the skull is flat, wide in the back of the head and with pronounced brow ridges,
  • reddish-amber eyes
  • the beak is curved, with a bright tip.
These details make the exterior of the bird aggressive. The average weight of a male is 3.3 kg, the female can gain from 2.5 to 2.8 kg. The average egg production is 150 pieces per year. Since the breed is not suitable for industrial scale and requires increased attention at a young age (chickens are slowly fledging, have a tendency to weak legs, colds), it began to disappear.

The French breed of chickens, bred in the city of Maran, where the name is taken from. The cold climate of the city allowed to breed a breed that is resistant to the difficult climatic conditions of the Urals and to diseases. Although earlier the breed was not very popular in Russia, now there is a tendency to increase its population.

One of the main decorations of the breed is a beautiful color palette. Quite a large breed, they are called hens that carry golden eggs. Dark brown eggs are considered the most delicious and healthy. Very strong shell, some scientists believe that pathogenic bacteria do not penetrate through it. Externally Marana look like this:

  • feathers fit snugly and cover the entire body of the bird,
  • small head
  • eye color is orange-red,
  • the body is elongated, large,
  • the tail is at an angle of 45 °, hanging down,
  • the legs have a light shade, the thigh is more feathered outside, all 4 toes on the paws are clearly separated,
  • Roosters are visually more feathered, they have pronounced red earrings.

The average weight of the hen reaches 3 kg, the rooster up to 4 kg. Average egg production - 150 pcs. per year for 1 layer. The breed has an instinct of incubation. Character calm.

Meat breeds

Meat breeds are always distinguished by a large physical weight, this is their industrial value. Although it is the weight that most often becomes the cause of their main drawback - diseases due to the distortion of the limbs. Their egg production usually does not exceed 150 pcs. per year per 1 herd unit.

Breed bred in Vietnam. Despite the size, very harmoniously folded. A distinctive feature is the plumage on the paws. This makes the already squat hull almost spherical. If the diet of the bird does not cover the need for protein and minerals, the chickens grow slowly and gain weight. Feathers fall out, productivity decreases, skin diseases develop. Cochinquins have:

  • small head
  • eyes are red-orange color
  • neck in transition to the shoulders is very strongly arched in a bend,
  • wide developed chest and back,
  • the beak is light,
  • single comb, leaf-shaped,
  • the constitution of this type of bird is tender, loose,
  • their torso and legs are thickly covered with feathers,
  • calf developed, proportional,
  • tail feathers shortened,
  • neck and limbs shortened, but strong,
  • the wings are not particularly pronounced and hidden under the plumage in a calm state,
  • very diverse color.

The average weight of a female is up to 4 kg, the male is up to 5 kg. Puberty later and later sit on the egg-laying. At present, Cochinquins are inferior in meat productivity to broilers. They are quite good hens. Character balanced. Egg production - 110 pcs. per year, and in winter it rises.

Jersey giant

Breed is considered the most gigantic in the world and the most rare. Birds are very strongly developed physically, easily adapting to the most severe conditions. They get along well with other inhabitants of the farm and are very tame, get used to it and react accordingly to their owners. Accepted standards colors only three.

Although this is a meat breed, it has the best taste in the very first year of its life.

Giants are famous for their standard appearance:

  • big big head
  • 6-toothed comb,
  • pronounced red earrings,
  • with its beak, it is small and curved,
  • neck strong average length, turning into a massive body,
  • large body, horizontal setting (there is something in common with broilers),
  • strong legs, with developed muscles, pronounced hips, elongated with metatars of red or black color - depends on the color of plumage.
The average weight of a male is from 4.5 kg to 5.5 kg, females from 3.6 kg to 4.5 kg. Weight gaining up to 5 months. The productivity of the Jersey giant reaches 180 eggs per year per 1 layer. Sexual maturity comes to 7 months. And in 1.5 years, they completely stop the development. Birds of this breed are excellent laying hens.

Decorative hens

Ornamental breeds of chickens have more aesthetic value. Usually such breeds originate in the East. Their feathers can be used in headdresses, jewelry and decor. Specifically, in Russia it was bred and for a long time, about three hundred years, the breed of Pavlovsk chickens was actively bred. Then it was declared extinct, but in the 90s of the twentieth century a small flock was found on the lands of the Urals.

