General information

Methods of breeding garden gooseberry


Gooseberry is common in almost all continents, it grows in mountainous areas, in forests and in lowland areas. Gooseberry - a frequent visitor to the gardens, since it is easily propagated, it is well and abundantly fruiting, has a pleasant taste and useful properties.

Reproduction green cuttings

The process of grafting green shoots carried out in the spring, in the first decade of May. The most suitable are the following conditions in the greenhouse: air humidity is 90%, air temperature is +25 ° С, and soil temperature is +18 ° С. Green cuttings (the top of young shoots) are taken from a bush not older than four years.

Preparation of gooseberry cuttings for breeding with green cuttings:

  • All lower leaves, except for the top three sheets, must be trimmed.
  • On the present buds, a longitudinal incision is made with a knife; in the lower part of the shoot, 2-3 incisions are made along the stem.
  • Cuttings for a day put in a bowl with water, then you can dip the stem in a growth stimulator and leave for six hours.
Cuttings are planted in the greenhouse for rooting. Caring for them is no different from other plants: regular watering, checking the soil moisture, fertilizing twice a season. After three weeks, rooting occurs, and the greenhouse can be kept open during the day.

Reproduction by lignified cuttings

This method of reproduction of gooseberry cuttings carried out in the fall. Harvest cuttings with brown bark, up to 25 cm long, collect them in a bundle and plant in a hole 15 cm deep. The cuttings are planted to the top down, because in the spring the upper layer of the soil heats up faster, respectively, the lower roots, which were at the top, also warmed up well. At the same time, the kidneys are delayed in development, and the root system develops and strengthens in time. Above planting is covered with a layer of fertile soil, mulch and cover with a dense film.

In the spring, the grown saplings are transferred to the open ground, and two buds are left above the surface of the planting fossa. The cuttings are planted at an angle of 10 cm from each other.

The use of combined cuttings

Consider how to propagate gooseberry cuttings in spring or summer, combining seedlings. The combined method is convenient because you can simultaneously multiply different species and varieties. Green and lignified cuttings are planted in one hole, make a mini-greenhouse. The best time will be the month of July, but it is possible to plant all spring and summer season.

Green cuttings in the spring will give fruit, lignified ones strengthen and develop longer. But on reaching a height of 50 cm, they are separated and planted separately. Thus, you kill two birds with one stone, receiving both saplings and a fruiting bush.

How to grow a new gooseberry horizontal layering

For reproduction by horizontal layers, a furrow about 7 cm deep is prepared, the selected stem bends down (carefully so as not to break) and fits into the furrow. So that the branch does not arbitrarily go up, it is fastened with straps (pieces of wire). From above the layers are covered with fertile soil. Upon reaching the sprouts 10-12 cm, sprinkle a branch with another layer of soil mixed with humus. The second podsypanie produced on reaching 15 cm, the third - in 20 days. After two weeks, the shoot is separated from the donor bush and transplanted to a permanent place.

Gooseberry propagation by vertical layers

Layers from bushes older than four years are suitable for the vertical method, while the plant is rejuvenated. The procedure is held in June. All old branches are cut to the root, and the young by two thirds. After pruning, the shrub is covered with fertile soil, when new shoots reach 15 cm in height, the bush is tucked up to half. Then, every 15 cm, hilling is repeated.

In mid-August, the bush must be fed with urea, do not forget about watering once a week. At the beginning of October, rake the soil piled when hilling and separate all newly formed shoots together with the roots. A new bush will land on a permanent place in the garden.

Propagation by arcuate shoots (layering)

Gooseberry propagation by arcuate layers is similar to the horizontal method. The difference is that The shoot is reinforced by the arc, and does not hide completely in the ground. Before falling asleep the soil, superphosphate is applied and watered. Then fall asleep primer so that the arc was above the surface. Twice during the summer season, the shoot is fed with organic matter (infusion of mullein or chicken droppings). Despite the fact that the shoots are less, they are much stronger and begin to bear fruit earlier.

How to multiply the gooseberry by dividing the bush

This method is ideal for breeding valuable varieties. For greater success and to stimulate the growth of new shoots, a year before the proposed division, the old stems are pruned at the root.

In the spring, the division is carried out before the swelling of the kidneys, in the fall - until the night frosts. Gooseberry bushes dig up and separate young shoots from old ones. Cut wood with ash to prevent disease. Make sure that the seedling has a developed root system and at least three shoots. Before planting, the soil is fertilized with a complex of superphosphate, potash salt and humus. You can plant immediately on a permanent place.

