The advantages of autumn planting raspberries include a large selection of quality seedlings, good rooting, an earlier onset of fruiting next season. Until spring, the shrub will be able to settle down and with the onset of warm days will devote all its strength to building shoots, leaves and berries. The main thing is to observe the planting dates and provide seedlings with proper care.
When to plant raspberries in the fall
Experienced gardeners already know that it is best to plant and re-plant raspberries in the fall. Of course, the exact dates depend on the climatic features of a particular region. You need to be guided by the fact that the landing should be completed 3-4 weeks before the onset of the first frost.
In more southern latitudes A favorable moment for this procedure is from mid-September to early October. Young seedlings just enough time to root well to frost and safely winter.
In Siberia and the Urals planting will need to be made in early September, and it is better to postpone it until spring. Autumn in these regions is usually cold and rainy, the plants do not have enough time to settle down and this can provoke freezing in winter.
In the middle lane raspberry planting or transplanting is recommended during the period from the first days of September to the twentieth of October. It is also necessary to take into account the frost resistance of the variety. Early and frost-resistant raspberry varieties are not recommended for planting in the fall. It also happens that the planting material has already been purchased, and the weather presented a surprise in the form of early frosts. In this case, seedlings need to be saved until spring, prikopav in the ground or placing them in a dry basement.
Selection of seedlings
When purchasing planting material, you need to pay attention to its quality. After all, it is the right choice of seedlings that becomes the basis for a good harvest. If your choice fell on seedlings of a certain variety that you have been looking for for a long time, but they have symptoms of a fungal or viral disease, it is better to refuse to buy.
The fight against disease is not always effective and young bushes can simply die. Yes, and the harvest from diseased plants, you will not wait. It is best to buy seedlings in proven nurseries with a good reputation. Sick plants are unlikely to be sold there. A raspberry sapling suitable for autumn planting should have the following characteristics:
- Developed root system with a large number of large and small roots. The roots should not be over dried. It is better if the root system is closed. Saplings with open roots can be checked by cutting a small spine. Its core should be white, darkening is a sign that the root system has begun to rot.
- The diameter of the branches at the base of the bush should be from a thickness of 5 mm. Too thin shoots suggest that the plant is weakened or very young. But at the same time the branches should not be thicker than 1 cm in diameter, such bushes reluctantly take root in a new place.
- Pay attention to the bush was ripe. The main sign of this will be the presence on the root neck of the developing buds and lignified shoots.
- The main branches of the shrub before selling cut to a height of 40 cm. The same length should be the young offspring. Too long shoots take away power from the roots, which makes survival difficult.
Proper planting raspberry autumn
When laying raspberries need to take into account all the nuances, because in the same place the plants will be at least 10 years. After this period, raspberries are recommended to be transplanted to another site. It will be possible to return the plantation to its former place no sooner than in 4 years.
The survival rate in autumn seedlings is almost one hundred percent. In addition, the choice of planting material at the end of the season is always more, and its prices are reduced. It is profitable for the manufacturer to sell the plants before the onset of winter so as not to burden themselves with the costs of storing them.
Choosing a place
When planting raspberries in a new place, one should not forget about the rules of crop rotation. Legume crops, garlic, parsley, dill, calendula, and lupine are considered good precursors for the shrub. Shrubs should not be planted after tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and strawberries were grown on this site.
The site should be well lit, sheltered from the winds. The best soil for raspberries are sandy loams or permeable loam. The beds are better located from north to south. With this orientation, raspberry bushes will be maximally illuminated by the sun.
It is desirable that the groundwater lies deep, otherwise the raspberry will suffer from over-moisture. Before planting, the soil must be cleaned of stones and weeds. Land for planting is better prepared in advance - for a month and a half. After digging in the ground should be fertilized.
Nutrient mixture should consist of 20 kg of humus, 60 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate or several handfuls of ash per 1 square. meter. If the soil has an increased acidity, it is alkalized with lime. It is possible to improve the mechanical composition of clay soil by introducing bio-fertilizer Agroprirost, at the same time the land will be enriched with useful soil bacteria.
Raspberries can be planted in a tape and bush mode. The first option is more suitable for farms, where they lay large plantations of raspberries. If you need to plant only a few bushes, you should use the second option.