Chinese silk

Ancient decorative breed that came to us from Asia. The breed has a delicious meat with a high content of amino acids and vitamins. The fluff is regularly cut, which is used as intended. The head of Chinese silk is decorated:

  • tuft (diademka),
  • tanks,
  • little beard.

The external signs of a snare are:

  • warty comb, medium (its shape and size are inherent in the form of the crested),
  • the head is elegant and small
  • the neck is of medium length
  • elongated beak with a curved tip,
  • color black and blue
  • medium-sized body, round shape,
  • the back is wide, the breast is developed,
  • 5 clearly separated feathered fingers.
The average weight of the chicken reaches from 0.8 to 1.1 kg. The leader of the pack reaches one and a half kilograms. Sexual maturity comes in 6.5-7 months. Egg production - up to 120 eggs per year.

Birds have a pronounced maternal instinct and are able to sit not only their offspring, but also the foundlings. The character is very peaceful, almost tame. The colors vary in the range of white, black, yellow and blue, but white is the main one.

It is important that the standards adopt a single color, any blotches are a deviation from the norm. Feathers without hooks, with a soft core, are not attached to each other at all, therefore they resemble more fluff or fur, and the representatives themselves look like animals with soft fur.

Video: Homemade Chinese Silk Chicken

Birds of the European selection, have exclusively decorative mission. They have no industrial interest. When they came to Russia, attempts to breed a rock failed. According to the standard with a small mass of poultry tail length should reach 3 m. In Japan, they are forbidden to kill.

Breed inherent:

  • head narrow, small,
  • earrings are average,
  • plain proportional comb, upright,
  • the beak is medium, horny or gray-blue,
  • the neck is not high, the mane falling from it runs along the entire back,
  • pronounced high chest
  • body straight, set low, but the silhouette is slim,
  • developed shoulder girdle,
  • plumage of the loins is elongated, beautiful. In roosters, it may touch the ground.
  • tail set low. The tail feathers are lush, flat, elongated due to the steering and integumentary feathers. Standard length - from 3 meters,
  • the wings are high, fit snugly to the hull,
  • the stomach is not pronounced,
  • rich color palette,
  • legs are low, feathered,
  • tarsus are special, color from gray-blue to dark green,
  • in males available elegant thin spurs.
The live weight of the rooster reaches 2.5 kg, the hens - up to 2 kg. Egg production - up to 100 pieces per year. Survival of young stock - up to 95%. The instinct of hatching in representatives of this breed is preserved, but the capriciousness in character can endanger the brood, therefore usually their eggs are laid to layers with more stable maternal habits.

Content Basics

The content of any breeds of chickens in difficult climatic conditions of the Urals pursues the achievement of two goals:

  1. Save egg production herds in winter.
  2. Keep healthy livestock and in full, without loss to meet the spring.

Taking into account the peculiarities of the climate in the Urals, the key aspects are:

  • the presence of a warm room for keeping poultry. Local farmers warm the floor with hay and the walls with sawdust, foam or the same hay,
  • heating, for this purpose, it is recommended to use local heating systems in the form of "branded" barrel stoves. Because oil, gas and electric heaters (guns) are quite expensive,
  • local farmers practice joint keeping of chickens with goats and turkeys, the goal is the same - keeping the heat indoors,
  • extension of daylight for laying hens in order to preserve their productivity. To do this, it is necessary to provide lighting of at least 5 W per 1 sq. M. m. The average recommended time to maintain continuous illumination of the room is 14-16 hours.

Feeding rules

Proper nutrition of chickens - the basis of stable year-round egg production. Chickens will be stably run if you adhere to the following rules:

  • feeding more than three times a day
  • crushed grain, for easier digestibility in conditions of limited mobility,
  • mandatory presence of feed and cereal mixers,
  • do not exclude from the diet chalk, gravel, small pebbles,
  • we replace greens from the ration with zucchini, pumpkin,
  • include fish oil, bone meal,
  • the presence of warm water around the clock.