Is it possible to propagate gooseberry seeds

Seeds are taken from ripe berries, mixed with sand and left in boxes until the end of autumn. For the winter period, the boxes are buried to a half-meter depth and covered with a layer of soil for 20 cm above, in early spring the seeds are sown in greenhouses, covering with a small layer of peat. When two leaves appear on the seedlings, the seedlings are determined on the beds. In the summer, sprouts weed, watered and loosened the soil around them. In the fall, the thick bushes are planted in the garden.

Before growing gooseberries from seeds, take into account that this method is good for producing new varieties. Varietal characteristics of the maternal bush with this breeding is not preserved.

Gooseberry reproduction perennial branches

Conducting anti-aging pruning bushes, do not throw away cut branches - use them for planting. Make a groove and bury the branch so that only the top of the head is on the surface. Sprinkle the branch with fertile soil. The soil needs to be moistened, and if you pinch the green shoots, the lateral buds will awaken. During growth, shoots need to be fed with Nitrophosphate (20 mg / m²). In the fall, 20-cm-long sprouts are dug out, divided into separate branches with roots, and planted in a permanent place.

This article describes The most convenient methods of breeding useful bush: how to propagate by seed, division, cuttings and how to grow gooseberries from a sprig. Using some of them, you can multiply the variety you like and even bring out a new one.

Propagation of gooseberry seeds

This type of shrub cultivation is much inferior in vegetative popularity. The first berries will have to wait a few years. In addition, in this case, the varietal characteristics are almost never preserved. Growing from seed is only relevant when breeding new plant species.

To plant gooseberries using seeds:

  • deepen the seeds by 0.5 cm with an interval of 5 cm,
  • pour, cover with foil,
  • keep pots in a cool place (+ 3 ... + 5 ° С),
  • water regularly to keep the soil dry.

In this mode, you need to store plants until mid-spring. Then they should be taken out into the garden and buried in the plot without taking them out of the pots. After the formation of 2 leaves, you must dive young stalks into the mainland.

Reproduction gooseberry cuttings

The procedure is carried out in the fall or spring, and the cuttings can be green, lignified or combined. Shoots of the latter type are obtained from shrubs around mid-October. They will be no longer green, but not completely lignified. Cut twigs 15-25 cm in length. The lower cut should be done at 45 °, it should be located 2-2.5 cm below the soil. Make the upper cut straight, 1-1.5 cm above the upper bud.

  1. Disinfect the cutting with potassium permanganate, Bordeaux mixture or Fitosporin.
  2. Wrap it with a damp cloth and put in a bag. Tie the bag completely, so that the air gets to the plant and the moisture does not evaporate.
  3. Place the cutting in a room where there will be no more than + 5 ° С. Best of all - in the basement, cellar or a specially dug hole to a depth greater than the level of soil freezing in your area.

If in the fall you did not have time to prepare planting material, you can do it in early spring, before the buds begin to swell. If it is still cold, then first place the cuttings for a couple of days on the warmest shelf of the refrigerator to smooth out the stress.

Attention! Cuttings of the gooseberry hybrid breed most effectively.

In late winter or early spring, take out the seedlings and begin rooting:

  • update slices
  • Soak the cuttings for 4-6 hours in lukewarm water. You can dilute growth stimulant in water by reducing the soaking time to 2-3 hours,

  • dip the seedlings in a transparent container with water and cover with foil,
  • place the container in heat for 2-3 days, then transfer to a place with a moderate temperature,
  • periodically remove the film to wind the stalk,
  • add warm water as necessary.

When the buds swell and young roots and leaves begin to grow from them, remove the polyethylene, move the container to the window on the south side. Continue to add water when its level drops. A young plant can be transplanted when the roots grow to 1.5 cm and darken. Surely in the open ground they will still be cold, so the bushes are planted in the soil at home.

For this fit cups or halves of plastic bottles. The composition of the soil: the land from the garden mixed with sand or humus. Deepen the seedlings by half, ramming the soil around, and water the cuttings abundantly. Regularly moisturize, spray the plant, preventing stagnant water. At the turn of April and May, after 2-week hardening, cuttings with roots are ready for transplantation under the open sky. A transplanted plant for a couple of weeks is desirable to protect with agrofibre.

Propagation of gooseberry by dividing the bush

The shrub forms additional roots on young shoots. This feature allows you to safely multiply the gooseberry by dividing an adult plant. The suitable time for this is from November to March:

  • pick up a young bush, up to 5 years old,
  • carefully divide into several shrubs, each of which will have a root and new shoots,
  • spread the plants right away.

