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How to pollinate tomatoes (tomatoes) in a polycarbonate greenhouse manually with a brush

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To collect a rich crop of tomatoes, you need not be lazy to properly care for vegetables. In the greenhouse, plants are more sensitive to care than in open ground.

After planting, care for tomatoes in the greenhouse consists of three essential components:

Watering tomatoes begin on day 12 after planting. Tomatoes do not like too wet soil. Therefore, watering norms should be strictly observed: 4 liters per 1 m2 - before flowering, 12 liters per 1 m2 - during flowering and fruit formation.

Watering need tomatoes every 5-6 days. It is important to ensure that the water temperature is not lower than + 22 ° C. It is necessary to ensure that the humidity in the greenhouse is not increased, because This prevents the pollination of flowers. In addition to natural pollination, tomato flowers also need to be pollinated mechanically.

To do this, shake inflorescences daily. It is better to do it in the afternoon on a sunny day. After shaking, the flowers are sprayed and the room is aired.

However, spraying and accumulation of condensate in the greenhouse can lead to the development of fungal diseases. Therefore, it is better to combine the spraying with foliar dressings and add Fitosporin or Gamar to them alternately.

Airing is a very important point in the care of tomatoes in the greenhouse. To regulate the humidity in the room should be provided vents. For tomatoes, the comfort temperature is +19 ° C - + 22 ° C during the day and + 16 ° C - + 20 ° C at night. During flowering and fruiting, the temperature should be 1-2 degrees higher (but not higher than + 27 ° C).

Also do not forget about feeding. Starting to feed the plants need from the formation of the first ovary. Depending on the growth phase, you can use liquid mullein, potassium sulfate, superphosphate and wood ash.

Good liquid dressing from herbal teas.

For a week or two, plant residues are tightly packed into the container (weeds can be folded) with the addition of nettles, and filled with warm water. Capacity closes the lid. You can add mullein and microorganism preparations to it. If you are going to fertilize at the root, then the resulting infusion is diluted 1 part to 20-30, for foliar dressings it is diluted more, approximately 40-50 times.

As a rule, many pathogens and pests accumulate over time in greenhouses. But if you think over and make the correct laying of the soil, and then systematically take care of it, you can avoid the debilitating frequency of replacing the soil.

The first tab (or replacement) is made as follows. The soil is removed from the greenhouse on a bayonet, shed water. Then the surface is covered with a transparent film and left for a month or two under the so-called steam. By the fall, you can sow any siderats. They actively sprout even in October, quickly gaining a green mass. Good results are obtained by planting crucifers with legumes; they help from root rot.

In early spring, a mixture of compost, garden soil and sand (directly on the green manure) is applied. The soil is carefully tamped and spilled. Already in March you can sow again any spring siderats, except rye. Rye is too allelopathic, its root and leafy secretions can suppress the tender tomato seedlings.

By the time the seedlings are planted, the beds are laid out, their borders are fixed with the help of borders.

Suit various materials - bricks, boards, slate. It would be good to lay boards or tiles along the paths - the earth does not like trampling down. Grown siderata not pull out, just pruned them at the root and put on the beds.

After planting the seedlings, the entire free area of ​​the land is covered with a large layer of compost. Then, throughout the season, a mulch layer of straw and cut grass is added. A large layer of mulch warns the spread of phytophtora even if its spores are caught or stayed in the greenhouse. The lower leaflets break off, do not allow to contact with the ground.

The presence of earthworms also affects soil health. Therefore, it is possible to collect them at the bottom of the compost pile and transfer them along with the substrate. In between the rows, it is good to add legumes, they enrich the soil with nitrogen, and the root system of tomatoes will completely entwine their roots by the end of the season. Basil is sown along the borders. He gets on well with tomatoes, makes the fruit taste more intense.

So, growing tomatoes in greenhouses is a very exciting household. Having learned to air the greenhouse in a timely manner, ensuring systematic watering and a little helping the plants with pollination, you will achieve a good harvest. And in order not to change the soil often, begin to heal the soil by regularly applying organic matter, then care of the greenhouse will become very easy over time. Of course, for the year to get one hundred percent recovery will not succeed. But within three years you will feel a real improvement in the microflora in your greenhouse.

Secrets of pollination of tomatoes and cucumbers

Good day, dear friends!

Let's talk about the pollination of tomatoes and cucumbers in their cultivation.

Every year, hardworking gardeners and gardeners wait with sinking in the heart of the summer and autumn harvest. How much it will be abundant depends on many factors: weather, fertilizing, watering, reproduction of pests. Pollination of flowers plays a significant role in this matter. If we completely leave fruit trees to insect pollinators, then sometimes we can help vegetable crops ourselves. What are the secrets of pollination are in tomatoes and cucumbers?

Pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse and in the open ground

For the successful formation of pollen in the flowers of tomatoes, it is necessary to warm the air to 20-25 ° C. But if the temperature rises higher and reaches values ​​of 32-35 ° C, then the processes occurring in the anthers are inhibited and the pollen becomes sterile. The effect of high temperature is aggravated by high (more than 70%) humidity. Under such conditions, pollen grains stick together into lumps and cannot get enough sleep from the anthers. Therefore, it is not surprising that in a steadily hot summer period with high humidity of the air few fruits are formed on the tomatoes. To avoid such problems, it is necessary to regularly air the greenhouse in which the tomatoes grow. This measure contributes to the drying and circulation of air. Tomatoes growing in the open field should be more thoroughly watered and shaded on very hot days, creating an artificial coolness.

Harmful to the pollen of this plant and too low temperature. Cold nights, when the thermometer lasts more than five hours at 13-14 ° C or lower, contribute to the formation of defective pollen. In very cold nights it is useful to put a bucket with glowing coals in an unheated greenhouse - their heat will warm the green pets and support all life processes in the plant body.

