Properly organized breeding of peacocks in their own area contributes to the preservation of livestock and sales of quality products. Despite the fact that the tropics are home to these colorful birds, they perfectly adapt to humans and artificially created conditions for them. The cost of this bird starts from 3,000 rubles, and it eats a lot, which means that serious investments will be needed.
Peacocks breeding business: income and expenses
Cultivation of peacocks allows to realize four end products: peacock chicks or adult birds, feathers, eggs and peacock meat. And the average lifespan of these birds in captivity is 20 years.
The initial costs include:
- purchase of young birds: 3000-5000 thousand rubles for peacocks,
- purchase of one hatching egg: 450-750 rubles,
- construction of an open-air cage and poultry house, equipment: 30-80 thousand rubles,
- food for peacocks, feeders, drinkers: 20-30 thousand rubles,
- the cost of visiting the veterinarian and business registration: 10-15 thousand rubles.
As a rule, the breeder gets the first profit in three years, when it comes to young or Indian peafowl. If the variety is rare (Javanese, white, black), the payback period will be longer — up to 7 years, but the income will be more impressive. Consider that a rare peacock costs from 30 thousand rubles. Specific features of the species are given in the article “Description of the Peacock Bird”.
More than 3 years will have to wait in the case of hatching eggs. Plus the cost of the incubator.
Where to buy birds
Never buy eggs, chicks and grown birds in the markets. Like expensive pedigree dogs, peacocks need to be acquired only from experienced breeders who closely monitor the health of their pets, vaccinate them, feed them properly.
Acquire females and males of peacocks in breeding farms and always from different families. Crossing the next of kin is fraught with the appearance of weak offspring.
To make a business successful, pay attention to the following rules:
- It is believed that the white peacock is less hardy than other species.
- Initially recommended to buy two peacocks and six pav.
- The best option is to purchase young animals and raise them according to one’s liking. This will increase the chances of early profit. In addition, you will be confident in the health and proper fattening of birds.
- Try to buy a bird close to home so that it does not need time to acclimatize. Peacocks do not tolerate the road.
- In no case do not place the peacocks with other birds: the first categorically do not accept the feathered "rivals" and can peck them to death.
Construction of housing for peacocks
In order for peacocks in an organized home environment to feel great, everything must be done correctly.
For the maintenance of birds will need a large aviary, preferably on a hill and a solid foundation, lined with brick and poured with cement. Top should be poured coarse river sand mixed with straw and pine needles. Such flooring will protect the paws of peacocks from wet floors.
For the good work of the intestines of birds in the floor mixture must be added pebbles. Half of the “home” needs to be planted with grass of several varieties - this is a good addition to the peacocks feeding.
The frame of the enclosure should be covered with a medium-sized net - a fence against small birds, rats and other carriers of dangerous viruses. The height of the frame - at least 3 meters. As for the area, then for each peacock you need at least 2 m2.
At a height of two meters from the floor the peacocks are equipped with perches of a good wooden bar with a diameter of 10 cm. It is important that the distance between it and the top of the frame be at least a meter.
On the north side of the enclosure you need to install a shed with a height of at least three meters. The area is the same: for each peacock - about 2 m2. In the house you also need to make roosts, nests (written about them below) and a place with ashes where peacocks will clean their feathers. The open-air cage with a shed should be connected with a removable door.
The temperature in the breeding room depends on both the age and the way of housing - in the house or in the open air:
Description of the bird of paradise
Peacocks' natural native environment is South Asia, but they live all over the world, even in the coldest regions of Canada. Moreover, in many countries, birds are worshiped as an unearthly miracle in fairy tales, legends, folk myths. In India, the peacock is considered a national bird and is listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A characteristic sign of the peacock-male is the impulsive development of the upper tail feathers on the tail, which, together with the core feathers, form the tail fan. Due to the bright plumage and lush tails with peculiar "eyes", these birds are considered the most beautiful of all the chicken.
They belong to the Fazanov family. Today, zoologists distinguish between two species of birds of paradise: the green peacock (blue-winged) and the common peacock (Indian). By the way, the latter will be discussed further, since it was his man who was able to domesticate.Females are much smaller and more modest than the males. In the question of how much the peacock weighs, the gender of the bird also plays the role. Weight is about 3-4 kg. They have a much shorter tail, a greenish lower part of the neck and dull gray-brown feathers on the wings and back. Their body length is about 95 cm. Males are in most blue. Their length, not including the tail, reaches from 100 to 150 cm, with a tail - up to 3 m. The wings are short, the legs are high and the average length of the tail. The back of the scaly, bronze-green color, with black and copper marks.
