Indoor grapes are perhaps the best solution for landscaping rooms. If tenants love clean air and home lianas that wrap walls and ceilings, then such a plant will become their favorite. For a couple of years, house grapes are able to twist and ennoble the vertical surface intended for it - walls, room tapestries, furniture, jambs, windows and other interior items.
Its bright green foliage, covered with fluffy villi of brown color, attracts attention, soothes and uplifts the mood of the hosts. It seems that you are in the forest. Indoor grapes perfectly purify the air and give it a tart flavor. For those who want to grow this marvelous plant, and this short set of knowledge is intended, where you will learn about the types of grapes, growing conditions, rules of care and reproduction. Useful information will help grow thick and juicy vines wrapping around the walls - a piece of the real jungle at home.
Indoor grapes: structural features
Indoor grapes is a perennial plant evergreen with climbing vines. It grows quite quickly, creepers cling to vertical objects with the help of antennae. The leaves have a variety of forms, depending on the type and variety - whole, triple-complex. More often they have a jagged shape and resemble wild grapes. The plant in the indoor environment does not bloom, but sometimes this happens. Flowers are very small and inconspicuous inflorescences.
Indoor grapes are grown not for its flowering, but for the ability to quickly catch up on large portions of rooms and clean the air in a short time.
The stems and shoots of the plants are rather fragile, so the flower growers are recommended to determine a place that is unequivocal for him, so that in the future you do not have to transfer the grapes to another part of the house. Unpretentious and able to grow in all conditions. Indoor grapes are often grown in public institutions for precisely this reason.
The homeland of this amazing plant is America, Asia and Australia, their subtropical and tropical forests. Despite its simplicity, prefers quiet places where there is no wind, moderately wet and lit by diffused sunlight. These same conditions and accepted support when growing it at home. Indoor grapes have a large number of species and varieties, but in the conditions of apartments and premises only a few are bred.
Types of room grapes
The most common and widely used is cissus. Rarely resorted to growing tetrasigmy, as vines rather heavy and better suited for growing in the garden or greenhouses. Cissus, in turn, is divided into several subspecies.
They can be found in apartments, offices, houses and winter gardens. Allocate:
- Cissus Antarctic - often used for landscaping public institutions, schools, offices, meeting rooms. Unpretentious and not afraid of temperature extremes.
- Rhombotal cissus - this type is widely distributed in home floriculture. Fluffy and thick greens can disguise supports and tapestries, walls and other objects supporting it. The leaves have a diamond shape, small and neat. Creepers can reach a length of 1.5 meters.
- Bicolor cissus - this plant is considered the most capricious among its fellows. It requires special growing conditions and content. Therefore, flower growers rarely grow it. It differs from other leaf color - dark green with a silver pattern, dark maroon below.
- The quadrangular is a very unusual plant due to the shape of the leaves. Rarely grown in rooms.
Many lovers of grapes, without fear, take up the cultivation of tetrastigma. This view is of course very effective, but it needs to provide a lot of space and reliable, solid support. If the house is large, huge areas, in this case, you can dilute this type of indoor grapes.
Air temperature for almost all types of indoor grapes should be 22 ° -25 °, not higher. In winter, the temperature can be reduced to 18 ° -20 °. Until the bush is small and completely attached to the vertical support it can be carried out to the fresh air in summer. Temperature variations are undesirable for cissus, especially for the bicolor species. Try to avoid it.
Defining a place for grapes, choose rooms east and west, where there are no drafts.
Indoor grapes like bright but diffused lighting. Next to the windows it is better not to place it. Choose niches for it in the walls or places where sunlight will fall, but not direct sunlight. The plant is shade-loving, but dark places, without any light, are undesirable.
Increased dryness of the air is not suitable for indoor grapes. He will die very quickly. It prefers moderately humid places, but not damp. It is necessary to constantly monitor the soil moisture and prevent the earth coma from drying out. The optimal composition of the soil will be a mixture of leafy soil, peat, humus, turf and sand. The ratio is 1: 1: 1: 1: 1. Moderate humidity, bright and diffused light, optimum temperature - will be the key to the magnificent and beautiful growth of strange vines.
Cissus - It is a representative of the family Grape, or Vitaceae, which includes more than three hundred plants, including those common in tropical and subtropical zones. A significant part of the cissus is climbing lianas, which, like ordinary grapes, cling to the support by means of antennae. Cissus foliage can be either solid or have a dissected shape.