Tomatoes are characterized by selfing, as well as the pollination of tomatoes by insects and wind. On cloudy days, pollinators reduce their activity, and many flowers may not be pollinated. The wind carries dust particles a maximum of one meter, so there remains hope for the help of human hands. Artificial pollination is carried out by lightly shaking the branches of a plant or stakes, to which the stems are tied. This measure is sufficient to carry out every 3-4 days.

Pollination of cucumbers

For pollen of cucumbers are not terrible sweltering heat and high humidity. This feature distinguishes them from tomatoes. The homeland of this vegetable crop is the tropics of China and Indonesia, so high temperatures and humidity only increase pollen fertility.

Cucumber has one more pleasant dignity. Most hybrids of this plant are parthenocarpic. This means that they do not require pollination to set fruit. Such varieties and hybrids are very convenient for growing, because under adverse conditions, for example, when the temperature drops and the absence of pollinating insects, the crop is still guaranteed. But many vegetable growers believe that ordinary (non-hybrid) forms of cucumbers are more tasty and fragrant. Therefore, if the choice fell on these varieties, it is necessary to create all the conditions for the successful formation of pollen, pollination and development of the ovary.

To increase the number of fertilized flowers, you can use manual pollination. They spend it in dry sunny weather, preferably in the first half of the day, since after lunch most of the flowers of pumpkin plants close. The very process of pollination is quite simple. To do this, you need to pick a male flower, remove the petals and touch the stigmas of the pistils in the female flowers with light touches.

Quality pollinating tomatoes and cucumbers with the observance of such simple measures, it will help to raise the harvest of your favorite vegetables in the garden. And no natural anomalies will not be afraid of their delicate and fragile flowers. See you friends!

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Temperature exposure

Tomatoes may not be tied up because they do not like the ambient temperature. Everyone knows that tomatoes are great lovers of heat, at low temperatures of soil and air they will not give fruit, but they can stop growing and will die in the future. Problems may occur when watering with cold water.

Flowers fall and with a strong heat. Pollen on the heat and does become sterile. The optimum temperature for pollination is the interval from 20 to 25 degrees.

Flowers fall and with a strong heat. Pollen on heat and does become sterile.

Incorrect humidity

If tomatoes fall off, the reason may be in the humidity. In this case, the role is played by the humidity of the air and the soil.

Despite the fact that tomatoes in the greenhouse moisture-loving, they tolerate drought well. But vegetation stage is also very important. Insufficient watering during the growth of seedlings and flowering leads to the fact that the flowers will fall off, not having time to form the ovary.

If the humidity is high, the tomatoes also fall. In this case, fungal infections may develop. In this case, the pollen is poured out of the anthers, sticking together into lumps. With too dry air, the pollen on the pistil simply does not germinate.

Lack of pollination

Why do tomatoes fall? The reason may be in the absence of pollination. In open soil, pollination of plants occurs with the help of wind and insects; pollen is quickly transferred from place to place. In closed buildings, the bushes are deprived of this possibility, so pollination must be carried out artificially. We also advise you to read the article on the main methods and rules of pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse.

In closed buildings, tomatoes are practically devoid of pollination; therefore, this procedure is carried out artificially.

Other reasons

Another of the reasons that green tomatoes are starting to fall is to highlight:

  • diseases - the affected bushes quickly take off the flowers,
  • the tomatoes in the greenhouse were grown from their own seeds,
  • plants do not have enough sun, planting is heavily thickened,
  • the bushes do not have enough strength to form flower buds (the problem often arises in multiple and large-fruited varieties),
  • tomatoes do not get enough nutrients - phosphorus, potassium,
  • green tomatoes are beginning to fall, and because the pesticide treatment was carried out, resulting in reduced pollen productivity.

Another reason for flower modification is excess nitrogen. It may occur due to excessive feeding manure.

Troubleshooting

Why there are problems in the greenhouse, we found out, now we need to understand how to cope with them. First of all it is necessary to understand the reason. All work is carried out only after its determination.

Another reason for the fall of tomatoes - the bushes do not have enough strength to form ovaries of flowers

  • At night, do not forget to cover the structure with old blankets, film and other improvised means to prevent heat leakage beyond the construction.
  • If cooling is expected, it is worth considering heating in the greenhouse. The stoves will come to the aid, stoves or electric heaters.
  • Do not water the tomatoes with cold water from a water supply system or a well. Prefill the barrels with water and wait until it warms up.
  • If the temperature in the greenhouse and on the street drops by less than 15 degrees, you can correct the situation by watering with warm water. Daytime heat accumulators will also help if painted in the color of a barrel of water.

You should not grow tomatoes from your own seeds. It is important to know that a number of hybrids cannot produce fruit when re-grown. Before sowing, read the information on the packaging - hybrids are labeled F1.

Causes of tomato fall off and ovary (video)

  • If you cannot understand why the plant discards the fruit, remove the flowers that have not formed the ovary. Then the bush will begin to direct forces on the formation of new ovaries and flowers.
  • In the greenhouse you should not be zealous with the introduction of nitrogen supplements during flowering. Fermus feeding should be carried out before the flowers appeared.
  • If the weather is hot, ventilate the building, leave the greenhouse open for the night.
  • It is important to properly form a bush, then the access of air and the sun will be uniform.

In the greenhouse, tomato problems may arise due to irregular ventilation. If the weather is calm, for pollination of flowers you need to artificially create air movement with a fan.

Preventive measures

The yield of tomatoes directly depends on the number of fruit that began to form. This process is influenced by many factors:

  • the formation of an optimal amount of viable pollen,
  • transporting pollen from anther to stigma,
  • germination of pollen grains and pollen tube growth.

If the weather is hot, ventilate the building, leave the greenhouse open for the night

Pollen is formed around the 7th day of flowering. The productivity of its formation is directly dependent on the weather. Illumination has a targeted effect on the amount of pollen, to a lesser extent on its quality. If the plants receive insufficient light, the quality of the pollen will be worse.

For the fruits in the greenhouse to be tied well, a properly set temperature is necessary. Thus, by lowering it at night below 15, the anthers will become deformed, and at temperatures above 32 degrees, pollen grains lose viability.