Nature is not limited in its decisions and suggestions. And even the most demanding and incredible breeds of animals with a caring approach may well live in difficult climatic conditions. In our case with chickens of different breeds, it is important to preserve their characteristic indicators of egg production and total body weight in meat breeds.

DIY project chicken coop

We developed this project in the winter, purchased materials, components and equipment. On the basis of this project, we won a competition in the company "Fortum" in Chelyabinsk among family projects "We Save Energy", which was held in the city among students of educational schools.

The project was defended by Andrew, received 1 place and a tablet as a gift from the company "Fortum".

We really save energy, because it takes a lot of heat to heat chickens in winter.

See our draft chicken coop with your own hands.

Energy efficient house for poultry

  • Nemidov Andrew, a student of class 3-B school №43 Chelyabinsk. (this is my son)
  • Nemidova Inna Genrikhovna, the mother of the student. (it's me, lover of Nature)

  • Kataeva Tatyana Borisovna, a primary school teacher of secondary school №43 Chelyabinsk, Korolenko str., 16

The traditional content of laying hens in the Urals

To keep good chickens that will give us eggs that are good for feeding, you need to take care of their cozy house - the hen house.

Winter in the Urals lasts 5-6 months. When it is cold outside and a very short light day, the hens do not want to lay eggs.

Chickens need a warmth of 10-20 ° Celsius and a daylight duration of 12-14 hours a day.

To create good conditions for laying hens, you need to do the following:

  1. Build a warm chicken coop made of wood or brick, which must have a large window.
  2. Connect additional heating in the form of an infrared heater or mount an electric underfloor heating. As an option, some owners of chickens install stoves, stoves, which in severe frost need to be heated with wood or coal.
  3. Make lights in the chicken coop, turn on the light bulbs in the early morning and in the evening so that the chickens are 12-14 hours a day bright.

In this way, 2 long Ural winters lived in our hens. And we had to think about how to make an energy-efficient house without cutting down a single tree and not wasting electricity, which is expensive and needs to be saved to save the environment.

The traditional version of laying hens is very expensive in terms of money and energy, because a solid wooden house made of log is expensive, and a lot of electricity is needed for heating around the clock and additional lighting for the chicken coop.

Thanks to modern innovative technologies of the 21st century, we have chosen the most optimal option - we are starting to build an energy efficient house for laying hens.

We will create comfortable conditions for their living, and they will give us many useful eggs for feeding their families and friends.

What do we need? We will talk about this in the next chapter.

Alternative way to heat birds without energy costs

In order not to destroy trees and not burn valuable electric power, we will build a chicken coop on the basis of a polycarbonate greenhouse.

Мы купили теплицу вот такой формы, но курятник своими руками мы будем строить побольше!

Домик для куриц покрывается специальным поликарбонатом для содержания животных, он незначительно, но отличается от поликарбоната для теплиц, в которых мы выращиваем овощи и зелень.

We will have an almost transparent chicken coop, in which at dawn and at dusk 2 hours of additional natural light will be added at dusk.

For additional lighting and heating in the dark, we purchased special red lighting lamps.

These lamps are mirror, they give not only light, but also additional heat. If you hang the bulbs at the top, then each bulb will heat 2 square meters of area in the chicken coop.

This is the first important point that concerns lighting in the hen house in winter.

These bulbs are very economical, they have a power of only 60 watts, and provide enough lighting and additional heating for severe frosts when it is colder outside than -20 frost.

This we described the first important point - the problem with the light in the energy-efficient house for the chickens, we decided.

Now tell about the heating. How to heat the room of the chicken coop, without using electric heaters and stoves?

There is an exit! We will be helped by an innovative product of the 21st century, which is called Net-Plast.

It was developed by our scientists for spacecraft. The net layer is special bacteria that we have to settle on the floor in the chicken coop, right on the prepared bedding for laying hens.

The net layer is produced in packages weighing 0.5 and 1 kg, and 1 kg of these bacteria is enough for heating 20 square meters. meters for 3 years!

How to do it? You need to prepare the litter in the chicken coop. We fall asleep sawdust, which can be taken free of charge at any sawmill, we will add dry straw and husks from oats, it is at any flour mill that produces oatmeal porridge for us.