In the conditions of indoor floriculture cissus bloom extremely rarely. Small and unassuming flowers on cissus are collected in the likeness of false umbrellas. Cissus is valued by florists as an unpretentious caregiver, leafy ornamental plant that is ideal for growing in hanging types of pots.
Popular varieties of cissus
In indoor floriculture Cissus antarctic, or Cissus antarctica, as well as Cissus rhombolist, or Cissus rhombifolia, which favorably differ in shade tolerance and unpretentiousness, are most common.
Cissus Antarctic (Cissus antarctica)
C. antarctica refers to strong-climbing plants. This cissus easily clings to the supports with the help of the antennae. Antarctica has brownish stems, leaves of a bright green color, up to 8 cm in size, oval and rough to the touch. For stems, stalks and antennae dense pubescence is peculiar. The flowers have a greenish color and are collected in corymbose inflorescence type.
The plant is characterized by active growth and unpretentiousness. Looks great in hanging pots and baskets.
Cissus rhombus or rhombic (Cissus rhombifolia)
S. rhombifolia belongs to the category of grassy vines and is the most unpretentious type in indoor floriculture. It has rhombic, trifoliate and complex leaves of dark green color, with jagged edges. The plant has a pubescent type of stems and petioles, as well as small tendrils.
In the conditions of natural, natural growth S. rhombifolia It blooms very small, greenish color, flowers that are collected in the racemose type of inflorescences with the formation of edible fruits of red.
Cissus multicolor (Cissus discolor)
C. discolor It is the most decorative and attractive cissus in indoor floriculture. The foliage of this plant resembles living patterns, and the reddish background of the upper part of the leaves is complemented with silvery spots. On the underside of the leaves have a purple color.
Under natural conditions, the plant grows in the tropics with a temperature of about 30 ° C and a high level of humidity, which somewhat complicates the process of growing C. discolor at home.
Cissus striata (Cissus striata)
C. striata characterized by the presence of very small in size three or five palmate leaves, which are very similar in shape to the girlish grapes. The plant grows quickly enough and is absolutely not demanding on the indicators of humidity. In winter, C. striata quite easily transfers the temperature to 30 ° C heat, which contributes to a stable transition of the plant to the rest phase.
C. striata is very convenient for indoor floriculture, but it is extremely rare.
Cissus quadrangular (Cissus quadrangularis)
C. quadrangularis - evergreen type of liana. Such succulent plants can be successfully grown under conditions of indoor floriculture. The plant has a fairly thick, tetrahedral shoots that are about 1 cm in diameter.
C. quadrangularis are traditional medicinal plants that are used in the treatment of joints and bone tissue. The plant helps clean the blood and can improve its composition. It is quite often used for losing weight and improving overall tone.
In addition, in the conditions of indoor floriculture, it is quite often possible to meet such varieties of cissus as:
- Cactus (Cissus cactiformis),
- Cissus Pithleaf (Cissus rotundifolia),
- Cissus Ferruginous (Cissus adenopoda),
- Cissus Amazonian (Cissus amasonica).
Reproduction and planting rules
As a rule, cissus reproduce in the spring or early summer periods, with the appearance on the plant of new, young shoots. Propagate these plants quite easily. It is enough to comply with the following technology:
- cut off cuttings from lateral shoots, 20 cm long. Each cutting must have a small fragment of the main shoot,
- remove from the cut cuttings all the lower leaflets, and then lower them with the end portion into the mixture with growth hormones,
- fill a flower pot with a nutritious soil mixture for indoor plants and plant several but not more than five prepared cuttings there at once;
- cover the flower pot with cuttings of plastic film to create the effect of a miniature greenhouse room, and put in a warm and bright place.
If new, young shoots appear on the cuttings, the rooting is successful and you can remove the film coating from the flower pots. Further care is sufficiently economical irrigation when drying the soil to a depth of one centimeter.
Qualitatively rooted cuttings should be seated one by one in flower pots filled with compost soil. A good effect is given by pinching the apical part of the shoots, which will allow the plant to branch. In the spring, cissus should be cut off.
Choosing a place in the room
It is necessary to place cissuses in rooms that have eastern and western orientation. Liana-like plants can grow well on the north side, under artificial lighting conditions. When placed on the south windows, indoor grapes require shading from direct sunlight.
The most photophilous is C. rhombifolia, which is recommended to grow close to sunny windows.
