Domestic poultry farming is considered one of the most profitable and quick payback cases. Therefore, many people begin to engage in this activity. However, inexperienced farmers face many challenges. After reading this article, you will learn why and how the processing of eggs with hydrogen peroxide.
What is a preliminary disinfection?
We must say at once that this is indeed a valid need. Pre-processing of eggs allows you to achieve an increase in the yield of healthy livestock and protect the hatched chicks from all sorts of infections. Asymptomatically proceeding diseases of adults do not give the full purity of the shell.
In most cases, the pathogens of a disease are highlighted along with litter. Also in the waste products of birds often contain worms eggs. This especially applies to waterfowl geese and ducks. It is these birds that contaminate eggs with droppings more often than turkeys or chickens.
Immediately make a reservation that the treatment of eggs with peroxide before laying in the incubator - not the only possible method of disinfection. At home, a solution of potassium permanganate is often used for such purposes. In a pre-cooked tank pour water, the temperature of which is about thirty degrees. If the eggs are immersed in a colder liquid, then their contents will simply sink.
Manganese is added to a basin with warm water and stirred until the crystals are completely dissolved. The result should be a liquid saturated pink hue. After that, you can dip eggs into it. This should be done very carefully. Keep them in solution should be within five minutes. After that, the softened dirt is removed with the help of an old toothbrush, carefully lay the eggs on a dry clean cloth and wait for the water to drain from them. After the processing of the eggs is completed, they can be expanded into cassettes.
At large enterprises, processing of eggs with hydrogen peroxide before incubation is widely used. For this, a 1.5% solution is used. Eggs placed in it are kept there for five minutes. Then they are pulled out, washed in warm clear water and dried.
It is important to ensure that the peroxide solution is slightly hotter than the egg itself. The optimum temperature of the disinfectant fluid is 35-40 degrees. In addition to the peroxide, the “Pertsintam” and “Dezokson” have proven themselves well. Processing must be carried out with the utmost care, as there is always a risk of destruction of the film that covers the shell. Such inaccuracy can cause blockage of air holes to the embryo.
General recommendations for the tab
After the pretreatment of the eggs has been completed, they can be placed in an incubator. And chicken is recommended to lay in the evening, duck - in the morning. It is advisable to choose for these purposes eggs of approximately the same size.
Before laying you need to wait until they are slightly warmed up. Cold eggs should not be placed in an incubator. Otherwise, moisture may begin to collect in the shell. Therefore, after the pre-treatment of eggs is completed, they should be brought into a warm room, the air in which is heated to 25-27 degrees, and left there for eight hours. Under conditions of higher temperatures, the embryo may begin to develop abnormally.
It is important that the start of the incubation is quick. At the first warm-up should take no more than four hours. For the same reason, the pallet is filled with water, the temperature of which is about 40-42 degrees.
Do not put eggs infected with bacterial or fungal infections in the incubator. It is important that all selected specimens have the correct form. They should not have belts, growths and too fragile shells. Of these samples can not get good offspring.
You should also remember that only fresh eggs that have been stored no more than a week are suitable for hatching. The quality of selected specimens is checked by an ovoscope, which allows the shell to be illuminated. The age of the egg is determined by the condition of the air chamber. In suitable for incubation of copies of its size reaches from two to five millimeters.
What is the disinfection of hatching eggs at home
If you have to lay on the incubation of eggs quail, chickens, turkeys, then the algorithm for their processing will be the same.
Here is the procedure algorithm for clean eggs, that is, those that do not have dirt on the shell:
- Moisten a soft cloth in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide and wipe the shell - this should be done very carefully and without application of force,
- Prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which should be slightly warm (12 degrees) and dip already rubbed eggs into it - they should stay in it for 3-5 seconds,
- Remove from the solution of manganese and leave to dry - wipe them in any case impossible.
Disinfection of chicken eggs before incubation may also include exposure to a mercury-quartz lamp. Experts recommend that this procedure be carried out after washing the eggs in a solution of potassium permanganate - just this will be the natural drying of the shell.
If you want to prepare dirty chicken / quail / turkey eggs for incubation, you can also use a solution of potassium permanganate for processing - it should be a slightly pink hue.
The crystals of potassium permanganate dissolve in warm water (at least 30 degrees), the dirty eggs of poultry are immersed in the prepared solution and left for 5 minutes. This time is quite enough for even the dried mud to “pickle up”.
The next stage is the removal of softened dirt from the shell, and this can be done with a soft (!) Toothbrush with gentle movements. After that, rinse them in a solution of potassium permanganate or ordinary warm water is impossible!