To improve the formation of fruits can be 2 main methods:

  • using chemical stimulants
  • making mechanical pollination.

It is important to properly form a bush, then the access of air and the sun will be even

The following agents can serve as chemical stimulants: methyl products, gibberellin, phenol acetic acid, and others. Tomato flowers are simply sprayed with a stimulant solution.

Gardeners often use a method such as manually shaking a blossoming bud or stem a couple of times a week. During the procedure, up to 40 grains adhere to the stigma of the pistil, which significantly improves the fruiting process. For the same purpose, you can use a special device - an electric vibrator ОЦТ-65. It is better to carry out pollination from 10 to 15 hours.

You can also find out when and how to pinch tomatoes in the greenhouse.

Pollination of tomatoes (video)

If you are confronted with the question of why fruits are falling off tomatoes, you should solve the problem immediately. But first it is necessary to identify the cause of the presented behavior of the bushes - an unacceptable level of humidity, the absence of pollination, an unfavorable temperature. Once you understand what prevents the plant from producing fruits, you can take steps to preserve the vegetables.

Attention, only TODAY!

How to pollinate tomatoes in a greenhouse, not all gardeners who decide to grow this healthy and nutritious vegetable all year round know. Productivity depends on the quality and quantity of pollination. If you simply plant the seedlings in a well-prepared soil and provide adequate conditions for temperature and humidity, then you should not be surprised at the complete lack of harvest. Tomatoes can be grown both in open ground and in the greenhouse. Both methods are good in their own way and have a number of features. In particular, when growing in the open, the problem of pollination does not exist: nature does everything by itself. Wind, butterflies, bees and other insects spread the pollen without any interference from the gardener, and the plants are pollinated.

Pollination of tomato produced by natural and artificial method.

Insects rarely live in a greenhouse, and this makes pollination really problematic. In summer warm weather, the greenhouse does not close almost around the clock. Insects can freely fly in and out of it. And the gardener is faced with the task of attracting insects inside the greenhouse.

Pollination conditions

Tomatoes are self-pollinated plants. This means that the pollen from their flowers is suitable both for pollination of themselves and for other plantings.

However, growing crops in greenhouse conditions implies year-round pollination, when there are simply no insects. In this case, the pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse occurs by other methods. They can be used in the summer, as a supplement to the "natural".

Pollination is a mandatory procedure, without which the formation of ovaries is impossible. Технически задача сводится к тому, чтобы обеспечить попадание пыльцы на рыльце пестика. Но результат в немалой степени зависит и от качества самой пыльцы. Ее можно использовать как для самоопыления, так и для опыления соседних кустов.

Искусственное опыление томата.

Также на результат влияют условия температуры и влажности, в которых произрастают томаты. When growing in open ground ideal conditions cannot be achieved, so the greenhouse option is an advantage.

The temperature should not fall below 13 degrees and be above 30. At a lower temperature, anthers are deformed in the flower, which prevents the penetration of pollen. If the temperature exceeds 30-35 degrees, the pollen is sterilized and fertilization becomes impossible. It is necessary to remember that during the flowering period even a short-term violation of the temperature regime can lead to the complete dropping of flowers and loss of the crop.

Another important factor influencing the quality of pollen is the humidity of the air. With a humidity of more than 70%, the pollen sticks together and cannot, firstly, spread over a sufficiently large distance, and secondly, this complicates its interaction with the anther of the flower. However, too dry air pollen is not good.

Thus, it takes a lot of effort to ensure ideal conditions for the gardener. This can be achieved, for example, by building a good ventilation system in a greenhouse. A good option would be to install automatic or manual vents.

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Natural pollination

Cross pollination by insects.

Surprisingly, but pollination in greenhouses can be produced and natural method. For this you need to ensure a good through passage of air masses and the passage of insects. The first is achieved by the fact that in windy weather in the greenhouse doors and vents open. The pollen is quickly blown off the flower and gets onto other plants. To attract insects, it is recommended to plant honey plants in the greenhouse between the rows of tomatoes: buckwheat, clover, sunflower and others. You can even put flowers in pots brought from home, marigolds, basil. They will improve the taste of the fruit. But when planting them should be remembered and the danger of putting on the site weeds, to get rid of which in the future will not be easy.

Bee colonies can be brought into the greenhouse for a short time. However, you must first bees "down". The fact that the flowers of tomatoes do not have the smell and nectar, which could attract bees. The bees that were previously pollinated cucumbers are carried closer to the bushes of tomatoes. Insects at the same time lure a special sugar syrup, infused on the petals of flowers of tomatoes. In this case, honey flowers in the greenhouse to make it is not necessary, because the bees can flop over them. Or plant tomato seedlings with the expectation that tomatoes will bloom earlier than other plants.

Some gardeners use a trick: they place jars with last year's jam, plates with sweet syrup in greenhouses or at the entrance to them. Attracted by the sweet smell, the bees are taken first for a treat, and then for pollination.

If tomatoes are grown in very large quantities, it is possible to install a beehive with bees near the greenhouse. The presence of bumblebees speeds up the pollination process by almost 70%. Some gardeners specifically buy bumblebees during the period of pollination. But buying bees or bumblebees is an expensive pleasure that requires keeping the insects themselves. Therefore, it is worth acquiring them only if there is confidence in profitability. As an option, insects can be rented.

If the pollination was successful, the petals of a tomato flower should be bent back after a few days. If, despite all the efforts, this did not happen, it is required to take measures to artificial pollination.

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Artificial Pollination

Pollination of a castrated tomato flower.

First you need to decide on time. It is best to pollinate the morning hours, from eight to ten in the morning, since the pollen ripens at night. Naturally, during the flowering period and every 2-4 days until the result is achieved. More often, it just won't work, as the pollen matures every 2-4 days.

Technically, the process is quite simple. The most primitive method is shaking. Each tomato bush should be shaken, gently holding the trunk. If the trunks are tied, you can just tap on the leash. So the trunks are not damaged.