Council In early spring, separated shoots should be cut almost to the ground. This will be an incentive for the plant to form new strong branches. Already by the fall you get a full bush.

How to propagate gooseberry layering

The best breeds of this type of breeding are European varieties. Layers can be of three types:

  1. Horizontal. Make around the adult bush grooves 10 cm deep. Place an escape there and press them along the entire length. It is not necessary to fill up with soil. When new vertical shoots grow up to 10 cm, fill holes with a layer of humus. After 2 weeks, perform hilling, if it's hot, cover the ground with mulch. In November, each young plant can be cut from the mother and transplanted.
  2. Vertical. The method is optimal for old plants. During the rest period, make a full trim. In the spring, wait until the new shoots reach 20 cm, half cover the bush with earth. In the summer, water abundantly and regularly spud, and then in late autumn you will get rooted shoots.
  3. Arc-shaped. Works are performed as during reproduction by vertical shoots, only the shoots are pressed to the ground with only one brace. At this point only one plant will appear, but it will be stronger.

Gooseberry responds well to vegetative breeding methods. With a little effort, you will increase the plantation of berry bushes on your site.

Green cutting

If you are thinking about how to propagate gooseberries in the summer, then the best option for this is green grafting. It is based on a shrub transplant at the beginning of June, when the plant releases young shoots. To do this, use a secateur to cut green branches about 10-15 centimeters long, which are placed in a bucket of water. When the twigs are cut, you can immediately begin to plant. It is worth noting that it is not recommended to leave the twigs in the water for a long time, because in this case the gooseberry does not take root well at the new place.

Planting cuttings

It is best to plant cuttings in the greenhouse, on the ground that has been previously raised. Between seedlings leave approximately 5 centimeters. If the soil is loose, then you can not make holes, but simply stick the seedlings into the ground, compressing it tightly so that the cutting will normally take root.

After planting, cover the greenhouse with a film covered with chalk to protect the cuttings from direct sunlight. The first time to water the plant should be abundant water, after which you can switch to regular watering.

Accelerating the growth of cuttings

We examined one of the most common ways of how to propagate gooseberry cuttings in the summer. But so that he quickly got accustomed and got stronger, a special technique is used.

To succeed, follow these tips and recommendations:

  1. The stalks are cut to a length of approximately 10 or 25 centimeters.
  2. Each stalk should have two buds and two leaves located above them.
  3. Planting material is planted at a depth of 6 centimeters.
  4. The bottom cut should be at an oblique angle, and the top - under the right angle.
  5. The place of the lower cut is processed by any means stimulating the development of the root system. When planting on the garden plot, 5 centimeters are left between the cuttings.
  6. It takes about one month for the plant to take root in a new place. If the summer was cold, then it is recommended to plant on the ground in early autumn in a greenhouse.

It will be useful to carry out bait with various mineral fertilizers, which are selected depending on the type of soil.

How to care for cuttings

In order for the shrub to grow well and grow normally, it is not enough to know how to propagate the gooseberries by cuttings, as it is also important to ensure proper care of them. After planting, maintain an optimal level of moisture inside the greenhouse. The fact is that if the ground is dry, the cuttings will wilt, and if you pour water on them too much, then the root system may start to rot. The temperature inside the greenhouse should not rise above 30 degrees. It is best to maintain it at 25 degrees. This will be enough so that the plant does not fade and does not die from the cold.

With the right care in just a month, cuttings will be able to strengthen and build a good root system. At this stage, the shrub can be transplanted to open ground. Between each bush should be left approximately 20 centimeters. Soil previously you need to dig and fertilize with compost or humus.

Breeding layering

Many novice gardeners are interested in the question of how to propagate gooseberry layering. This method is also very effective for the cultivation of shrubs. To do this, at the beginning of spring, loosen the ground near the gooseberry and pin the shoots of the shrub into it, cut each one under the eye and make a small depression in the ground. In this recess pinned escape and lightly sprinkled with earth.

The recess should be about 8-10 centimeters. To sprinkle it on the ground is not completely necessary, leaving some free space. When breeding gooseberries on the stems do not need to make an incision, they just bend down to the ground. In early autumn, on the part of the stem that is in the ground, a lobe should form. When this happens, the plant can be planted in open ground. Cuttings are carefully cut from the main stem with a pruner. Between the layings leave approximately 20 centimeters. This is one of the most common answers to the question of how to propagate gooseberries in the spring.