The eggs treated as described above are simply laid out on a soft cloth and dried in natural conditions. You can speed up the drying process and conduct additional disinfection with a mercury-quartz lamp according to the method described above.
As for duck and goose eggs, all poultry farmers are well aware that they are characterized by increased pollution.
Before laying in the incubator, they will need to be prepared / processed according to the following algorithm:
- Eggs are immersed in a warm (30 degrees) pinkish solution of potassium permanganate - the residence time is no more than 5 minutes,
- Eggs taken out of potassium permanganate solution are first wiped with a soft, dry cloth (a soft toothbrush can also be used), then with a cloth moistened with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution,
- Eggs are laid under a mercury-quartz lamp until completely dry.
Experts recommend not to dwell on the "grandmother's" recipes, but to use modern achievements. For example, aerosol treatment to which any egg disinfectant - it is advisable to pay attention to Biitsin, Gluteks, Virotsid - these drugs are used on large poultry farms.
In order for aerosol disinfection of hatching eggs to be carried out correctly, you need to remember the following rules:
- Choose a sprayer with different modes, specifically before incubation, you will need one that allows you to spray the product in a drop-free, fog-like manner.
- To prepare the solution must be strictly according to the instructions to the drug, the concentration of the finished product is small - a maximum of 3%.
- It is necessary to spray an incubation egg from all sides, after which it can be immediately laid in the incubator.
Another effective disinfectant is Monclavite-1. They are treated eggs immediately before laying in the incubator by irrigation or immersion for 2-3 seconds.
Many poultry farmers believe that it is impossible and even harmful / deadly for washing and removing dirt from hatching eggs for future chicks.
In fact, putting a dirty “product” in the incubator is generally forbidden, and if they are properly processed using modern means, there is no risk for them - even an imperceptible protective film on the shell remains safe and sound.
Success is guaranteed if the material is properly selected, disinfected and put into the incubator. Knowledge of all the features described above will help avoid major mistakes in laying eggs, killing chicks and get healthy offspring.
To wash or not to wash?
For more than ten years I have been breeding chicks in an incubator, and the eggs are necessarily mine, using normal potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) for disinfection. I am sure that formaldehyde fumes are unsafe for humans and pollute the environment, despite the fact that formaldehyde fumes are recommended by scientific literature.
It is not easy to buy disinfectants, besides chemistry is expensive. Retail products for egg disinfection are usually not sold at retail - producers and trade organizations are oriented towards farmers and large poultry farms.
Manganese disinfection of eggs is a reliable and affordable disinfection method. I made sure to wash the hatching eggs not only possible, but necessary. Chicks from washed eggs grow no worse than from unwashed eggs. The film from the eggs is not washed off, according to some authors. The main thing is to comply with the processing technology.
Disinfectant solutions of deoxone, persintam, hydrogen peroxide, etc. are used in industry.
Inorganic compounds are most effective for wet disinfection of eggs. Hydrogen peroxide (1-1.5% solution), deoxon-1 (0.2-0.5% solution), persins (3-5% solution). The eggs are soaked in the solution for 3-5 minutes, then rinsed with warm water and dried.
The temperature of the solution should be higher than the egg temperature by 5-7 degrees (+ 35-40 ° C).
Brushing the eggs with a brush is not very good, because the cuticle is destroyed. This is the thinnest film lining the shell outside, which protects the egg from the penetration of microorganisms. But in this case it is better to sacrifice a cuticle than to lay dirty eggs for incubation.
How to choose and prepare eggs?
For good results, you need to know everything about the correct selection and storage of material for incubation, as well as how many days it takes to hatch chickens. When selecting eggs, follow these rules:
- They choose productive and healthy chickens, since bad heredity can go to the offspring.
- The optimum weight is from 56 to 63 g. Eggs with a mass higher or lower are rejected. It should also be borne in mind that the laying of eggs in the incubator should be homogeneous due to the fact that each gram adds from half an hour to 40 minutes for the development of the chick.
- Food should be natural.
- If the chickens are egg, then you can pick up eggs from 7 months, if meat, then from 8-9 months.
- The shape of the eggs must be correct - clearly defined ends, smooth transitions.
- You can collect eggs from 7-8 o'clock in the morning.
- For incubation take only fresh eggs - no older than 3-4 days.
Too large eggs are not suitable for incubation for the following reasons:
- worse ventilated
- the shell is much thinner
- low hatchability rate.