In abundant watering first need species that have a large enough mass of foliage, which implies a significant evaporation of moisture. In the spring and summer, cissus should be watered as much as possible and frequently. Water should be used soft and warm. Before watering is recommended to defend tap water.
Indoor grapes is a heat-loving flower. In hot weather, the temperature should be 25 ° C. In the period of cold weather - about 19 degrees. The plant does not tolerate drafts, as this may adversely affect the appearance of cissus. Flower care should be literate.
The flower responds positively to a bright light. Professionals advise to place cissus on the southern windowsill. But it is necessary to remove the pot from direct sunlight, therefore, if in summer the indoor grapes are in the fresh air, it is better to put the indoor plant in the shade. Care must be carried out competent.
Caring for the plant is required to carry out correctly and watering is an important component. Watering the plant is abundant, especially in the summer season. The flower must be regularly sprayed. Watering should be reduced in winter, because excessive moisture can cause harm. It is recommended to moisten the flower 1 time in 4 days, and spray it 2 times a day. For irrigation, it is necessary to use separated water at room temperature.
With excessive moisture can form root rot - cissus will begin to rot. In this case, it is worth stopping watering for a while, and replacing the soil.
In the hot season, growers are strongly advised to arrange a indoor pet shower.
In summer and spring, it is necessary to fertilize the flower constantly, somewhere in 15 days. Well suited fertilizer for indoor plants or ornamental. Top dressing should contain vitamins and minerals. In the cold season, fertilizer should not be applied, since there is practically no growth during this period of time and the plant should be at rest. If the care is correct, then the plant will delight you with its beautiful appearance.
Propagate cissus is very simple. To do this, use the cutting method:
- From an adult, preferably a two-year-old, the plants cut off apical shoots. They should have at least two buds.
- Cut cuttings put in the water and waiting for the roots.
- A glass of water can be avoided by immediately rooting the cutting to a light substrate.
- As soon as the roots appeared, plant the plant in a permanent pot. Florists recommend planting several cuttings in one pot.
- The substrate for young plants is prepared by mixing leafy, soddy soil with peat, humus and sand in one part of each. The soil should be slightly moist.
- The desired temperature for germination cuttings is 22 ° -23 °. Be careful with drafts. They should not be.
This simple breeding method will allow the grower to quickly dissolve the crop and plant it in different capacities.
Proper care of the plant
It is very simple to care for indoor grapes, but the lack of elementary watering and feeding will lead to the death of the plant. During the period of active growth, spring-summer, the grapes are watered abundantly, but not excessively. Overflow will cause root rot. Use the good old way to check the soil for moisture - finger. If the soil sticks to it, then it is not necessary to water. If the fingertip is almost dry and the ground does not stick well - watering is needed. Thus, the plant will not be over-moistened.
Do not let the ground dry out.
Given the rapid growth and development of indoor grapes, you should constantly feed it with fertilizer for non-flowering plants. Make a feeding once a fortnight. In the spring, they prefer nitrogen fertilizers, and in the fall, potash-phosphorus fertilizers. In winter, fertilization is stopped, watering will no longer be abundant, but moderate.
As the bush grows, the young shoots pinch and trim the entire plant:
- This is done so that the grapes stretch not only upwards but also to the sides. So the bush will get a magnificent and volumetric shape. WITH
- Trich plant preferably in the spring, cissus tolerates pruning.
- When forming a bush, be careful with the shoots, they are very fragile and can easily break.
Another important point is the process of sprinkling. It is carried out infrequently - once every six months. This is done more for hygienic reasons. Indoor grapes perfectly cleans the air and for this reason the surface of the leaves is polluted, gets a grayish bloom - dust. Therefore, you need to wash it. Compliance with simple rules of care will help avoid the appearance of diseases and pests, the grapes will always be bright and juicy, strong and healthy.
Indoor grapes grow very quickly. This causes its annual transplant. Produce it in early spring. The plant is transplanted into a larger pot and change the old soil to fresh. The composition of the soil will include leaf soil, turf, peat, humus and sand. The ratio of the parts is the same - each component is one part.
After transplanting produce pruning plants.
Shorten all the top shoots. This will help the grapes to move faster in growth and form side shoots, which is important for bushiness. For 4-5 years, the plant is transplanted every year. After you can make a transplant once every two years. It is always held in the spring.