Mix these components of the litter, sprinkle the powder with bacteria Net-layer evenly and mix again.

Where does warm come from, you ask? When the hens live in their new house, they will go to the toilet on the floor, on the bedding.

When interacting with bacteria from the chicken toilet, the bacteria begin their work - they feed on the chicken toilet, emit heat and, which is very important for us, completely neutralize the unpleasant smell!

This is called fermentation bedding, which produces heat in the chicken coop room.

The warranty period of such litter is 3 years, over time, the litter turns into dry peat, which we will sprinkle into the greenhouse and garden as an environmentally friendly fertilizer.

If the chicken litter fermentation bedding is trampled down, then it must sometimes be loosened, it is possible to add straw and sawdust, but we no longer have to clean the coop and smell this “flavor”!

At a temperature of -20 degrees outside, the chicken coop should have 15 degrees of heat, and if there is a very strong frost, we will briefly connect 1-2 reflector lamps for additional heating.

Everything! We built a chicken coop with our own hands from a polycarbonate greenhouse. Energy efficient house for laying hens is ready.

Materials and components for chicken coop equipment

Consider a chicken coop area of ​​15 square meters

  1. The foundation for the coop - pine timber.
  2. The frame of the greenhouse (any that owners like chickens).
  3. Polycarbonate Kronos for the maintenance of agricultural. Animals.
  4. Net layer - 1 kg of fermentation litter.
  5. Straw 3 bags.
  6. Sawdust 10 bags.
  7. Husk of oats or seeds 5 bags.
  8. 3 60 watt red mirror lights
  9. 2-3 large mirrors - so that the hens admire themselves
  10. Electronic thermometer, the sensor of which will be in the chicken coop, to control the temperature without leaving home.
  11. Boxes of plastic from fruit, in which chickens will carry eggs in the hay.
  12. Old blackout desk, down which we put the boxes-nests for layers.
  13. Automatic feeder for a bucket of grain.
  14. Automatic drinking bowl on a bucket of water.
  15. A few bark of the felled trees, so that the hens have original perches.
  16. Good mood and desire to achieve everything.

Arakan breed chickens are growing up here - they need a new chicken coop with their own hands, i.e. with our hands.

Economic justification of the project

  1. We will not destroy a single tree to build a house.
  2. We practically will not spend the electric power.
  3. We will not clean the coop and smell the bad smell.
  4. We will get ecologically clean eggs for family nutrition and treat all friends!
  5. In 3 years we will get a lot of natural fertilizer for vegetables, fruits and berries.

Energy efficiency in numbers

With the traditional maintenance of chickens, we need to heat the chicken coop 6 months a year. We will consume 1,200 watts per hour and spend: 28,800 watts per day, 864,000 watts per month, 5,184,000 watts in six months. To make it clear how much you can turn on 100 W bulbs - it turns out that you can turn on almost 52 thousand light bulbs for 1 hour. Or 2160 hours of operation of one light bulb - this is almost 6 years of continuous work!

In an ordinary henhouse with a window you need to turn on the light bulb for 3 hours in the morning and 3 hours in the evening. In a transparent energy efficient house we will turn on the lighting for 1 hour in the morning and 1 hour in the evening. The calculation is simple - we save energy by 3 times!

We do not need a heater!

Conclusion

Let's hope that our project on paper will meet our expectations.

At the time of writing this project, we have everything for arranging an energy efficient house. We have not yet begun construction, because there is a huge snowdrift in the yard of the future chicken coop!

We think that by the time the project is defended, our dream will have already become a reality, our chickens will live in comfortable conditions in their new modern house, which practically does not require energy costs.

In the autumn we will give Turquoise Egg to every reader who likes our idea and its realization into reality, because now we have Araukan breed chickens that are chickens that carry turquoise blue eggs.

We save energy, save nature and eat environmentally friendly eggs.

To all the above, I want to add that homemade chicken and eggs do not contain biostimulants and antibiotics that can harm the health of children!

Take care of the nature and energy of our country.

Russia is a great power, we will be worthy citizens of our Motherland!

Thanks for attention!

Chelyabinsk, May 20, 2016.

Coop DIY photo

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