If it is possible to use a fan, you can in turn bring it to each plant, thus creating an artificial wind. Pollen blown off by air will settle on neighboring colors.

The third way is with a brush. Her bristles get dirty in the pollen, and then the pistil of another flower is swept over with it. A good option would be to use an electric toothbrush.

Immediately after the pollination process, it is necessary to artificially increase the humidity of the air in the greenhouse.

You can simply water the plants or spray. If the area of ​​the greenhouse is small, spraying is done with a hand spray gun. Wetting will improve the pollen germination. But in any case, two or three hours after this, the greenhouse should be opened for ventilation. Otherwise, high humidity is formed inside, which causes the pollen to crumple. Increased humidity also increases the level of sugar in the fruits of tomatoes and impairs their taste properties in general.

For better tying, some gardeners spray flowers with a solution of boric acid, 10 grams of powder per 10 liters of water during the flowering period. Suitable for these purposes and specialized drugs: "Ovary", "Bud" and others. However, they only help natural processes and cannot replace them completely. If everything went well, after about a week you can see the first fruit ovaries.

By combining all the above methods of pollination, you can achieve an excellent result and please yourself and your loved ones with large, juicy tomatoes all year round!

Pollination of tomatoes and cucumbers in the greenhouse | Posted by admin

| Posted by admin

Pollination of plants is necessary for the appearance of fruit, it is natural and artificial (mechanical), when the inflorescences are periodically shaken. This type of pollination occurs if the culture is grown in a greenhouse, where the bees almost never fly. Cucumbers are very demanding to the procedure, since the mechanical method includes not only shaking the flower, transferring pollen from male anthers to female ones, but also treating the bush after the procedure and thorough through ventilation. Tomatoes in this sense are more unpretentious, they only require processing the flowers with a brush and spraying the bush after mechanical pollination.

When to pollinate in a greenhouse?

For all types of garden crops, pollination at home is approximately the same: a brush should be held several times on a flower, then spray the plant from a spray bottle. As soon as the flowers have blossomed, every morning, in sunny weather, conduct mechanical pollination until flowering passes into the ovary stage. This process can take 2 weeks, so please be patient if you want to get a good crop of tomatoes and cucumbers.

Some gardeners plant hybrids in the greenhouse that do not need pollination. Hybrids are especially popular among cucumbers, since in the open ground all the work on pollination is taken over by bees, and in the greenhouse you will have to manually combine male and female pollen with a brush.

But pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse should be carried out necessarily. If the pollen remains on the flower, it will not make an ovary, so you will always need a brush or other device for manual labor. For pollination to be effective, air humidity should not exceed 70%, since after rain or in wet weather, pollen does not shake off the flower, but stick to the brush. If the humidity is low, then the pollen dries out and loses its properties to fruiting. Plants that are not pollinated, usually gives abundant foliage and small fruits, and the mechanical method helps to shift the reproductive functions of the culture for the better.

How to pollinate cucumbers and tomatoes?

Tomatoes are classified as self-pollinating crops, while cucumber is a cross-pollinated vegetable. If pollination of cucumbers in the greenhouse is not carried out at all, do not wait for the harvest. For mechanical pollination, one must be able to distinguish male and female flowers. The first grow bunches in the axils of cucumber leaves, the second - one by one. To manually carry the pollen, you must first touch the male pollen with a brush, and then carefully transfer it to the female inflorescence. No other pollination for cross-pollinating plants is suitable, therefore, planting cucumbers in a greenhouse, think about what you have to work hard. Selfing leads to the degeneration of the variety and the production of twisted fruits.

In tomatoes, everything happens much easier. To shake a tomato flower, it is enough that a bumblebee, a bee, a fly, an ant or a dragonfly sit on it. The slightest hesitation of a plant from wind or hand touch - and the pollen is already on the ground. Do not forget to water the tomatoes after pollination so that the pollen goes to the ground. The best time to pollinate tomatoes is in the early morning when dew falls on the grass. In sunny weather the humidity does not exceed 75%, the air temperature should be no more than + 27 ° C.

The main condition for pollination of cucumbers and tomatoes is through-ventilation of the greenhouse, which contributes to reducing humidity, improving the ovary and more fruiting. It is better if the windows for ventilation are not only on the side, but also at the top. Remember that the wind is another of the conditions for the effectiveness of mechanical pollination.

Pollination Rules

In a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, it is necessary to pollinate tomatoes manually, as there is no wind, insects and other pollen carriers.

To pollinate tomatoes was effective, you must comply with a number of conditions.

  1. Temperature. Temperature can influence the quality of pollen. When it decreases to +13 degrees and increases to +33 degrees, pollen degrades its qualities and viability. This can occur even with short-term changes in temperature. In addition, the heat causes shedding of flowers.
  2. Air humidity. The optimum level of humidity should be 70%. Lower or higher rates degrade pollen properties. With a high level of pollen moisture, it loses its volatility, so pollination will be ineffective.

To create good conditions for pollination, it is necessary to observe proper watering and ventilate the greenhouse, and also it is possible to treat the plants using a preparation with boric acid.

Natural Pollination Techniques

Pollinating tomato bushes can be several methods, they mimic the conditions of the open ground and are considered the most simple.

  1. Attraction of insects. Since the greenhouse is a closed space, for successful pollination, you need to try to create natural conditions. To attract bees to the greenhouse you can plant honey crops, place boxes with flowers, add beehives. The latter option is the most expensive, so it is rarely used and only on an industrial scale.
  2. Ventilation. Thanks to this simple method you can successfully pollinate bushes. In windy weather, the greenhouse is opened so that it is well ventilated. In such conditions, the pollen will crumble into flowers and pollinate them. This procedure should be carried out several times, after which the plants are treated with a solution of boric acid.

Other Pollination Techniques

Artificial pollination is used when pollination in a natural way for some reason did not occur or is impossible. There are a number of reasons for this. For example, in greenhouses that operate and are heated year-round, in winter there are no insects carrying pollen, or weather conditions prevent pollen from scattering. Therefore, in such cases, use manual pollination, and then treated with a solution of boric acid. You can determine not pollinated inflorescences as follows.