The belt method involves planting bushes in one or several rows with a row spacing of 1.5–2 m. For planting, dig trenches 60 cm deep and the same width in which the seedlings are placed 70 cm apart.
With this type of planting, it is necessary to equip a trellis, to which young, actively growing shoots will be tied up.
For planting single bushes dig holes with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of 40 cm, in each of them have 1-2 seedlings. The distance between the landing pits should be at least 1 meter.
Before planting, a nutrient soil is poured into a trench or hole, on which the seedling is installed, after straightening the roots. Seedling sprinkled with soil, tamping it in the process of planting. This is necessary so that the earth fits snugly to the roots.
The root neck of the raspberry should remain at ground level or slightly below. If you strongly deepen the bush, the plant will develop more slowly. Too small planting can lead to the fact that the root neck starts to dry or the seedling will freeze out in winter.
A watering hole is made around each bush and half a bucket of water is poured in. Shoots need to be shortened, leaving branches no longer than 20-25 cm. After planting, the ground is mulched. For this you can use humus, straw, hay. Mulch in this case will play the role of insulation - raspberries will have time to grow the roots, and the soil will not freeze too quickly. In addition, the mulch layer saves moisture in the ground.
Care for young plantings in the fall
Since the fertilizer was applied when planting young bushes, further care is reduced only to watering. To determine the schedule, take into account weather conditions and soil conditions. If autumn is rainy, watering the bush is not necessary. In the case when the top layer of the earth looks dry - you need to moisten the plant. With a decrease in the average daily temperature, the root zone is mulched with sawdust or peat.
Sometimes for young bushes construct a wintering frame, which is covered with a film on top. With such a winter, raspberries are protected from wind and severe frosts. At the same time, there is enough oxygen under the shelter for the plant to retain its viability. This is a good way to save young bushes planted in autumn. Early spring shelter is removed.
Mistakes when planting raspberries
Not all gardeners can avoid mistakes during the autumn planting raspberries. Here are the most typical ones:
- Raspberries are planted too early. When the weather is warm, the seedlings quickly take root and start off to grow, forming young green shoots. This makes the bush vulnerable to the effects of frost.
- Seedlings planted in the shade. In case of insufficient illumination, the branches will begin to stretch towards the sun, the growth will be thin and fragile. Such shoots will not have time to mature before frost, which means that the risk of their freezing will also be great.
- Landing in heavy clay soil. This soil often contains an excess of moisture, which will prevent rapid rooting. In addition, in the clayey soil not enough oxygen comes to the roots, which negatively affects their development.
- Defective planting material. Saplings bought in random places may turn out to be too old or with a dried root system. Optimally, if the plant is one year old with roots of sufficient length of 10 cm.
Autumn planting raspberry-fully the whole process: video
Departure after landing
Plant care should be permanent., especially it concerns only the planted seedlings. It is necessary to provide favorable conditions for the development of the root system and wintering.
Save only planted plant necessary from atmospheric moisture using plastic film, make the frame.
The frame will create a dry airspace for raspberries, as a result of which it will be protected from the first frosts, the northern wind and snow. In early spring, polyethylene is removed.
If the bed with seedlings is small, you can cover each plant individually.
Raspberries - a plant with healthy and tasty berries. It does not require special care, specific watering, it is enough to follow some rules to get a good harvest in time.
When planting raspberries - in the fall or spring. What does it depend on
Having decided to plant and grow this crop, you need to decide when it is better to plant a shrub - in spring or autumn and in what month.
If we summarize the opinions of agrarian scientists and gardeners with experience, it turns out that the most optimal time for planting raspberries is autumn. If you choose the right time for planting in the fall, the seedlings before the frost will have time to properly take root and even grow new roots. Prior to the arrival of frost, seedlings are fed with nutrients and will easily withstand the harsh conditions of winter.
With the onset of spring, these seedlings will immediately awaken from hibernation and start to grow. When planting a raspberry in the fall, next summer it will be possible to pick the first berries from it.
Advantages and disadvantages of autumn planting
Experts note the following advantages of autumn planting raspberries:
- The weather is already cool in the autumn, and the relative humidity rises, at night the temperature drops even more. These are precisely the conditions that are required for good rooting.
- Useful juices of the plant in the fall are concentrated in the handle. After planting, all the food that the stalk received from the soil is spent on the formation of roots.