Once the grapes are transplanted, apply fertilizer containing nitrogen compounds. This will help the plant to quickly adapt to the new pot and get used to the fresh substrate. Transplanting is another important care condition. Without it, the plant will die very quickly.
Features and differences of indoor grapes from ordinary grapes
The correct scientific name for indoor grapes is cissus. This is a whole species of indoor plants, having a direct relationship with ordinary grapes. Grow it at home is very simple, because the plant is absolutely not whimsical to care. Стоит обратить внимание и на хорошую выносливость данного растения, которое способно стойко переносить длительные периоды времени без поливов, снижений температуры до 12ºС.
Циссус не имеет плодов, радует лишь огромным обилием зелени и сильным ростом. With regular feeding, its vine can entwine half of the room, which is also facilitated by strong antennae.
Features of the appearance and growth of indoor grapes
Indoor grapes is a plant with a thin vine covered with lush foliage. With the growth he has a large number of shoots, which are also very thin. Thereby, the plant has very small weight and flexibility. Antennae, which are formed on shoots of cissus, have a spiral shape. They very easily cling to any objects in the house and to special supports.
The leaf form of the most common type of cissus, which is called “birch”, is very similar to the leaves of real birch. With an elongated ovoid shape, they have a dense structure and a shiny surface. We have already mentioned that almost all types of cissus very rarely meet flowering. If the plant is flowering, the inflorescences are almost invisible, because they have very small size and appearance. Flowers are collected in false umbrellas that do not form fruits.
Varieties of indoor grapes: we select a plant to taste
It is very important to note that in addition to the "birch" there are many other types of cissus, which can be easily purchased and planted at home. The most popular in our time are the "Cissus Antarctic", as well as "Cissus Rhombic (Rombolist)". They gained their popularity not only due to external beauty, but also to their unpretentiousness and ability to grow even in shaded rooms. What are the features of each of them will tell in order.
Features of "Cissus Rombolic": what is the beauty of indoor plants
This indoor grape got its name directly from the shape of its sheets. In contrast to the usual and most common "birch" with ovoid leaves, this plant leaves have a very complex diamond shape. This is the fastest growing plant of all types of indoor grapes. In just one season, it can grow by more than 2 meters. For the growth of "Cissusu Rombolistnomu" fit any support, for which he can easily cling thanks to a strong mustache.
Among all other species, it is best mastered both in dark corridors and on overly refreshed window sills. The ability to tolerate even very strong temperature fluctuations makes it possible to decorate open verandas or gazebos with this plant during the summer period.
In any case, he needs support to grow. Its strength does not matter, because, despite the large size, the weight of the bush is very small.
"Cissus Antarctic" - description of an evergreen indoor plant
This plant is found under another very interesting name - "Liana Kangaroo". Its difference from other types of indoor grapes lies in the peculiarities of the development of the bush: its shoots have a rusty appearance. The leaves are heart-shaped and rather large in size - an average of 11x7 centimeters.
The flowering of this bush is absolutely not nice. The flowers have very small sizes, they are green in color, for which reason they do not stand out against the background of leaves.
Virtues This type of houseplant is that it can be left for long periods without irrigation. At the same time, the bush will keep the same fresh look. But in terms of the shortcomings of the "Cissus of the Antarctic", then they have a sufficiently large number of them. In particular, the plant can tolerate the winter very painfully, since the humidity of the air is significantly reduced in cold weather.
Also him very high summer temperatures are contraindicated, because of which the leaves of this indoor grapes can dry up. Place a pot or tub with this plant should be chosen very carefully, because it is not well tolerated as strong shading, and too much abundance of sunlight and heat.
Differences and features of "Cissus Striped"
This grape has recently become less common as a houseplant. Perhaps this is due to its great similarity with the girl's grapes, which is a garden ornamental plant. Especially great similarity of these two types of grapes is in the form of a leaf.
The positive qualities of this type of plant is its very rapid growth. In addition, unlike other indoor grapes, Cissus Striped does not require high humidity, and grows well in rooms with dry air.
The features of this plant are also as follows:
• The most optimal air temperature for growing “Cissus Striped” is a thermometer indicator of + 16ºС. However, the plant easily tolerates lowering the temperature to + 7ºС. Winter is better tolerated in rooms with cooler air.
• When the summer temperature rises to + 22ºС, a room where the air is well ventilated, but there are no drafts.
• In summer, it is very important to water the “Cissus Striped” shrub regularly, but this should not be done more often than the soil will dry out in a plant pot.