These are birds of strong build, weighing up to 4-6 kg, with a long neck, a small head, on which there is a peculiar blue forelock of feathers with bare black shafts. On the sides of the head rainbow greenish-blue feathers.The tail of the peacock is dark brown with a pearly green and blue tint, has only 20 feathers. But in the composition with an elongated uppertail, which consists of more than 200 feathers, a spectacular fan is created.
In the fluffed form, its height is in human height, and its width is up to 2.5 m.
The male must have spurs on his legs. They appear, like a luxurious tail, only in the second year of life and develop to the age of four. Females independently incubate their offspring, and males dance until they lose their tail. In the fall, birds begin to moult.
In the wild, peacocks live in groups in wet and dry deciduous forests, and also settle near human dwellings, where food and water are available. They feed on berries, grains, prey on lizards, small snakes and rodents.
Their loud cries during the mating season easily give prey to predators. Scientists distinguish 13 variants of peacock calls, including 6 alarming ones. Rescue these birds prefer to flee and never rise to the sky. Surprisingly, for the roost they soar into tall trees. Roosters acquire a harem of 3-5 laying hens. Many are interested in how many years peacocks live. On this topic, scientists have long debated. Today there is an opinion that in the conditions of the natural environment the bird of paradise can live for about 15 years, while in captivity its maximum age is 23 years.
Poultry Content Requirements
Keep peacocks in the yard is not more difficult than chickens. They are friendly with people, not picky about growing conditions and food, rarely get sick, easily tolerate cold and rain.
In the harsh winters, the birds need an insulated barn for the night, and in the daytime they still go out for a walk in the aviary. In the warmer months, they spend the night outdoors until the frosts, for this they love to climb trees. Therefore, it is worthwhile to take care of a separate aviary, a barn and special poles in advance.
It is advisable to sow part of the enclosure with perennial grasses that will serve as pasture for your pets. You will also need a corner with ashes in which birds will take baths.
Neighborhood in one enclosure with turkeys, chickens, ducks is unacceptable. Peacocks do not tolerate strangers in their home and will certainly express aggression, they can even peck up to death.The maintenance of peacocks on the plot requires care, regardless of the fitness of the birds. They will like, in addition to the enclosure and the shed, a small shed with poles or trees in which they will spend the night in the summer and hide from the sun and rain.
In a herd, there should be 3-4 females per male. They begin to rush at the age of two. For this birds equip nests.
Poultry building and protection from predators
Breeding peacocks at home provides for an extensive enclosure up to 3 m high, wide and up to 5 m long.
In it at the level of 2 m equip poles for roost. They can also serve as branches of trees. Consider that no more than 6 birds (1 male and 5 females) can fully develop in this area. From the north side they attach a shed up to 2.5 m in width and height, up to 3 m in length. A prerequisite for the house is wide windows through which peacocks could penetrate inside.Also an integral part of the chicken coop is the nest. They can be equipped from drawers or wicker baskets, with the expectation that the height and width of each should reach 60 cm and depth - 70 cm. The bottom is laid out with straw or sawdust, as is the floor of the house. These materials absorb moisture well and retain heat. To avoid reproduction of germs and bacteria in the litter, sprinkle lime powder on top of it.
Perches are fastened to the walls of the room at a level of 1.5 m from the floor. The bar should be from the side where the peacock's legs become, not less than 12 cm. 6 cm wide is enough. For pavchat poles are placed in two tiers.
The enclosures for peacocks covered with a 10-centimeter layer of calcined river sand, scatter small pebbles in it, set up a corner with ashes. Inside the fence and chicken coop they place drinkers and feedings, covering up all hard-to-reach places with straw. Capacity for food and water is better to attach to the walls with the ability to fill them, without going inside. Also, ensure that birds do not scoop up food, do not soak it with water.
At home, feeders make their dry wood without knots. The wall thickness should be no thinner than 10 mm, and the height of the structure should be accessible for unhindered power supply, and at the same time not allowed to climb inside. Be sure to cut the sharp corners so that the peacocks are not injured.In winter, when the frost exceeds -10 ° C, the herd is closed in the barn. At more severe temperatures (from -15 ° C) the room is heated. To this end, you can use stoves or oil radiators.