Pollinated flowers have open curved petals, while non-pollinated petals are closed. Before starting the procedure in a polycarbonate greenhouse, every bush should be well inspected and those that require pollination should be marked. Artificial pollination can be done in several ways.

  1. Shaking. To pollinate plants, you just need to shake the bushes, holding them by the stem. Tied up tomatoes can be pollinated by tapping on them with a rope. The use of this method will allow you to shake off the pollen on the pistils and carry out the procedure quickly.
  2. With a brush. Use a thick soft brush. With its help, pollen is collected, and then touched with a brush to those flowers that need to be pollinated.
  3. Use a fan. This method is similar to airing. The principle of pollination is the same. It is necessary to create wind in the greenhouse. To do this, turn on the fan is carried between the rows.
  4. The use of an electric toothbrush. This method is very time consuming. To pollinate the bushes in this way you need to bring the included device above the flowers. Vibration from the device will cause the pollen to fall.

Manual pollination of tomatoes is best done when the weather is warm and clear. The treatment interval is 3-4 days during the flowering phase. The most favorable time is morning. After the work, it is necessary to water the bushes, and then treat with a solution of boric acid. It promotes the germination of pollen. Three hours after watering, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse so that the air humidity will return to normal.

Proper tomato pollination will significantly improve the yield of fruits on the bushes.

Why do you need to pollinate tomatoes in a home greenhouse

Well, some will say, everyone knows that tomato plants are self-pollinated. This is the eternal problem with cucumbers, and here everything should be in order. But in order to get the pollen from the stamens to the pistil, some mechanical action is necessary, a whiff of wind, insect legs. And in early spring, precisely during flowering, our tomatoes are tightly covered in greenhouses.

Yes, besides, the pollen still needs to fully mature, but it does not always work and there are many reasons for this:

  1. Improperly formed bushes and as a result, a large number of inflorescences that are not within the power of the plant.
  2. Use of poor quality, too weak or hybrid seeds.
  3. Insufficient amount of fertilizer required during flowering.
  4. An excess of organic matter and nitrogen, which leads to a rapid collection of green mass, to the detriment of flowering.
  5. Wrong conditions, too hot or cold in the greenhouse, too low light.

Then we see a sad picture of how our ovaries are showered, how most of the inflorescences turn out to be empty flowers.

In order for our harvest to be the way we expect, first of all, we need to create a good environment for ripening pollen, lighting, microclimate and care. And secondly, you need to apply several methods at once in order to pass the pollination, to be sure of the final result.

Conditions for pollinating a tomato in a greenhouse

Do you know that constantly, due to insufficiently good greenhouse growing conditions, you lose up to half of the entire crop? But many of them do not even think about it, having erected a greenhouse on the site and not too delving into the need to observe temperature and humidity.

The pollen of tomatoes, however, like other plants, ripens only under certain conditions. If there is a lack of lighting, more often when the greenhouse is located incorrectly or there is a large thickening in it, then there may be no ripening at all.

The temperature for normal pollination plays the most important role. When lowered to + 13 and below this mark, pollen loses up to half the ability of full aging. Such a decrease in temperature will accordingly lead to a loss, and a great one, to a harvest. But you can even not notice this, if it is not even possible to frequently check the greenhouse.

What are we facing a temperature above 35 degrees? Even a boost for a short time can completely destroy the future harvest. At high temperature pollen ripening ability is completely lost.

Another important fact is humidity. If dry air is constant, then there is no question of any high-quality pollination. And the increased humidity will just make the pollen sticky, it will lose the ability to crumble. Humidity in the greenhouse should always be maintained at about 70%, especially during flowering.

Pollination in a greenhouse can take place naturally, of course with our help, and artificial methods. Among them are more suitable for industrial scale, they are time consuming or expensive, but very effective. There are simple ones that even a novice summer resident can handle.

Ways of natural pollination

Do you know why I never soot in the greenhouse several different vegetable crops at once? Some need high humidity or temperature to get the ovary (peppers). For others, unthinkable draft (cucumbers). It is better to have a couple of facilities, then you are guaranteed to be with stable yields, creating your own microclimate for one type of vegetables

  • That's it, the draft, arranged in a greenhouse in windy weather, well help pollinate plants. The procedure should be done in the morning, as soon as the pollen has ripened (it matures at night). After you need to go and look at the flowers, pollinated leaves will be bent up, if there are more, then you managed to do everything correctly.
  • Attracting insects, usually bees and bumblebees. To do this, you can sow flowers in the honeybee plant right on the beds with tomatoes, which especially attract insects. Выбирайте яркие, с выраженным ароматом. Говорят, что если посадить среди томатов ароматный базилик, то можно кроме привлечения пчёл, ещё и улучшить вкусовые качества плодов. Некоторые покупают ульи, чтобы разместить в теплице, но это если вы серьёзно занимаетесь выращиванием помидор для продажи.
  • Можно занести в теплицу на время горшки с вашими садовыми цветами, пусть поработают на благо урожая.

Artificial pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse

Artificially, that is, independently pollinating tomatoes most likely you will have to selectively. This operation, or rather a series of measures, should be carried out after the tomatoes have been naturally pollinated, but the result did not inspire you.

  • Turning on the floor fan in the greenhouse creates a draft and pollen peels off the stamens. It can be included in sunny weather, when the probability of pollination is most effective.
  • Tapping on the trellis or shaking the bushes is also suitable for artificial pollination, pollen is simply shaken off and gets on the pistil.
  • An interesting innovation was the use of an electric toothbrush for pollination. It includes over the flowers and vibration causes the pollen to crumble.
  • Well, when nothing helps, a soft and fluffy brush comes to the rescue. Touching the stamens and then to the pestle is almost one hundred percent guarantee of pollination. In this procedure, in order not to get confused, I use a bright marker tape from the store; I just mark each brush of inflorescences that I have passed.