• If you want your plant to have a more bushy shape, the tips of the shoots can be trimmed. This will not affect the general condition of this plant species.
Individual characteristics of "Cissus quadrangle": what are the differences of a plant?
This plant, like all previous ones, is an evergreen vine. Sometimes you can find its name as "Cissus Cactus", obtained due to the meaty structure of the whole plant. The main feature of it is in the form of shoots: they are not round, but 4-sided, presented as succulents. The color of the shoots is green.
Leaves forming on the shoots are trilobed. The size of the leaves is very small, constantly fall. Another difference "Cissus quadrangle" is that this plant has a very slow growth.
Same, such properties are knownsuch as reducing stress, improving metabolism, improving immune stability, can contribute to the quality of healing of fractures and acts as a means to alleviate pain. It also treats varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
Plant and color your house with the help of the indoor “Cissus the Multicolored”
Unlike all previous types of indoor grapes, Cissus Multicolored is the most fastidious in growing, although in appearance it is the most beautiful. The leaves of this plant are quite large and have a motley color. When you look at these petals, one gets the impression that someone had inflicted a very interesting pattern on them, combining red, silver and purple tones.
The plant will interest anyone with its appearance, but the difficulty lies in bringing this plant to us from the tropics. For this reason, the plant It has many whims and features:
• The usual climate for Cissus the Multicolored is a temperature not lower than + 25ºС. Optimum air humidity is about 85%.
• Even in winter, this room grape requires a temperature not lower than + 15 ° C, although it is best to keep it at a temperature of + 23 ° C.
• Since the plant is very capable of growing and has a very long vine with many shoots, it requires a lot of moisture obtained from the soil. Under natural conditions, the inhabitants of Java use its vines as a source of life-giving moisture. At home, “Cissusu Multicolored” requires a very large pot and very frequent and regular watering.
• Unlike other species, the Cissus the Multicolored can throw off its leaves for the winter. In such a state of tranquility, its stems can even be pruned, as well as on large fruit-bearing bushes. In the spring of this bush re-bloom and becomes even more magnificent.
Terms of planting indoor grapes: what features you need to know
This plant is propagated by cuttings or dividing the bush. In the first variant, only apical cuttings are used, which are capable of rooting perfectly. For the stem to take root, it is placed in water for a while. After that, planted in a pot. It is best to plant several cuttings, which will get a thicker and lush bush. However, the lush the shrub, the larger the pot should be for the plant.
As for the timing of planting this plant, they can include any time of year. However, taking into account the fact that some types of indoor grapes shed their leaves in winter and fall into a dormant period, spring and summer are the best times for this. It is during these periods that the plant is in the active growth stage, therefore, when rooting its roots, rooting occurs rather quickly.
As for the case, if you decided to propagate the indoor grapes by dividing the bush, then spring time would be better. After all, it is recommended to transplant grapes in spring, in the process of which it is very easy to plant another plant.
Ways to grow indoor grapes
Indoor grapes belong to the ampelous plants, that is, grown in pots in a suspended form. This plant, lowering its vines down and clinging to other supports, is capable of planting a large enough space in the room. But besides this, it is possible to grow "birch" in ordinary slides on the floor. If you build a special support, it will trail up or in any direction convenient for you.
What are the features of care for indoor grapes: instructions and tips
After planting any home plant, and especially indoor, care is required. And this care must necessarily take into account all its features and requirements. So that you do not have any difficulties with growing all the above-mentioned types of indoor grapes, we will describe in detail the most important aspects of caring for this plant, answering the most popular questions.
Where to put a pot with indoor grapes?
Unlike ordinary garden grapes, indoor does not like an excess of sunlight, although most species love the heat. Thus, it is best to place or hang a pot with this plant near the western or eastern window. Thus, there will not be an overabundance of sunlight, but the plants will not be overshadowed too much.
However, “Cissus Rombolic” deserves special attention in this regard. This plant is extremely fond of sunlight, so the pot with him should be put only on the windows on the south side. In the summer it will perfectly master the garden and on the balcony.
How often do you need to water a similar plant?
The peculiarity of this type of plant is that its leaves have a sufficiently large mass, and at high temperatures evaporate an unusually large amount of moisture. Therefore, in spring and summer the plant should be watered constantly and plentifully. Water should be used soft, preferably separated. With the arrival of a cooler period of time, the amount of watering is reduced. In winter, the plant is watered solely in order to maintain the vital activity of its root system.
