Growing dwarf cherries is an excellent solution for gardeners with relatively small plots of land. Unlike large-fruited varieties, it does not take up much space, but brings a good harvest by the beginning of summer. It is unpretentious to growing conditions and resistant to various weather conditions.
Dwarf cherry is a small but lush bush, with an average height of 1.5 to 2.5 m, depending on the variety. It is characterized by rapid growth and high yield. In one season, a tree can bring up to 20 kg of cherries.
Low-growing cherries are winter-hardy and tolerate drought well, are not susceptible to the development of diseases. Relevant for growing not only in the garden, but also on large plantations for sale. Its fruits are strong and tolerate transportation. It is found in central Russia, the Moscow region, in the North Caucasus and in Western Siberia. Live tree 20 years.
All varieties of dwarf cherries are slightly different from each other, both in appearance and taste, but they have common features.
- broad, dense crown shrub spherical shape, branches are brown, with small yellow splashes, have a red ebb,
- leaves of low-growing varieties of cherries have small tapers on the ends. Their size is 3x2 cm, the surface of the foliage is rough, the longitudinal grooves of gray are located on the back side,
- in spring, during flowering, the cherry has a strong pleasant aroma, the flowers reach a size of up to 2.5 cm, are collected into inflorescences or arranged one by one, bloom 1-2 weeks in May.
The tree bears fruit each year in late summer or early autumn, depending on the variety, the process starts by the age of 5-6. Its appearance and color of berries are also influenced by the peculiarities of caring for the plant. Collecting fruits is not difficult because of the small growth of cherries.
Description of berries:
- color varies from light pink to dark,
- the berries are small sweet and sour, they are watery, the fruits of some varieties differ from others by their tartness,
- located thickly around the perimeter of the shrub,
- most often they are consumed fresh, also added to compote or used for baking.
There are about 150 varieties of low-growing cherries. To find a suitable option, you should take into account the peculiarities of the local climate. Consider the varieties of dwarf cherries, which are considered to be well tolerated by the weather conditions of the Moscow region.
- Tamaris. The berries of the tree are juicy, dark red with brown dots, with a slight sourness. The variety is used in cooking, often consumed fresh. Crop harvested in early August.
- Bystrinka. The tree looks like a ball due to the position of the branches. Berries, weighing 3.5-4.2 g, have a burgundy color. Solid, well tolerated freight. Differs in good early productivity - berries ripen in early July. Prone to moniliazu.
- In memory of Mashkin. The fruits of the tree ripen in mid-July. Grow up to 5 g. The flesh is soft, sweet and sour. Does not differ in special winter hardiness and immunity to diseases.
There are varieties for Siberia and the Urals.
- Ural ruby. The growth of shrubs on average about 1.5 m, the branches grow down. The leaves are in the shape of a boat, dark green. Berries are sour-sweet and very juicy, weigh up to 4 g. Brings up to 10 kg of crop per season. It ripens in August.
- Lighthouse. Relatively tall bush (up to 2 m). Self-fertile, but brings more harvest in the vicinity of varieties such as Vole and Generous Cherry. Fruits are dark red with a sweet and sour taste, weigh about 6 g. It fructifies in late July - early August. One bush can give up to 15 kg.
Varieties for the northern areas are discussed below.
- Winter pomegranate. Despite its name, it is a type of undersized cherries. Unpretentious in growing, feels great both at very low and at high temperatures. Resistant to pests. Winter pomegranate is great for a novice gardener, because it does not require special care and has excellent yield. For one season can give from 10 kg of cherries.
- The bead is a type of dwarf cherry, distinguished by its special winter hardiness. Fruits are usually bright red in color, small. This species is rarely eaten fresh. More often used for preservation, preserves, stewed fruit and other culinary delights. Differs in frost resistance, fruitfulness, resistance to all types of wreckers.
- Ob. Differs very small growth - only 1.3 m in height. The berries are small, tasty, dark red. Fruiting begins one year after planting. It is consumed fresh, used for culinary dishes. It tolerates low temperature and heat, but bad - pests. Cherry does not need pollination
Recommendations for growing
The key to success in growing low-growing varieties of cherries is the correct choice of its variety. An unsuitable climate drastically reduces the likelihood of successful tree development. It is possible to propagate a plant with the help of cuttings or cuttings. Such methods can be used only after the first harvest and 2-3 years before the end of the plant's life.