All methods should be repeated, not carried out once, and throughout the entire flowering period, after three or four days. Better alternating them, preferably in the morning. After pollination, watering should be mandatory in order to speed up the setting of fruits, but after a few hours it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse to reduce the humidity of the air.

Artificial methods of pollination can add various means to improve the ovary. About some of them gardeners respond simply with admiration.

Means for pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse

Manual pollination is not required if tomatoes are sprayed with preparations that improve the formation of the ovary. Very good means are the "Ovary" and "Bud."

Spraying a solution of boric acid, not only during the formation of the ovary, but also after, shows an increase in the number of fruits. Boric acid (10 grams of powder) is diluted in ten liters of hot water and sprayed, and then repeated when the ovary appears and fruits form.

Gardeners tips

To create a comfortable microclimate in the greenhouse, you only need to lower or raise the humidity and temperature in time, then pollination will pass better and the ovaries will noticeably increase.

To increase the humidity during drought in hot weather, you need to increase the number of waterings and put water tanks in between rows.

To reduce humidity, we resort to mulching the soil around the tomato. It will prevent the evaporation of moisture into the air, keeping it near the roots of plants.

If you can come to the cottage once a week, then the best way out is to purchase automatic vents. They are not too expensive, they will be useful to you for a long time and will regulate the ventilation themselves.

Good help for tying tomatoes potash fertilizer, but not potassium chloride, as plants do not tolerate chlorine. Just do not forget at this time about complex fertilizing with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers.

Why do I need to pollinate greenhouse tomatoes

Tomatoes are self-pollinating vegetable crops. For the formation of ovaries, which later will be the fruits, their own pollen is enough. It is taken from the same flower or bush (as opposed to crops, which are characterized by cross-pollination, between different plants).

Before you pollinate tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to take care of the appropriate conditions for them. Indeed, in itself, flowering does not guarantee the formation of ovaries and the harvest of tomatoes.

Often, gardeners are faced with the fact that the ovaries fall off or do not mature at all. There may be several reasons for this:

If all these reasons are eliminated, you need to worry that the ovary does not remain "empty" due to insufficient pollination.

In the open-air beds, the wind and insects help to pollinate the pistils. It is more difficult to do this in greenhouses, even if they are regularly ventilated or in the heat do not close at all. When tomatoes are cultivated in winter and in early spring, there are neither insects nor ventilation in the greenhouses. In order not to jeopardize the harvest, summer residents should think about timely pollination of tomatoes. Use for this purpose various simple methods, providing the plants with the necessary microclimate.

Pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse: conditions

For successful pollination in the greenhouse, the requirements for temperature and humidity should be met. This is one of the "advantages" of cultivating tomatoes in greenhouses, because it is impossible to independently regulate such indicators on the beds in the garden. If the air is heated to only +13 ° C or even less, the quality of the pollen will deteriorate. At a temperature of + 30-35 ° C and above, it loses its viability.

Attention! Pollen quality changes occur even with short-term overheating during the flowering of tomatoes. Also, at high temperatures, flowers can fall off completely.

Optimal humidity for pollination - 70%. Drier air has a negative effect on pollen. Constant excessive moisture is also harmful for her. Pollen sticks together and can no longer scatter.

To maintain the required microclimate during the flowering of tomatoes, do the following:

  • reduce watering
  • grind the soil - so you retain moisture in the soil and reduce it in the air,
  • air the greenhouse.

The ovaries will form better and the harvest will be richer if you spray tomatoes with a solution of boric acid. To do this, dissolve 10 g of powder in 10 liters of hot water. It is recommended to process tomato bushes three times: during budding, during the formation of ovaries and fruiting.

Some gardeners recommend irrigating tomatoes with a solution of boric acid during the flowering of the second and third brush. In addition, there are special drugs ("Bud", "Ovary"), which also help the formation of ovaries. It is believed that if you use them, additional pollinating plants is not necessary.

Methods of artificial pollination

Before you pollinate tomatoes in the greenhouse by hand, make sure you need this procedure. Most often, the artificial method is used in cases where the pollination in a natural way for any reason did not occur. This can be determined by the appearance of flowers. In pollinated petals wrapped back.

If not, start pollinating them yourself in any of the following ways:

  1. Shaking. While holding the bush by the trunk, lightly shake it so that the pollen falls down. If the tomatoes are tied to a trellis, knock lightly on the ropes.
  2. Fan application. With it, create a wind in the greenhouse, carrying the appliance between the rows of tomatoes.
  3. Using a brush. This is the easiest way. First you need to collect the pollen from the flowers, and then with a brush to touch the pistils.
  4. Pollination with an electric toothbrush. It must be included above the flowers. Vibration will contribute to the fact that the pollen will fall on the pistils.

Hand pollinating tomatoes should be only when it’s sunny outside; the interval is 3-4 days throughout the flowering phase. It is better to do this in the morning hours, since pollen ripens at night. After using any method, you should water the tomatoes or spray them with a spray bottle. It is important to make the pollen sprout. When it takes 2-3 hours after watering, be sure to ventilate the greenhouse to prevent an increase in humidity.

Typically, in a greenhouse, the yield of tomatoes is several times higher than in open ground. Knowing how to pollinate tomatoes, you will be able to increase the number of fruits collected. It should not be forgotten that good results are guaranteed not only by pollination, but also by observing other growing conditions.

Pollination of tomatoes: photo



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Very good material, I learned a lot for myself, which will be useful later in the work in the country.

How tomatoes are pollinated

Tomatoes are self-pollinated within the same bush. Rarely pollinated by foreign pollen is possible. With the wind or insects, the pollen enters the stigma of the pistil located in the flower. The second stage is the germination of pollen grains on the stigma.

Easier process takes place in tomato varieties with medium-sized fruits, in this case the pistil is located inside or on the same level with the accreteed staker column consisting of 5-6 stamens. Pollination is complicated, there is a pestle visible outside the cone stamens. In this case, the flower during self-pollination should be tilted down. In varieties with large fruits, the pistil can be wide, there is less pollen in the flowers, as a result of which many “sterile” grains appear. There is no complete pollination, the fruits can be deformed.