Is it necessary to feed the house grapes, and which fertilizers can be used?
It is necessary to feed room grapes, as this will contribute to the growth of the plant and its pomp. Fertilizers should be applied to the soil only during the period of the most active growth, that is, in spring and summer. It is used with the simplest complex of fertilizers, intended for indoor plants. Regularity of dressings - once for 1-2 weeks.
How often do you need to replant a houseplant?
Young, only growing plants, it is desirable to replant each year. This procedure will promote more active growth and increase in volumes of the bush. Adult indoor grapes are recommended to replant only once every 2-3 years. In this case, the more the plant grows, the more the pot for him to pick up. The best time for transplanting is considered to be early spring.
Do indoor grapes affect pests? How to deal with them?
It is not strange, but the indoor grapes did not avoid such a problem as pests. Most often on the leaves and shoots of the bush can be seen leaf aphids and spider mites. They can bring a lot of harm to the plant, cause drying and twisting of the leaves. To prevent this from happening, as soon as you notice such pests on a bush, immediately start combating them.
The most effective way is chemical processing. However, only special preparations can be used for it, as there is a risk of damage to the leaves of the vine.
Problems in growing cissus
Plant care is pretty simple, but some features still exist:
- If the leaves took a concave shape, darkened, wrinkled - this indicates a low humidity.
- Leaves fall, and processes spoil - this indicates excessive moisture. With a strong overmoistening of the soil, brown spots may form on the foliage.
- The leaves get a dull appearance - the plant is deficient in minerals. With an insufficient amount of nitrogen - brown spots are formed on the leaves. If not enough phosphorus - black spots appear.
- The leaves are pale - the plant is experiencing an excessive amount of light, it is recommended to put the pot with a flower in the shade.
- If the plant sheds leaves - sudden changes in temperature or the presence of drafts.
Caring for cissus is necessary, then diseases and pests will not appear on the plant. And he will delight you with his attractive appearance.
Varieties of room grapes
In a closed room it is better to grow self-pollinated varieties.
These include: large Neptune raisins, Victoria early grapes, Victoria wine grape variety, seedless Rylains pink Sydlis, Oleg (Pink) pink grapes, very early Aksinya (up to 100 days), the traditional Georgian wine variety Saperavi north and of course resistant to Diseases of the Moldavian Cardinal (1-5-58).
For the growth of vines arranged lightweight frame or wire supports.
Growing grapes at home by grafting, cuttings or bone
Grapes are propagated by stones, cuttings, layering and grafting.
When the grapes are propagated under the seed, it bears fruit only for 5–7 years; at the same time, from the seeds, the desired variety does not always grow because of cross-pollination.
Raising seedlings requires care with high agricultural technology, which is not always possible under the terms of the tubing content.
By grafting, grapes propagate only when it is necessary to have a root system in the bush more frost-resistant than the crown, which is unnecessary for tubing breeding. The grafting technique is complex and requires a great deal of experience growing.
By cuttings, grapes are easily bred, and both lignified (last year's) cuttings and summer greens take root easily (see How to root grapes).
For the cultivation of grapes in the room soil substrate is prepared as follows: take a third of the humus, a third of sod land and the same river sand. It is advisable to add 1 cup of wood ash (ash) or half a glass of complex mineral fertilizer to the prepared mixture. You can buy ready-made universal soil for planting seedlings, but you need to choose with a neutral pH reaction.
Planting cuttings produced in small greenhouses or pots. The air temperature in the room should be within + 21 + 25. When the upper bud germinates and a sprout appears, glass (film) from the greenhouse or glass (if it is a flower pot) temporarily begin to take off, thus conducting adaptation of the bush to the environment .
After reaching the germ height of 16-20 cm, the grapes "roll over" into dishes with an upper diameter of 16-18 cm. It is necessary to take into account that the roots of young grapes very poorly tolerate exposure, therefore one should not disturb the integrity of the earthen coma at the roots. In July, the plants are “overrun”, but already in pots with a diameter of 25–35 cm. Grapes are not taken out to the open air until the second half of April or better - in early May, depending on local weather conditions, i.e., during air does not fall below 2-3C heat.
In the fall, after dropping the leaves and stopping growth, tubs with bushes are removed for the winter in dry cool rooms, where a temperature of 2-5 degrees Celsius is ensured. The vine should be twisted spirally and tied to pegs.