Alternative breeding

In gardening practice, another breeding of gooseberry is used. It is also based on transplanting cuttings, but is more effective. This is especially true when the gooseberry is obsolete and its rejuvenation is required. How to propagate gooseberry bush in this case? First you need to loosen the soil under the old bush, then the gooseberry is cut about 15 centimeters above the soil level. From the place of the cut, many young shoots will have to go, from which the best are selected and bend in different directions from the main shoot, going deeper to a depth of 9 cm. From above they are covered with earth and periodically watered.

After a certain time, each bud will give escape. Their total number can reach ten. After the shoots grow about 15 centimeters, they are sprinkled with earth. This is necessary in order to accelerate the development of the root system.

At the end of the summer, the layers are carefully dug out, separated from the main shrub and transplanted. In order to speed up the process of habituation and growth, it is recommended to plant the layers in a nursery for one year. The following year, in early autumn, gooseberries can be planted in the garden. It is best to do this on a dug up plot of land, leaving about 40 centimeters between the bushes. Periodically, you need to loosen the ground and remove weeds.

Если вас интересует, как размножить крыжовник осенью, то это один из наиболее эффективных способов.

Деление кустарника

Еще одним хорошим способом размножения крыжовника является деление куста. It is great for all types of plants. Its essence lies in the fact that young shoots form their own root system. This type of breeding works best in early spring, before the formation of new buds, or in late October, after the foliage falls.

Shrub division is best done after old shoots, branches and roots have started up new shoots. The bush is previously dug and divided into 3-4 parts, each of which should have its own root system. It is recommended to sprinkle the incisions with ashes so that they heal as soon as possible.

In order for the plant to settle down faster in a new place, not only the main, but also adventitious roots are important. Therefore, it is recommended to plant plots to a shallower depth than they grew before. Experienced gardeners advise to perform spring rejuvenation before breeding. This will allow young stalks to get in the fall, which will take root much better and faster in a new place and start growing.

Lignified cuttings

How to propagate gooseberries, if the cuttings are woody? Occupation is quite difficult, since the survival rate of such planting material is quite low. However, if the gooseberry is not more than 10 years old, then you can cut a lot of cuttings from it, some of which will take root in any case.

Gooseberry reproduction by this method should begin before the buds appear, or after the foliage has fallen. Prepared planting material is stored in wet sand for one and a half months, after which they are buried in the snow in which they are located until spring, after which the cuttings are planted in the ground.

If the landing on the ground is carried out in late autumn, before the onset of winter, the cuttings are insulated with fallen leaves.

How to propagate gooseberry cuttings in the summer? A great way to become a transplant is overgrown. It consists in the fact that adventitious roots are formed on the root system, which gradually grow. But here it is important to understand that adventitious roots are capable of producing only young plants.

The whole process takes place according to the following technology:

  1. In early spring, the soil around the bush fluffs up, as well as sprinkled with a layer of humus and earth.
  2. The shrub is pruned, and cut-off areas are treated with garden pitch. This will allow to obtain new processes in the beginning of summer.
  3. When young shoots grow to 10 centimeters, their bases are sprinkled with soil, after which they are watered with a small amount of water.
  4. Tops of shoots pinch for tillering.
  5. In early autumn, a root system will have to be formed.
  6. In the middle of spring, the mounds of the earth are raked, and the rooted shoots are cut off. The young gooseberry is trimmed slightly from above, after which for one year it grows and only then lands on the ground.

So, we talked about how to multiply gooseberries with the help of shoots. This technology can be applied every two years.

Shrub grafting

We reviewed the basic technology of how to propagate gooseberries. But there is another technology that is rarely used. It consists in grafting plants. The main difficulty of this lies in the fact that the bush can start wild shoots, which are very similar to varietal shoots.

The grafting is done on rooted cuttings and on the root system of the shrub. Winter is best suited for this, and the gooseberry is transplanted into the garden in early spring, after the snow melts.

For grafting, a stock should be grown in advance, which is cut before planting on the ground. When the cutting takes root and forms the root system, it can be divided into parts and transplanted on the site.

Reproduction by layering

Simple effective way that does not require great skills in gardening. Its big plus lies in the fact that it does not injure the plants during the growing season. Produced directly on the bush, not taking up much space.

Reproduction by layering is most popular in the southern regions. Sap flow in this climatic zone starts early, young stems grow to the required length by the end of May - the beginning of June, they take root easily and can be used already for autumn planting of the current year.

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