To protect the house from predators, take care of the strength of the walls of the barn and aviary. The fence is often made of durable metal mesh, which can not break the paws of a large dog. Above, too, construct shelter to protect the herd from cat attacks. Ensure that foxes and raccoons cannot dig in and sneak inside. Especially take care of young offspring.
Puberty in the birds of paradise begins at the age of two or three, when females of peacocks begin to fly, and the tail grows in males.
Understand that the peacocks began the mating season, is easy. About this they notify loud noises. And shrill can shout from morning till night. The birds will be heard not only by your neighbors, but also by the whole district within a radius of five kilometers. Males, who mostly shout, have a nasty, unpleasant voice. Compared to them, females behave much quieter, and paws generally remain silent for up to 2-3 years.
The breeding season lasts from early spring until autumn. Often they, like the swans, form permanent pairs that are not recommended, without the need for, to tear down. For the offspring, young representatives of the herd are left, with good bright plumage. Do not choose a female as a hen, if she has dull, falling feathers.Before mating, the peacocks perform a dance in front of the female for 20 minutes. At the same time strongly fluff the tail and occasionally knock their wings on the ground. With masculine gait and volumes with raised feathers, the males demonstrate their potential to pavas.
Pava - bad hens, but very caring mothers. Hatching of offspring twice a year, and rushing, depending on weather conditions, often in the period from mid-spring until the end of summer. Females can leave their eggs throughout the territory reserved for them. To prevent this from happening, take care of a cozy nest covered with soft straw.
The size of the eggs of peacocks are similar to turkey. They are much more chicken eggs, cream-colored with a scarlet shade, in a small dark point. When 5-7 pieces appear in the nest, the female begins to hatch chicks. The instinct of maternity is noticeable when the pava long lingers in the nest.Experienced owners collect eggs every day and plant the hen when over 20 eggs are collected, since each female is able to produce up to 30 eggs. For this purpose, only fresh copies are taken, which are not more than 10 days. By the way, they can be placed under turkeys and ducks. Eggs that by negligence have fallen to the floor are no longer suitable for hatching.
Incubation of peacock eggs lasts up to 30 days. For successful incubation, the temperature in the hen house should be about 28-30 degrees Celsius. Nestlings are covered with thick brown down, immediately after birth they move well. Like chickens, they follow their mother everywhere, sometimes they climb up on her back and “go” to a cozy corner or feeding. Young animals will reach sexual maturity only after 3 years.
Hatching chicks are at first very sensitive to changes in temperature, and are afraid of cold and sun. It is dangerous to keep them together with adults. Therefore, they pavchat with their mother are transferred to another aviary. Its quality plays a key role in the development of avian offspring.Make sure that all the gaps in the aviary and the barn are well sealed, that the drinkers and the feedings are not dangerous and accessible to the chicks, so that they always have water and food.
The room must be well ventilated and heated. In the first weeks, the temperature should be at 36 ° C. Over time, it can be reduced by 2-3 degrees, and after a few months it can be turned off altogether.
In the herd, they leave strong, well-feathered, stable and mobile chicks with a healed navel, which respond well to a light tap on the floor.
The first two weeks, special attention is paid to the feeding of the brood. Peacocks are different playfulness and mobility. Given this fact, it is necessary to provide for them to have plenty of space.
In summer, young peacocks are cultivated on the street, which will allow them to quickly grow. It is important to take care of shelter brood from rain and sun. It is possible to distinguish the sex of chicks 10 days after the appearance of wings. In males, they are cream with a terracotta tint, and in females they are brown. The grown-up young animals are again divided: some are selected for sale, some are slaughtered.
Peacock breeding features
It is necessary to get pedigree peacocks in the warm season. The ideal period is from May to July.During this time, pavchata must adapt to new conditions and adapt to the cold weather.
If you purchased a brood in the winter, take care of good heating of the poultry houses, as the young birds of paradise do not tolerate cold, moisture and frost. Be careful: during the molting period it is difficult to distinguish a sick bird from a healthy one.
When buying chickens, pay attention to their legs, nose and eyes. On the tribe select healthy chicks. As a rule, they are neat, with pink paws, not sour eyes, a clean beak and the back part, shiny feathers. Preference is given to mobile, frisky peacocks.
This aspect plays a crucial role in the process of growing an exotic bird at home. Properly chosen food should not only satisfy the need of peacocks for food, but also provide them with useful substances and exchange energy. In addition, the feed should be as close as possible to the natural wild environment from which the heat-birds came. Both overeating and fasting are detrimental to their health.
As feeds for pavchat up to 20 days of age serve plastic trays or cardboard sheets. Later, the chicks are taught to constant feeding.