- Raspberry seedlings can be bought at a low price. A wide range of different varieties and in huge quantities. Easily pick the best seedling of the desired variety.
- Young plants are often sold with leaves, and sometimes even with berries that can be seen and tasted. According to the sample, you can verify that the seedling belongs to a particular variety and form an opinion about its external data.
- Work on the care of a raspberry seedling in the fall after planting is not difficult.
- In the autumn, seedlings have excellent conditions for rooting and survival. Rejected single plants.
The option with landing in September-October has only one major drawback. Choosing such terms, you need to carefully monitor the weather and clearly track the moment of temperature drop. That he is the best time for landing.
Features of the spring landing
When disembarking at this time, the air temperature can vary significantly: from cool to hot days. Such jumps cannot have a beneficial effect on the rooting of the seedling.
A young shrub is forced to spend food at the same time on the growth of shoots and the formation of roots, which is difficult to combine.
When planting in the spring, the rooting process takes longer. In the year of planting, even remontant varieties do not produce berries. The first collection of products is possible only in a year.
So, we found out that young raspberry seedlings are better planted in the autumn. This will give the best rooting of plants and faster entry into fruiting.
What conditions must be met for planting raspberries in autumn
When planting in autumn, you need to comply with a number of conditions, here are their list:
- For planting pick strong annual saplings. The length of their roots is not shorter than 10 cm.
- Raspberry seedlings are planted in pre-prepared holes. The soil should be suitable for raspberries.
- The site is chosen so that it is well lit and protected from the wind.
- The average daily air temperature at landing should be within 10-15 degrees, and the relative humidity of air at the level of 80%.
- It is necessary to predict the day of planting so that hot days do not return on the same autumn.
- When planting, the saplings are cut so that 25 cm from the length of their stalks remain.
- At each bush after planting you need to pour 8 liters of water. Then another 3 days after planting the plants should be sprayed with water to reduce evaporation from the leaves.
- Do not forget about mulching. It is made with sawdust, peat or chopped straw. Thanks to this agro-reception, you can protect the roots from freezing.
- Check the quality of landing work. Every bush slightly yank. If it is pulled out, it is better to transplant it, since such seedlings in winter freeze.
The moment of landing is chosen so that until the arrival of frost left about 30 days. During this time, the roots will have time to settle down, and the vegetative buds will not wake up.
Early varieties and those that do not differ frost resistance, planted in the fall is not desirable. They will not survive and die out during the winter.
The stalks of the seedling must be mature, they must be woody before planting.
Understand that the seedling can be ripened by replacing the kidneys, which arise in early autumn on the root neck. In early varieties of buds will be able to see in September, if the raspberries belong to the late varieties, then the buds will be viewed in October.
By lunar calendar
For supporters of the lunar calendar, we inform you that in 2018 in the fall, favorable days for works associated with the landing of raspberries will be the following:
- October - 17, 19-20, 23-29,
- November - 15-16, 19-22, 24-25.
It is these days that the sap of plants rush from the tops of the plants to their roots, which favorably affects the rooting of seedlings.
Planting raspberries on other days does not mean that the event will end without success, but still it is better to adhere to the recommended days.
Depending on the region
What specific autumn month to carry out this work depends on the region of cultivation.
- In the central zone of the country, crops are planted with the onset of September, and work should be completed before the beginning of next month.
- In the suburbs and the Volga region, when planting a crop, they adhere to the same terms as in the Central Belt. In these areas, planting raspberries is allowed in the spring, but the autumn planting procedure has more advantages.
- In Siberia and the Urals, planting should be completed before September 12, but the weather should be taken into account. If, for example, the end of summer is characterized by cold snaps, rains and wind, then it is better not to plant seedlings at all and to postpone this event to the next spring.
- In the south of Russia to plant a raspberry bush is allowed until the end of October.
How to plant raspberries in the fall
Any garden owner who decides to start raspberries at the site will certainly have questions about how to plant a sapling in the fall, how to prepare the landing site, which planting scheme to follow and other equally important points. It is easy to do this if you follow the instructions below.
The soil in the area set aside for raspberries should be quite fertile. It should contain such batteries as phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and calcium. Otherwise, the color of the leaf plate will not be saturated green, spots of yellow, brown or red color will appear, which will impede the process of photosynthesis.
According to the mechanical structure, the soil under the raspberries should be loamy or sandy.