The soil is watered rarely, just kept wet.
After dropping the leaves, pruning is done according to the age of the plant (the grapes are formed). At one year old - leave 2-3 buds, on a 3-4 year old bush, shorten the vine to 5-10 buds. Fruiting vines shorten to 5-8 buds.
In March of the next year, the bushes are brought into the rooms, generously watered with water and fertilized.
After the formation of flowers on the shoots, they pinch the fifth sheet of the floral brush. Of the non-infertile, two or three, closer to the root, are not pinned to form fruit shoots next year. Such shoots pinch at a length of 1-1.5 m. Therefore, you should always have on the bush 1-2 fruit arrows (fruiting vine) and one or two growing for fruiting next year (substitution).
The grapes on the windowsill - two crops
When growing grapes at home, you can get two yields each year. Это делается следующим образом. Убранный на зимнее хранение куст в 15-х числах февраля вносят в теплое помещение и хорошо поливают. Через 13—15 дней почки начнут распускаться, а спустя 25—30 дней наступит цветение. К маю-июню (в зависимости от скороспелости сорта) уже вызревают ягоды.
Через 3 недели после уборки урожая куст выносится на ледник (в прохладное место), где температура не выше +4 и держатся там до 50 дней (полтора месяца). After that, the bush is brought into the room and at the end of October, beginning of November, juicy grapes will ripen again in the apartment.
After fruiting, the grapes must be transplanted, removing up to 1/3 of the roots and replacing it with 1/3 of the ground. With double yields, more fertilizer is required - usually 100 cm3 of 10% slurry solution per liter of earthen coma volume, once a week, moreover, for each liter of slurry 2 g of superphosphate is necessarily added.
Watering room grapes
Water in plant life plays one of the main roles: it is consumed directly by plants and is a nutrient solvent. Bushes during the period of growth and fruiting need a lot of water, some of it remains inside the plant as an integral part of tissues and aggregates, some of it evaporates with leaves.
When the contents of the tank, a significant part of the water evaporates from the soil, the other part is consumed by the plant. Therefore, without a normal flow of water bushes wither, stop growing, and in some cases even die. It is necessary to give the right amount of benign water.
The temperature of the irrigation water should be at room temperature; irrigation should be carried out regularly, at very specific times, as needed, and not as far as possible.
Watering plants is better to produce from watering cans, with this watering does not destroy the earthen room and the earth is not washed out of the pot. Separate streams of water are better loosened by an earthen clod in a tub, moreover, such water supplies to the ground and air. Watering the bushes is best done in the evening, at sunset or in the early morning.
To keep the foliage clean, to wash off the dirt and dust that has accumulated on it, the plants are regularly washed with warm water using a soft brush or cotton swab. Such washing takes place two to three times during the summer. At other times, spray the grapes with warm water.
When the grapes are kept on the balcony during periods of rainfall, neither watering nor spraying is done, as the rains adequately water the soil and wash the leaves.
The volume of land in a pot is ten times less than the volume occupied by roots in a soil culture. Grapes, which are grown at home, receive nutrition several times less than the same bush contained in the soil. However, for the normal development of all parts of the plant, for the formation of fruits, it must receive nutrients in the required amount. A small earthen ball does not contain the necessary supply of nutrients, and those nutrients that are there are quickly absorbed, the earth is depleted and is no longer a full-fledged supplier of nutrients. And if you do not feed the bush with fertilizers, then its growth decreases, fruiting stops, and it may die.
To grow grapes in the apartment, and even more so to increase fruiting, it needs to be given artificial fertilizing - to apply fertilizer to the soil.
The most versatile liquid fertilizer is slurry. In the slurry contains almost all of the compounds of the required chemical plants. And since the slurry is a product of the natural decomposition of organic substances, all substances contained in it are easily absorbed by plants. The preparation of slurry is very simple, and the results of its application give a good effect.
Preparation: Capacity (bucket, barrel, jar) fill two-thirds of the volume of mullein or horse manure. Free space is filled with water and set in a warm place for fermentation. After 14-15 days, when the fermentation process stops, we filter. Leftovers we drift. And we put the filtered liquid in a cool, dark place. We use as needed.
To water the plants, the resulting solution is diluted with 9 parts of water, i.e., a ten percent solution is prepared. Before the subcortex, the soil is watered first with clean water and then carried out by watering with a slurry solution. When conducting watering, make sure that the stems and leaves of the plants are not poured with the solution. If this happens, they should be washed with clean water.