Ovoskopirovaniya is considered a reliable method for checking eggs - it helps to find pathologies that are problematic to see with the naked eye. It is a scanning of eggs with the help of a special device - an ovoscope. The check is needed to detect possible developmental abnormalities in embryos.
All eggs in which these defects are located must be removed. For example, cracked eggs should not remain in the incubator, because even a small crack can provoke the development of bacteria and infection of eggs.
The device itself can be both purchased and self-made, which does not prevent effective use of it in the economy.
The procedure is carried out in a special room as follows. The egg is taken in the right hand and, brought up to the over-scope, is turned along the longitudinal axis. Next, the eggs that have been tested are laid out in trays and sent to the incubator for disinfection on an egg carrier.
Defects that need to be paid attention to during an ovoscope check:
- light streaks as a result of damage,
- dark spots
- the speckled marble structure of the shell, which indicates a deficiency or an excess of calcium,
- blood clots
- foreign objects such as feathers or grains of sand,
- double yolk,
- the yolk broke and mixed with protein
- yolk prisoh (locked in one place).
- cracks and growths
- hollows and bumps.
The dirt from the eggs is washed off with a cloth, which is pre-moistened in a solution of potassium permanganate. After this disinfection begins. For large batches, formaldehyde vapor is used - 2,530 ml of the substance is diluted with the same amount of water and another 30 mg of manganese potassium is added.
The vessel with the solution, which is enough for a cubic meter of incubator, is placed in a disinfection chamber with eggs. For the camera, you can use a tight-fitting box. It takes disinfection up to half an hour.
There is also a wet disinfection. For it use 25-30 percent bleach. 15-20 g of substance are taken per liter of water. A couple of hours before laying eggs placed in this solution for 3 minutes.
There are many conflicting views on whether to wash eggs before laying in the incubator or not. Read about it here.
For high-quality chick output, it is important to choose the right and reliable device.
By capacity, incubators are divided into:
- Professional - up to half a thousand eggs.
- Industrial - The number is not limited, everything depends on the size of the room. The disadvantage of such incubators is that if a breakdown or power outage occurs, the whole litter will die.
- Home (farm) - accommodates from several tens to one and a half hundred eggs.
Incubator selection criteria are as follows:
- manual or automatic maintenance of the level of humidity or temperature,
- case material
- method of turning trays,
- Is there insulation,
- Is it possible to connect the backup power.
The main functions of a quality incubator are:
- maintain the required level of air humidity with an error not exceeding 5%,
- keeping the programmed temperature within the permissible fluctuation - no more than 0.1 degrees,
- egg rotation at a set time
- providing cooling in case of overheating,
- ventilation in accordance with the established program
- beep if the incubator gave a technical failure.
Preparation for use
Not less than 12 hours before incubation, the device should:
- to clean
- wash up
- heat to the desired temperature
- install elements that will maintain the desired level of humidity,
- check the operation of ventilation.
For cabinet incubators, disinfection with formaldehyde vapors is suitable. Just before launching, the temperature inside the box is checked using a conventional medical thermometer. Techniques and modes of incubation are painted in the instructions for use.
You can start laying eggs without taking into account any particular time of day, but most farmers still lay a book in the evening (about 6 hours, since in this case the lupka starts in the morning on the 21st day, and by the evening of the same day most of the chickens is born).
The eggs that were taken for incubation must be indoors before being immersed in a box. This is due to the fact that if the eggs are immersed in a heated chamber, condensation may form, which breaks the climate inside the incubator and causes mold, which is fatal to the embryo. Therefore, 8-12 hours before the start of incubation, the eggs are kept in a non-airy room at a temperature of 25 degrees.
Lay them out preferably horizontally. Under these conditions, the eggs are heated evenly. A vertical tab is also available - eggs are laid out in groups at regular intervals (4 hours). First, large, then medium size, and then small.
From the very beginning of the laying up to the 19th day of incubation, the eggs should be turned 180 degrees every two hours. It is no longer necessary to turn over the output trays only.
That is, in general, the bookmark procedure is as follows:
- the incubator is heated to the desired temperature,
- eggs are treated with antiseptic or disinfected with ultraviolet light,
- distributed along the tray with a sharp end up,
- the tray is immersed in an incubator,
- the doors of the device are tightly closed.
You can find more useful information about laying chicken eggs in an incubator here.