Insects, except for some species of wild bees and bumblebees, practically do not fly over tomatoes. Therefore, in closed ground the manual method remains the only opportunity to increase the yield due to full pollination of all ovaries.

How to create favorable conditions for pollination

Pollination of tomatoes in closed ground is possible only when creating optimal conditions. What is needed:

  • do not use weak, hybrid or poor quality seed,
  • fertilize the bushes during flowering, avoiding an excess of nitrogen and organic matter (manure, litter), which contribute to the growth of green mass and reduce flowering,
  • do not reduce or increase the temperature, follow the lighting.

The number of ovaries decreases even if the bush is formed incorrectly, there are a large number of buds that consume nutrients.

In order not to lose the lion’s share of the crop, tomato bushes should be grown in accordance with the following rules:

  1. Temperature is above +13 degrees (optimally + 16 ... + 18). If it decreases, the maturation of pollen drops by 50%. If the temperature is above 35 degrees, the pollen does not mature at all.
  2. Humidity should be maintained at 70%. In dry air, pollen will not get into the flowers, and at high humidity it becomes sticky and cannot sleep.

In the greenhouse of polycarbonate or other material should be high-quality lighting. In the dark, even strong ovaries will not bear fruit.

Subtleties of the process of pollination

Pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse is possible by a natural and artificial method. Natural methods include attracting insect pollinators, but more often this method is used when tomatoes are grown on an industrial scale. The artificial pollination method is more time consuming because it is necessary to manually transfer the pollen to form the ovary.

Ventilation

The movement of air masses in closed greenhouses will allow pollen to get on the stamens. To do this, just open the vents or doors located on opposite walls to create a whiff of wind.

If it is not possible to stay permanently on the site, purchase vents that open automatically with a certain time interval or react to a jump in air temperature. This design can be assembled and independently.

Attracting insect pollinators

Attracting bees is the best method of natural pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse. To increase their number in the greenhouse, use the following methods:

  • Spread annual honey plants between the beds, for example, bergamot or other cultures with bright buds,
  • place vases or boxes with bright colors around the perimeter of the greenhouse,
  • right in the greenhouse place the hive with bumblebees and bees. Variant costly, time-consuming, but increases the total yield up to 40%.

You can also use sugar syrup, which with a brush applied to any surface. It is believed that sweetness attracts pollinators.

Brushes and toothbrushes

In artificial pollinating tomatoes, various tools are used - brushes, cotton balls, toothbrushes, including electric ones. This method is the most primitive - you need to hold a brush or brush on one flower, then gently - on the other, carrying the pollen.

When using an electric toothbrush, you need to bring it to one flower, not including, and gently move it inside the bud. Then gently place over the next flower, turn on. As a result of the vibrations, pollen will cushion inside.

Directional air jet

To artificially create a stream of air, you can use a fan or a hairdryer. The usual shaking of the bushes is also suitable so that the pollen flies from one bud to another.

Artificial wind must not be very strong, otherwise the pollen will not settle inside the bud, but will spread throughout the greenhouse, and then fall to the ground. When you turn on any of the devices, try to position the air source as far as possible; it should not be hot.

Shaking bushes

The whole procedure is performed as quickly as possible. In order to have strong ovaries that guarantee the harvest, you need to knock gently in the middle of the stem, shake the plant, respectively, pollen will crumble on the pistil. If you have already tied up the bushes, then you can not knock on the stem to minimize contact with the plant, but on the trellis. You can also slightly move the wire, which tied the bushes.

Use of drugs

Sometimes it is not enough to observe a certain level of humidity and temperature, to air, attract insects or manually transfer pollen. Often, under natural growth conditions, tomatoes produce fewer ovaries, as a result of which the yield is reduced. For stimulation use some drugs:

  1. Boric acid solution. On 10 l of boiling water dissolve 10 g of powder. Stir when the powder is dissolved, cool the solution to a temperature of +25 degrees. Pour tomato into the container and spray the already pollinated bushes.
  2. Ovary. It is a ready stimulator of fruit formation, universal in use, an environmentally friendly product.
  3. Gibberros. Regulator of plant growth on a biological basis. Increases productivity by increasing the number of ovaries, stimulating the development of tomatoes, also increases the rate of ripening of the crop, gives immunity to disease. In addition to spraying, you can apply before sowing seeds for seedlings (soaking).
  4. Tomatone. Stimulator of fruit formation, increases the volume of the crop, is used in greenhouses, open ground and greenhouses under any climatic conditions. Contains auxin, after processing the bushes to the ovary gets more nutrients, and the growth of lateral stems decreases. Depending on the conditions of care, the average yield level rises by 20-50%, Technical maturity of the fruits occurs 1-1.5 weeks earlier.
  5. Bud. Accelerates fruit formation, contains sodium salt, which is necessary for the development of bushes. Also includes boron, copper, manganese. When processing vegetables, including soaking the seeds before sowing for seedlings, allows you to quickly grow young shoots, reduces the number of barren flowers.
Boric acid Bud Tomatone Ovary

Having pollinated in time, you will not only increase the volume of the crop, but they will also warn the fruit from deformation. If the procedure is performed manually, do everything carefully, the ovaries of the tomatoes are fragile and tender, easily broken.

Growing tomatoes on the balcony and windowsill

author Gorsky V., author photo

Ordinary tall varieties of tomatoes, intended for cultivation in greenhouses and open ground, are difficult to grow in an apartment or on a balcony. These plants develop a powerful root system, and they lack nutrition in a small pot.

A tomato can grow and bear fruit up to 5 years old, but it gives the greatest yield in the first or second years of life.
Tomatoes can be grown on the windowsill in the apartment or on the balcony of the house, especially if the balcony or loggia overlooks the sunny side.
On the balcony, you can create the most favorable conditions for tomatoes, to allocate a greater amount of land to plants. So, grow and tall varieties. For example, the large-fruited tomato “Bull Heart”, a very fruitful variety “De Barao”, “Carlson”, medium growth “White filling”.