Soil soil should be well drained, excess moisture should be removed from the roots. The soil must be breathable, as the roots must be able to breathe.
By this method, the soil ahead of time fertilizer is not filled. Preparation and landing are performed in the following sequence:
- 15 days before the landing of raspberries in the area preparing the pit. Its depth and diameter should be from 30 to 40 cm.
- Then in each landing hole lay 5 kg of humus or compost. On the day of planting, additional fertilizers are added to each well:
- 10 g of potassium sulfate,
- 250 grams of wood ash
- 20 g double superphosphate.
- Half of the soil formed after digging holes, mixed with mineral tukami and put this composition on the bottom of the hole, filling it in half.
- After that, the seedling is placed in a hole. Its roots are straightened and laid out in different directions.
- Глубину посадки выбирают так, чтобы корневая шейка оказалась на уровне земли или ниже уровня на 2 см.
- При засыпании корней грунтом, кустарник немного встряхивают, чтобы вытеснить воздух из зоны корней.
По сравнению с кустовым, этот метод посадки применяется крайне редко. Trench method requires a lot of labor and time. The advantage of this method is the possibility of uniform distribution of nutrients to all planted seedlings.
The sequence of actions with this method of landing is as follows:
- They dig a trench for planting, 40 cm wide and also 40 cm deep. The distance in the row between the seedlings should be about 40-60 cm.
- Extreme trenches bordering neighboring areas can be laid out with slate to prevent the roots from growing to where they should not.
- At the bottom of the recess is placed a small layer of rotten wood. They are poured on top of the humus layer at the rate of 7 kg per 1 square meter. meter. Instead of humus, you can take cow dung or sheet compost.
- In addition, as a starting mineral fertilizer is added to each square meter of planting:
- 40 g of potassium sulfate,
- 40 g of double superphosphate.
- From above the trench is covered with fertile black earth soil. Such fertilizer layers ensure raspberry seedlings good nutrition over a long period of time.
Video about planting raspberries in the fall in a trench mode from the Widower Song channel:
Common mistakes during autumn planting
Carrying out these or other measures related to planting raspberries in the fall, gardeners are not insured against some common mistakes:
- Too early landing. Early rooted seedlings direct the batteries to the formation of shoots. At the first frost, such green shoots will inevitably freeze.
- Seedlings placed in the shade. In this case, the raspberry stalks will reach for the sun. They will become thinner, break from the wind. In addition, these stems do not have time to ripen to winter and freeze. The fruit buds placed at the ends of the shoots will also freeze during the winter.
- Landing on heavy clay soil. On such soils, water is usually stagnant. Excess moisture will not contribute to good rooting of the seedling. Moreover, in such a soil the air regime is disturbed and the roots will be poorly supplied with oxygen.
- Poor quality seedlings. They may be too old or with dried roots. For planting, it is necessary to select annual saplings with roots of at least 10 cm in length. Their stalk must be strong.
If you purchased seedlings on the market, wrap their roots in a damp cloth. So you will save them from drying out.
When she starts to bear fruit
Ordinary raspberry varieties start fruiting in the second year after planting. However, the first harvest is not significant. Over time, after several years, there are more replacement shoots in each bush, some of which are removed in order to create optimal lighting conditions for the entire bush:
- with the bush growing method, about 12 shoots are left in the bush,
- with the trench method - up to 18 stems on each running meter of the row.
In the bosom of each leaf of the green shoots of the current year 2 buds are laid: the main and the spare ones. If, for some reason, the main kidney dies, then the growth will start in the growth. After the end of winter, fruit branches grow from the buds. The most fruitful branches, which form a set of large berries, are located in the middle tier of the stem.
Flowering culture occurs in June. Approximately 35 days after flowering, the berries begin to ripen. The process of fruiting is stretched, it can last a month and a half. It depends on the weather. Two-year-old stems dry out and die after the end of the fruiting phase. When pruning them in autumn should be cut. In place of them in the same season grow shoots substitution. Next year, the berries will be formed already on them.
Raspberries do not belong to demanding plants, but you can’t call it absolutely unpretentious. To obtain the harvest of large berries with excellent taste, you will need to make some effort. Possessing the necessary knowledge and technology of planting raspberries in the fall (when and how to plant), you will soon begin to get excellent yields of berries.