Watering begins in early spring, is carried out weekly and ends in August and September. On average, plants should be watered once a week, adding a glass of solution to the soil for each kilogram.
In the second or third year of grape life, i.e., when it enters the fruiting period, 2 grams of superphosphate per liter of solution is added to a 10% solution of the slurry.
Slurry can be prepared from chicken manure, in a similar way, only for irrigation they take not five, but a five-percent solution (one cup is diluted with twenty glasses of water).
Mineral fertilizers are used at different periods of growth, in various mixtures. The composition of the mixture depends on the need for plants at certain periods of growth in certain substances, on the degree of soil depletion and its composition.
For normal life, bushes must extract sufficient amounts of potassium, nitrogen, calcium, iron, phosphorus, etc. When there is a shortage of nitrogen in the ground, growth is delayed, leaves grow small, sometimes turn yellow and fall, flowers also shrink and sometimes fall to flowering. When there is an excess of nitrogen in the soil, on the contrary, the bushes grow too much, form many leaves, but do not bloom well.
With a lack of phosphorus - the edges of the leaves turn yellow, fungal diseases develop more easily, fruit (flower) buds are poorly formed. Some flowers may be dropped before flowering, or a large number of ovaries (fertilized flowers) may be dropped until the fruits are fully ripe.
Lack of potassium and calcium is characterized by weak growth (especially shoots - they grow thin), yellowing of leaves. The lack of salts of iron and copper in the soil causes lightening of the leaves and provokes disease Chlorosis - the absence (lack) of chlorophyll in the leaves.
G. E. Kiselev (“Indoor Floriculture”, 1948) recommends the following compositions of mineral fertilizers for certain periods of growth and life of the bushes.
These mixtures are used in solutions of 1 g of the mixture per liter of water when dosing up to 200 g of solution per 1 kg of soil.
Watering mixtures are made 1-2 times in 10-20 days, in the period from April to August. The number of watering depends on the vital activity of plants - more vital (fast growing) water more often, slowly - less.
It must be remembered that the lack of nutrition, as well as an overabundance, leads to inhibition of growth, and perhaps even death, therefore, it is necessary to use mineral fertilizers carefully and only in cases when plants really need them.
Transshipment and transplants
For the development of an active root system in a tub, the first 2-3 years of growth repeatedly replace the pots (pots), gradually increasing their volume, crossing the bushes from smaller dishes to larger ones. When it enters a fruiting period, transshipment is stopped, and transplants are made once every 2-3 years.
During transshipment, the bush is taken out of the pot without disturbing the earthy coma and transferred to a larger pot with the addition of earth. At the same time, drainage and top layers of soil 2-3 cm thick are replaced, the rest of the coma is not disturbed. The transshipment is done after the end of the next growth period in grapes, that is, when the young shoots and leaves have ripened. In the summer, no more than two transshipments are made.
The handling is as follows: when the growth has stopped, the bush is watered (but not abundantly) with water, the pot is tapped on all sides and, with the top closed with the hand, turned over, if the earthen clod is not separated, take a wand and, pressing it through the drainage hole, push it out pot.
Use a blunt object to clean 2-3cm of the upper layer of the earth and the drainage layer. Examine the root system and remove all rotten and dead roots, they are different from the living darker color or even dark brown.
In the new dishes, drainage is arranged, then 1-2 cm of sand is poured. The nourishing earth is poured in such a layer that the upper edge of the clodded bush in the pot is 4-6 cm below the top of the pot. After that, the ground between the walls of the pot and 2–3 cm above is compacted and compacted. The compaction of the earth, in order to avoid damage to the roots, is made with your fingers or a blunt object. After transshipment, abundant watering and spraying of the bush with warm water are made.
For the first 7-10 days after transshipment, the shrub is removed to a shaded place.
The method of transplantation is the same as transshipment, only during transplantation up to 1/3 of the earth is removed from the earthen coma, up to one third of the roots and up to one third of the crown are cut.
Transplantation is done in early spring or autumn, while in the first year the plant is given rest, destroying most of the fruits in the embryo or even removing them.
Dishes (tubs, pots) during transplantation are disinfected.
Growing grapes from cuttings or stones is not difficult at all, the main thing is patience and attentiveness. The reward will be sweet and tasty berries.