If you decide to grow tomatoes on the windowsill, it is better to choose low-growing varieties of tomatoes. The fruits of them, though not so large, but the pleasure at the same time no less. In the open ground, such plants grow to a height of 25-35 cm. In the room, they stretch out to 40-50 cm, but the stem of low-growing tomatoes is quite strong, and such plants are usually not tied up.
Dwarf varieties are suitable for growing “flat” tomatoes: “Ruby”, “Bonsai”, “George Bush”, “News of Canada”, “Japanese room”, “Balcony miracle”, “Florida Petite” (“Little Florida”), “ Dubok "and others.

Problems in growing homemade tomatoes

In normally developing tomatoes, which receive everything they need, the upper leaves twist slightly during the day, and at night they straighten, the flowers are bright yellow, large, and there are a lot of them in the floral brush. Such plants give a good harvest.

If the leaves of the tomatoes are directed upwards at an acute angle and do not twist day or night, flowers and even small fruits often fall from such plants. Possible causes are: dry soil, too high a temperature of maintenance of tomatoes, poor ventilation of the room, low illumination of plants. In this case, it is necessary to immediately eliminate the disadvantages: water the plants when the soil dries out, reduce the temperature by ventilation, and improve the lighting of the tomatoes.

Необходимо иметь в виду, что при частых поливах и внесении в почву большого количества азотных и органических удобрений вырастает мощный куст томата с толстым стеблем и могучими пасынками. У такого растения темно-зеленые, крупные, сочные листья, причем верхние из них постоянно скручены. Однако, как правило, при этом формируется очень слабая цветочная кисть с небольшим количеством цветков. Expect a high yield from such overfed plants do not have to.

How to pollinate tomatoes in the greenhouse

A simple way is to manually shake wire stretchings (tapping them) on the trellis, thereby shaking the plants. Pollinating by shaking inflorescences, get from this early ripeness and increased yield (15%).

Sometimes used parthenocarpic hybrids of tomatoes that do not require pollination. Their fruits do not have seeds and some of them are hollow, but their economic value from this decreases little.

In addition, for better fruit set:

• Apply spraying (with a fine spray) of inflorescences, screening the leaves, with a growth preparation (10 ml of monochlorophosphoric acid per 250 ml of water) or other modern more promising preparations. You can also immerse the flowers in the solution. The right moment for spraying comes when half the flowers of the inflorescence are fully opened. In case of prolonged cloudy weather, spraying is repeated.

• Prevent shading of beds, thickened plantings. Do not overfeed excessively with manure, nitrogen fertilizers (so that the plants do not stretch out and do not shade each other).

• During flowering, spray the plants with a daily extract of superphosphate (50 g per 10 liters of hot water), boric acid solution, Ovary, and also feed them with micronutrient fertilizers.

When the temperature drops to 10 °, plant growth stops and the ovaries fall. The flowers also fall off when the overgrown seedlings are planted.

Next Page >> Temperature and Light Mode

How to grow tomatoes on the balcony or windowsill

These plants develop a powerful root system, and they lack nutrition in a small pot.

A tomato can grow and bear fruit up to 5 years old, but it gives the greatest yield in the first or second years of life.
Tomatoes can be grown on the windowsill in the apartment or on the balcony of the house, especially if the balcony or loggia overlooks the sunny side.
On the balcony, you can create the most favorable conditions for tomatoes, to allocate a greater amount of land to plants. So, grow and tall varieties. For example, the large-fruited tomato “Bull Heart”, a very fruitful variety “De Barao”, “Carlson”, medium growth “White filling”.

If you decide to grow tomatoes on the windowsill, it is better to choose low-growing varieties of tomatoes. The fruits of them, though not so large, but the pleasure at the same time no less. In the open ground, such plants grow to a height of 25-35 cm. In the room, they stretch out to 40-50 cm, but the stem of low-growing tomatoes is quite strong, and such plants are usually not tied up.
For cultivation of “flat” tomatoes dwarf varieties are suitable: “Ruby”, “Bonsai”, “George Bush”, “News of Canada”, “Japanese room”, “Balcony miracle”, “Florida Petit” (“Little Florida”), “ Dubok "and others.

AS ポ イ ン ト ト 10 倍】 【】 TASCO (タ ス コ) 2 ゴ ゴ 8 TA844JB-3


《特長》
●業務用2連はしご
《仕様》
●全長:7.31メートル
● 4.2 長 : 4.25m
● : 17.8kg
● 最大 使用 荷重 : 130kg

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The best ways to pollinate tomatoes (tomatoes) in the greenhouse

To straighten such a bush, you need:
- Do not water the plant for 7-10 days,
- increase the air temperature for several days (up to 27-28С),
- do not arrange airing,
- Pollinate flowers by hand.
In addition, to delay the growth of such plants it is necessary to make foliar feeding with superphosphate (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). Water the tomatoes with this solution, at the rate of 1 l per plant.

The most common fungal disease of tomatoes - late blight, a symptom of which is the appearance of dark brown merging spots on the leaves, stems and fruits. This dangerous disease can not only destroy the entire crop in a short time, but also spread to other indoor plants.
Heat and dampness contribute to the rapid development of late blight, which usually spreads in July and August. If by this time most of the fruits of tomatoes have ripened, then at the first signs of the disease do not tempt fate and destroy diseased plants. In this case, unripe fruits should be lowered for 1.5-2 minutes in moderately hot water (60 ° C), then dried and set for ripening in a dry, warm, dark place.

I grow tomatoes on the balcony, grows a lot of fleshy and tasty fruits, sometimes twice a season. Balcony facing east, 12th floor. The soil is a common ground in half with black soil, which is brought to the yards every year. Very abundant watering - once a day.

Vladimir Gorsky
http://gorsky.ru

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