The following rules should be followed:
- the landing site should be on the sunny side of the yard, other trees should not be blocked by the sun’s rays,
- you should not plant cherries next to conifers, they can cause the development of infectious diseases,
- the soil should be good to pass moisture, be loose, so that the air circulates, such as sandy, loamy, with frequent fertilizers, clayey soil with the addition of sand, black earth,
- should be planted on a small hill, so that groundwater does not come into contact with the roots.
One or two year old plants are best for planting. This age is most favorable, because the trees are still very young and can easily adapt to the transplant. During this time they have already managed to get stronger and get used to the climate.
Dry roots should be removed immediately with a pruner and inspected for the presence of pests. If necessary, carry out processing and put the root in water for 7-10 hours.
Soil should be prepared in advance. In the autumn it needs to be dug up and fertilized with phosphorus and potassium. Then dig again and leave until spring.
The pit for dwarf cherries must be equal to half the size of the seedling in order to save it from the wind.
- drive a wooden peg into the center of the pit and tie a seedling to it,
- tightly top with fertilized soil,
- make small grooves around the tree for watering,
- pour 1-2 buckets of water depending on the dryness of the soil.
Brown spotting appears on the leaves in the form of brown spots, which later turn into holes. Damaged leaf plates and branches dry up and then fall off.
- timely cutting of affected areas
- cut sections are cleaned with a solution of 1% copper diluted in a ratio of 200 g per 10 l of water,
- then rub the cleaned areas with fresh sorrel, doing the procedure 2-3 times every 20 minutes.
Cestier psoriasis or perforated spotting manifests itself in the form of black dots with a diameter of 2 mm, which lead to fading and abscission of foliage.
- destruction of the affected areas
- spraying the wood with a solution of copper sulfate in the proportion of 100 g per bucket of water.
Perforated cherry spotting
Pests and control of them
Weevils, small beetles of green color, feed on leaves and flower ovaries. Weevil larvae hibernate in the soil, with the advent of heat, they turn into beetles and attack a tree.
- manual cleaning of insects,
- Irrigation with the “Inta-Vir” preparation: 2 g per 10 l of water.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages include:
- small size of a tree
- lack of care,
- frost and drought tolerance,
- good yield
- high resistance to diseases and pests
- excellent taste,
- not shedding berries.
Of the minuses, many gardeners note the small size of the fruit, their insufficient "fleshy".
The best planting material is a one-year or two-year-old seedling. While the plant is young, it easily adapts to the climatic features of the region and soon takes root.
The root system before planting carefully inspect. Broken branches and dry, rotten roots are pruned with shears. The plant is checked for pests. If they are settled, it is treated with suitable insecticides. Before planting in the ground root system soaked in water or growth stimulator solution for 10 hours.
A landing pit is prepared in the fall. The selected area is dug up, cleaned of weeds, roots and make manure. Then dig a hole. The depth of the pit should be equal to half the size of the seedling. Topsoil is mixed with 300 g of superphosphate, 1 cup of wood ash and poured into this mixture 1/2 of the wells. Leave everything until spring.
Care for the "Winter Pomegranate"
To get a crop from a tree, they organize the right care, which consists in proper watering, timely application of top dressings and pruning of trees.
The frequency of watering depends on the weather. In rainy time, it is enough just to loosen the ground so that the roots do not suffer from a lack of oxygen.
During the dry season, during the flowering and ripening of the fruits, they are watered regularly, pouring 2-3 buckets of water under each tree.
In the first year of feeding do not contribute, provided that the soil was previously enriched before planting.
Further, the first feeding is carried out before flowering, making nitrogen-containing fertilizers. In the summer, organic fertilizers are applied to the near-stem circle (2 times) with an interval of 3 weeks. After harvesting, the mineral balance of the soil is restored using fertilizers rich in potassium, phosphorus and calcium.
The tree needs sanitary and formative pruning. To form the crown begin immediately after landing. On the trunk remove all branches that are from the ground at a distance of 50 cm.
To enhance growth, pruning is carried out annually in early spring before the start of sap flow, at the same time all broken, dried branches are removed. Sections are treated with garden brew or dusted with ashes.
On the tree leave no more than 10 branches, which should be located symmetrically on both sides of the trunk. All shoots growing inside the crown, cut out.