Immediately after birth, pavchat are fed with a hard-boiled egg. The rate for each chicken is on average 4–5 g. Fresh cheese, millet, wheat bran, corn flour, chopped carrots, greens, and boiled cereals are also allowed. In order to prevent parasites, it is recommended to treat chicks with finely chopped onion feathers. Later they are offered fish or ground beef.Feed should be fed at two-hour intervals in a ground form.
Each daily chicken must be given vitamin juice from equal ratios of pressed alfalfa, nettle and carrot.
The number of feedings up to one month of age is gradually adjusted to five times per day. From this period, chicks are transferred to feed intended for broiler chickens and offered small worms. А через полтора месяца после рождения можно давать дробленое зерно пшеницы, проса, ячменя. В двухмесячном возрасте птенцы едят то же, что и взрослые. Любят полакомиться фруктами, ягодами.
В первое полугодие птенцам нужно регулярно подмешивать лекарственные препараты от кокцидиоза. Не забывайте ежедневно по 3 раза менять в поилках воду. Она должна быть всегда чистой и свежей.
Кормление взрослых особей
Кормление взрослых павлинов зависит от их возраста и сезона. Although there is a perception about the omnivorous nature of these birds, their daily ration should be made up of roots, greens, fruits, cereals, and bread. Particular attention to feed the peacocks should be paid in the autumn-winter period. The daily dose is calculated as follows: 50 g of crushed corn, root crops, fruits and vegetables, 40 g of oats and alfalfa flour, 90 g of powdery mixtures.Some poultry farmers combine the ingredients in a potato-herbal mixture that is slightly salted. In winter, grass is replaced with hay, truba and grated vegetables. In the morning be sure to offer germinated grain. By the way, the more diverse the cereals, the better the peacock will look.
In the summer, birds need daily: 50 g of grass meal, 100 g of boiled potatoes, 70 g of green, 200 g of protein foods in the form of dairy products.
Peacocks should not be given hot or raw potatoes. All vegetable and fruit components, as well as herbs, are initially thoroughly washed, then dried. Only fresh ingredients will benefit. It is unacceptable to hit the food grain with tsvelyu. Before serving, the grasses are thoroughly sieved, washed with water and dried in the oven or in the sun.
Make sure that there are no leftovers in the food containers. They are certainly removed, otherwise the birds may eat stale products, which have already begun the process of fermentation. Pre-prepared mixtures can be stored in the refrigerator for up to three days. In summer it can be served cold, and in winter it is desirable that food be at room temperature. For birds to enter the body of mineral substances, it is desirable to place in the aviary a container with chalk and gravel.
The feeding period begins in the morning and in the evening, and during the molting and reproduction of peacocks, additional feeding is provided at lunchtime. When the birds begin the mating season, they increase the number of eggs, milk and cheese in their diets. During the day, a healthy bird eats about 600 grams of food, of which 400 grams of fresh grass.In the first meal peacocks are given soft food, and in the second they offer cereal mixes.
If by the end of the day the feeders are empty, they add a mixture in order to last until the morning.
Peacocks, like chickens, are at risk of being infected by various types of helminths. Parasites affect not only the intestines of birds, but also other organs. The disease can manifest itself in different ways. Take a closer look: your help will be needed if the peacocks have lost their appetite and their appearance has deteriorated. Sick birds quickly lose weight, they begin to have yellow diarrhea, their viability decreases. Along with these symptoms, there is a weakening of the immune system, which is fraught with a more serious infectious disease.
Treatment begins immediately after the discovery of the cause of the disease. Young chicks are at particular risk, since with age the birds develop immunity to various helminth infections. Infection can enter the body with poor-quality food and dirty water, as well as in the process of free-range. That is why the peacocks need to be kept exclusively in the aviary, systematically clean and monitor the cleanliness of the house and tanks for receiving water and food. Today, the veterinary industry offers a wide range of anthelmintic drugs. Four times a year should be preventive measures against infection of birds. The drugs Fenasal, Bitionol, Ivermectin, Fluenvet have proven themselves well. They are mixed into the feed in accordance with the dose specified in the instructions. Carefully read the recommendations of drug manufacturers, when calculating the dose, be guided by the live weight of the bird.
Some poultry farmers use products designed to remove worms in cattle and pigs. But in any case it is better to consult a veterinarian.
Love peacocks, let care for them not be a burden for you, protect them from stress, and the birds of paradise will thank you.