Stages of incubation and features of care
In general, the incubation of eggs lasts about three weeks. Sometimes it is longer if the temperature was below acceptable values, but the limit is considered to be 25 days. By default, these three weeks are divided into 4 periods:
- 1st period–The first to seventh day of incubation,
- 2nd period - from the eighth to the fourteenth day,
- 3rd period - from the fifteenth to the eighteenth day (usually at this time you can hear the squeak of hatchlings that have not yet hatched),
- 4th period – с девятнадцатого по двадцать третий день (это финальный этап, который заканчивается вылуплением цыплёнка).
В периоды инкубации важно соблюдать соответствующие температурные режимы и уровни влажности, потому что всё это непосредственно влияет на развитие эмбриона.
That the embryo does not overheat, the eggs must be cooled. Carry out cooling on the sixth and fourteenth days and when the eggs are already shifted to the hatcher trays. Daily short-term cooling also occurs - the cabinet doors open for 5 minutes.
Let us consider in more detail the stages of incubation of chicken eggs:
- On the first day, the temperature in the incubator is set from 37.8 to 38 degrees, and the humidity - 60%. These indicators should remain unchanged in the first week, since stable and comfortable conditions are necessary for the formation of embryos. It is also important to turn the eggs 4 to 8 times a day.
- 8-14 days. Humidity drops slightly (up to 50%), and the temperature remains the same. At this time, the fetal respiratory organ should already close. It is necessary to turn the eggs still 4 to 8 times a day.
- At the third stage of incubation, you can start airing, thereby lowering a little the temperature inside. It is enough to air only a couple of times a day for 10-15 minutes. And of course, do not forget to turn the eggs. Humidity in this period is reduced by another 5% - up to 45%, and the temperature is still 37.8-38.0 degrees.
If the development proceeds normally, then the air chamber occupies about 30% of the egg, and the border is curved by a hillock.
The health of chicks is determined by the squeak sound - if it is a calm and monotonous sound, then everything is in order. If the sound is loud and heavy, it means that the chicken is frozen.
There are the following signs by which you can determine a healthy chick:
- The umbilical cord should be soft:
- belly tucked up
- powerful legs
- slightly bulging clear eyes
- shows activity
- beak short
- there is a reaction to sounds.
About violations in the development of the embryo indicate:
- detachment of the shell that is under the shell,
- fetal extinction (determined from the seventh to the fourteenth day of incubation),
- blood rings (fetal death from the first to the sixth day of incubation),
- non-hatching of chickens after the completion of incubation, which may be caused by a violation of the incubation regime - temperature, humidity, hypothermia,
- blood vessels did not appear after the sixth day of incubation,
- ripped and mixed white with yolk,
- mold colonies.
Ovoscoping eggs by incubation days is carried out as follows:
- On the third day, the yolk and the air chamber are visible at the blunt end.
- On the fourth day, you can see the air chamber at the blunt end, as well as hear the heartbeat of the fetus and the beginning of the development of blood vessels.
- On the fifth day - an increase in blood vessels by more than half the egg. This indicates the active development of the embryo.
- On the sixth and seventh days, the movements of the embryo are visible, the blood vessels fill almost the entire egg.
- On the eleventh day, the blood vessels are clearly visible, the egg is no longer translucent as well as on the seventh day, and has a darker shade.
- The fifteenth day - the egg has become even darker, the translucent part has blood vessels.
- Nineteenth day - the egg is almost not translucent, the embryo is almost completely developed, the air chamber is clearly visible.
It is important to understand how the development of chicks in the embryo. It all starts with the development of blastodisc - cytoplasm, which is located on the yolk. Blastodisks, which have been fertilized, begin to divide during egg formation even in the laying hen's body. If, after an egg has been laid, it falls into favorable conditions, the embryo develops in stages:
- The amnion begins to form (a shell filled with a liquid that protects the embryo from physical damage or drying by controlling the amount of fluid under the shell) and allantois (the germinal organ of respiration, which lines the entire inner space).
- On the third day, the head stands out, and from the 4th, the rudiments of the legs and wings appear.
- From the eighth to the eleventh day, a skeleton is formed, the rudiments of the beak and claws appear.
- On the 11th day, the allantois is completely closed, and the embryo moves along the long axis so that its head becomes directed toward the blunt end. In the sharp edge is located protein. Due to the fact that the chick moves, together with the weight of allantois, the protein enters the chick's mouth, which, in turn, ensures a process of rapid growth and development.
- From the 13th day, all the nutrients that are necessary for growth, allantois takes from the shell.
- From the 12th to the 20th day, the embryo begins to be covered with down, the claws with the stratum corneum. The protein is consumed completely during growth, and the yolk sac is fully drawn in.
The development of the embryo by day is presented in the following table: