Saturated and healthy chickens, satisfied with their lives, carry far more eggs than unfortunate or undernourished birds living in a stressful environment. Of course, no one scientifically substantiated this theory, but here and so the direct dependence of egg production on nutrition and conditions of detention is obvious.
In addition, good nutrition allows the hens to wear out their body more slowly, and therefore you get more full eggs with the highest nutritional value. A sufficient amount of calcium and protein in the diet will keep optimal overall health of the birds and will give them an additional impetus to increase egg production.
Most of the dietary needs of your chickens will be covered by regular feed. And in this article we will consider only those treats that will delight your birds. And they will thank you with a large number of eggs.
Perhaps for chickens this most favorite of all the delicacies! Meal worms are very nutritious and contain more than 50% pure protein.
For him, they are ready to fight for life and death. Chickens will give up all their business and come running from every corner of the garden, just not to miss such a pleasure.
For one chicken it will be enough 5-10 worms (or 1-2 teaspoons in volume). Regularly should not give more, since an excess of protein can badly affect their kidneys.
Especially constantly buying meal worms can be expensive. Next time we will try to tell you how you can make your own farm for the removal of meal worms and please not only your layers, and maybe even sell extra lots.
Eggs and eggshell
Egg waste - very healthy and nutritious additive to the basic diet of domestic herds. The eggshell is almost entirely composed of calcium carbonate, which is needed for chickens to carry new eggs.
Chickens love to peck the shells and will gladly come to you for this delicacy.
But do not forget about two important points:
- The shell must first be roasted in the oven for 10-30 minutes at a temperature of 180-200 degrees. It is necessary to kill salmonella and any other pathogens.
- Chickens are smart enough to recognize in the shell its affiliation to the eggs. And this is fraught with the fact that they can become addicted to eating fresh eggs. To prevent this from happening - carefully grind shell to a small homogeneous mass.
Dandelion leaves, young nettle, cabbage - any succulent plants with a high content of vitamins and minerals are necessary for chickens to maintain good tone and normal health in general.
You can even dig dandelions and give them with root and earth. It will be a great addition to the "salad". For proper digestion, chickens need to swallow small pebbles with food.
This recommendation applies to chickens who are sitting in a small closed pen. Those same lucky women who have free-range will find everything they need on the site in the warm season.
But in the winter months, in any case, it is necessary to give cabbage leaves and, if possible, other greens to your pets.
Vegetables and fruits
Vegetables, fruits and berries are also a treat for laying hens. But only in moderation. An excess of berries can cause them diarrhea.
And here, for example, watermelon will cause a real holiday in the hen house. They will peck at it for hours on end until a thin, thin crust remains from the half of the watermelon. Watermelon has a high content of vitamins C, A, B1 and B6, antioxidants, plus it also perfectly quenches thirst. On a hot summer day, place your half of the watermelon out of the fridge for your birds - besides lush joy and thirst quenching, it also helps them to cool off.
It is also very useful to give the hens melons, zucchini, cucumbers and especially pumpkins. Pumpkin, so that it becomes softer and tastier, you can pre-bake for 30 minutes in the oven.
Seeds also attract chickens, they peck them with great pleasure. This delicacy is affordable and affordable.
Only seeds should be already cleaned of husk. Chickens can not click seeds, they swallow them whole. At the same time, the most valuable and nutritious is the grains that remain under a strong protective sheath. In addition, the husk can cause problems with digestion.
Pecking crushed grain is an exciting experience for chickens. Small grains scatter around, and this forces chickens to rake the ground, looking for them.
Just do not get carried away and do not give crushed grain instead of the usual feed. A large amount of it can provoke obesity in layers, and the content of necessary nutrients in it is low. Use the crushed grain only for fun, a textbook, or a random supplement to the winter diet.
Shredded corn is one of the most famous and popular delicacies for poultry. They, no doubt, love crushed corn.
However, as in the case of crushed grain, corn should pamper their pets sparingly, as it has a very low protein content.
Crushed corn is highly recommended to give to the bird before spending the night, especially during the cold season. The use of corn increases metabolism, in connection with which the body of the chicken produces more heat and allows it to spend the night more comfortable.
Well, now you know the list of products that are a delicacy for chickens. Know how to make them healthy and contented. And they will thank you with wonderful delicious eggs!
As a rule, one egg in a chicken is formed within 24-27 hours. And this natural process cannot be accelerated. The best thing we can do is to treat them to tasty and healthy food. And smile, enjoying the way they eat the treat.
How to grow
As it is known the chicken is an unpretentious bird and it is not necessary to select a special diet for it. But is it? Adhere to such a rule is only when we do not expect anything from our hens. And if all the same the need is not only made up for by these creatures, but also to have a good harvest of eggs, then you need to feed them correctly.
This feeding scheme is well suited for people who have a small area and a place for walking birds is very small. In such conditions, food occurs three times a day, namely in the morning, afternoon and evening. In the morning, the hens need soft food. Wheat bran mixed with eggshell and table waste are well suited for its preparation. Waste can be replaced with shredded beets, carrots or cabbage leaves.
A small amount of rice or buckwheat will work well for lunch. You can also feed lentils, sunflower, hemp or flaxseed. In the evening, chickens will not discard barley or oats. Such a diet will be optimally rich with all the necessary substances.
If you decide to develop a diet for laying hens from chicken to adult birds, then I recommend sticking to the following tips. So, first you need to conditionally divide the period of life into 3 categories.
27-48 week - the period of optimal egg production
This period is characterized by the fact that the bird has already gained the desired weight and begins to rush. For optimal egg production, you should follow a certain diet. During this period, the layer not only optimally carries, but also shows maximum activity. To her enough energy for everything you need to put her on a high-calorie diet.
You can feed by hand-prepared food, and you can buy dry food. Of the dry feed is better suited "Multigane." The rate of which is not more than 120 g per 1 individual. For manual feed preparation, it is better to use the table below.Optimal daily ration for laying hens
This table lists the ideal diet for 1 chicken per day. Do not forget that the majority of the owners do not adhere to any diet at all and throw everything that’s at hand to the birds. This is absolutely impossible to do. Laying should get used to the new diet. This addiction takes about two weeks.
If you decide for yourself to come up with a diet for your wards, then you should remember that without the right set of minerals and vitamins, the chicken will not begin to rush. Their balance is required for any diet. Feed quota can also be 2 times a day. In the morning it is desirable to give soft food, and in the evening - firm.
What can be given
The diet should contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals, as well as easily digestible protein. As a source of protein and vitamin E, germinated grain is well suited. Its daily rate becomes up to 40 g.
The baker's yeast will enrich the diet with B vitamins. Their rate is not more than 5 g per day. As a source of vitamins can be applied and fish oil. Its rate is 1 g per 1 chicken. But in order not to bother too much about the preparation of feed, it is better to consider already prepared dry feed.
All dry feeds are divided into four types:
The first serve as an irreplaceable source of the necessary minerals. The second - a source of provitamins and vitamins. Third - contain grains, cereals and bran, flour and mill dust, as well as potatoes, melons and various root crops. The fourth is a source of proteins. There are two types: the first contain animal proteins, and the second - vegetable proteins.
It will be much easier to use dry food, but it is more expensive financially.. Therefore, the choice of what to feed their hens, each owner makes for himself. The uniform correct diet does not exist.
Find out moreUseful tips on keeping hens at home and in the country
How to make feed for the hens yourself?Useful advice on keeping chickens at home
Is it possible to feed chickens with sunflower seeds
Sunflower seeds and their derivatives are widely used by man. Of them prepare a variety of food products, as well as used as a basis for the preparation of feed for farm animals.
But not every such food favorably affects the organism of animals, including chickens, especially after preliminary thermal, mechanical and other processing.
Raw seeds are widely used for feeding chickens of both meat and egg breeds, so you can include them in the diet without fear for the health of the poultry. But you should not forget that the fruits of sunflower have a sufficiently high caloric content, as well as a high content of oil compounds.
Therefore, this food is only suitable for adults. That is why the introduction of seeds into the diet of chickens should be no earlier than 25-30 days after birth.
Young chickens sunflower seeds are introduced into the diet gradually, as an additional ingredient of different feed mixtures. First, the amount of the product should not exceed 1% of the daily feed rate, but over time its volume increases to 15%. The most favorable periods for entering the seeds of sunflower into the diet are autumn and middle of winter. In the spring and summer, the sunflower in the diet of chickens is not recommended, as this may lead to obesity of the bird.
Sunflower-based feeds are the main source of energy, and also allow the bird to acquire a fat layer for a safe wintering, which is especially important for regions with a harsh northern climate.
Seeds contain a huge amount of proteins (about 20% of the total mass) and valuable amino acids, which are necessary for the successful development of the bird, as well as its successful productivity.
In addition, we should not forget that raw sunflower seeds have a huge amount of antioxidants, various microelements (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, iron, selenium, manganese, zinc) and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B5 , B6, B9, E). Therefore, the introduction of seeds into the diet of poultry helps to improve its health, general immunity, and also improves the tone and improves the productivity of chickens.
Despite the fact that roasted sunflower seeds differ in special aromas and attract more chickens than raw sunflower seeds, it is not recommended to include such a product as feed. In the process of heat treatment, the seeds lose a significant amount of nutrients and vitamins, while the fats are transformed into more complex compounds difficult for the stomach. As a result, roasted seeds have additional irritation to the gastrointestinal tract, which can cause all sorts of digestive disorders.
Contraindications and harm
Sunflower seeds are considered safe and healthy food for poultry health, therefore they have practically no contraindications. However, include them in the diet should be carefully. It is strongly not recommended to use sunflower for feeding chicks and young under 25-30 days.
This is due to the fact that these seeds contain a lot of fats, which often negatively affect the weak digestive system of chicks. In this case, the seeds can cause severe diarrhea and other disorders of the digestive system.
Do not abuse seeds and feeding adult chickens. As a result of excessive consumption of fat, the product can cause severe obesity. This threatens with quite serious problems not only for health, but also for the productivity of chickens. Obesity contributes to the deterioration of the cardiovascular system and metabolism, which ultimately can cause the death of the bird. In addition, excessive weight affects the egg production of chickens, as well as the ability to instantly gain muscle mass.
In this case, obesity can cause loss of agricultural value of poultry and serious losses for the farm.
Is it possible to give husks from seeds
Sunflower husks are one of the most widespread by-products of the cultivation of this plant. The share of the husk is about 15–20% of the total seed mass, therefore, when harvesting and processing the crop, the question arises of its utilization or expedient use in economic needs.
Including as an additional feed for valuable breeds of animals and birds. As you know, the husk is poor in all sorts of proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, and its nutritional value for the body of chickens is quite low. This product contains a large amount of fiber (about 50% of the total mass) and other complex fibers. Therefore, it is strongly not recommended to introduce pure husk into the diet of chickens: due to the special structure of the intestines, their bodies are not able to properly break down and absorb foods rich in complex fibers.
Such feeds will not positively affect the productivity and health of the birds, but instead may cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and other digestive disorders.
What else can feed chickens
In order to provide the hens with a proper and rich diet, grain feeds are often not enough. Despite their high nutritional value and energy value, they often do not contain all the elements necessary for vital activity. Therefore, in addition to the grain base, chickens must be fed with a variety of vegetables and other products with a high content of important vitamins.
Potatoes are quite useful and rich in nutrients, so the diet of chickens must be enriched with this product. Daily use of potatoes contributes to the saturation of the body with ascorbic acid, vitamins B2, B3, B6, as well as healthy carbohydrates.
This makes it possible to optimize cellular metabolism in the body, to accelerate the processes of protein synthesis, which has a positive effect not only on the vital activity of chickens, but also on their productivity as a whole.
However, potatoes are safe for the body of the bird only in boiled form. The raw vegetable contains a toxic substance for the bird, solanine, which is destroyed only under the influence of prolonged heat treatment. The product is used for food not earlier than 3 weeks after the birth of chickens, while the average daily rate for an adult individual is not more than 100 g, and for young animals - not more than 50 g.
Quality fish is the main source of potassium and phosphorus, so without it it is also impossible to imagine a healthy diet of chickens.
Fish are particularly important during the development of the musculoskeletal system and muscles, as well as during the active production of eggs, since a sufficient amount of calcium in just a few days can activate egg production and improve the appearance of eggs.
The feed is suitable for exceptionally well-boiled unsalted fish, as in its raw form it can cause helminth infections and all sorts of disorders of the digestive system. Fish feedings are used no more than 2–3 times a week, 5–6 g per individual per day, and the product should be thoroughly mixed with cereals or other feeds.
Cabbage is one of the obligatory vegetables that should be included in the diet of productive bird species from the 20-25th day after birth. This vegetable is one of the main sources of vitamins and valuable minerals that help maintain the body in the right tone and contribute to the development of strong immunity. Кроме того, капуста способна очищать кишечник, а также устранять всевозможные язвенные эрозии в желудке и улучшать пищеварение. Зачастую овощ дают птице в сыром, тщательно измельчённом виде в смеси с другими овощам либо сухими кормами.
По возможности капусту маринуют, а затем используют в качестве витаминной подкормки в зимнее время. Giving cabbage to chickens can be daily, while the maximum daily rate for an adult individual is within 50–60 g.
High-quality varieties of beans are an excellent source of protein and important amino acids. That is why the beans must be included in the diet of chickens during the period of active growth and weight gain, as well as during laying, to improve egg production and egg quality.
As a feed, beans are administered no earlier than at 3-4 weeks of young stock, with exceptionally well-cooked beans being considered the most useful and convenient to eat. Beans can be used daily, while its amount in the diet can be reduced to 1/4 of the entire mass of food. But the most useful are considered periodic feedings of legumes, which alternate with other protein-containing feed.
Often, foods prepared for human consumption are not recommended as feed for chickens. However, a small amount of bread in their diet favorably affects growth, development and productivity.
It fills the body of the bird with important proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins of group B, which is very important for the proper functioning of the immune system, maintaining general health, as well as productivity. As food suitable only thoroughly dried crackers from rye bread.
Grain dressings give chickens periodically, short-term courses and exclusively for adult birds, while the rusks are thoroughly ground and mixed with grain or dry feed mixtures. The maximum amount of such dressing should not exceed 40% of the total mass of feed. A proper and rich diet for highly productive breeds of chickens is the main condition not only for good health of the bird, but also for obtaining high-quality poultry products. For these purposes, all sorts of supplements are used, one of which is sunflower seeds.
The difference in feeding egg and meat chickens
Feeding ration laying hens and meat birds differs slightly - everyone needs proteins, fats and carbohydrates. However, the difference does exist. The main difference is the amount of feed and the content of some minerals in it. For example, calcium for laying hens is more important than meat meat - it is necessary for the “production” of eggshell.
This happens due to the fact that different breeds, different metabolism. In meat species, the digestive track is slower, birds are inactive, even phlegmatic. Energy consumption is low and therefore they are prone to rapid mass gain and obesity.
Attention! Paradoxically, it sounds, but large chickens require less feed per day, approximately 10%, than birds of medium and small species, which include egg and decorative rocks.
Hens metabolism is faster, birds tend to lead active lifestyles. Because of this, egg breeds are recommended to feed a little more often, but in smaller portions. To increase egg production, bird food must be balanced. It should contain not only proteins, fats and carbohydrates, but also: vitamins and trace elements.
How to feed chickens to carry eggs - rules and regulations
According to the latest data, the feed for laying hens should differ in small volumes and intensity. Chickens are omnivores, they can feed on plant seeds, different vegetation, insects and even small vertebrates.
The main feed for chickens at home for 70% should consist of grain crops: oats, barley, millet, buckwheat, corn and so on. Wet mash should not exceed 10 - 15% of the total feed - they can provoke putrefactive processes in the digestive system of poultry. So how to feed chickens to carry eggs? Let us examine this by the example of feeding layers at poultry farms. There chicken feed consists of:
· 65 - 70% of the feed is grain,
· 10% - different cake,
· 3 - 5% - dry animal feed: fish and meat and bone meal,
· 1 - 3% - dry food yeast,
· The remaining volume is root vegetables, grass or grass meal, various mineral and vitamin supplements.
It is not possible to establish an exact daily feed rate for laying hens. It all depends on the conditions of detention (birds are kept free or in cages) and the time of year - here the owner will have to draw conclusions himself. But on average, it is considered sufficient 85 g of grain per day, for one chicken.
Attention! The lack and excess of food equally affect the egg production of chickens.
For ease of calculation, we take the average value of bird consumption per day per 100 g, therefore, 70 - 80 g of this mass should be grain, 10 - 15 g - wet mash: boiled potatoes or other root crops, 10 g of cake or mixed fodder, 5 g meat and bone meal or fish meal. Sprinkle lightly yeast and salt on top - everything is ready.
Also, do not forget that the bird should always have access to water. It is very important to put a bowl with small pebbles, which they eat to improve digestion - the stones help to grind coarse food.
It is worth remembering about the mineral supplements for chickens. For example, shell rock also contributes to the grinding of food, moreover, it is partially digested and part of the trace elements goes to the functioning of the body.
As vitamins, vegetable food acts. In summer it is fresh grass, in winter it is silage or hay. The most valuable in this regard is clover hay - there are enough flowers and seeds, and it is also easier to turn it into dust by hand. If there is no such possibility, it is better to buy ready-made chicken for laying hens and add them to feed as needed.
Features of feeding in the summer
In summer, birds that are kept free and are able to move around the yard more opportunities to find additional food. Chickens have the opportunity to find bugs, worms and various plant foods. Therefore, feeding birds is different in that the total amount of feed can be reduced by 10 - 15%.
Free-range egg species are fed twice a day in the summer. And 2/3 of the daily ration, prepared by you, they should receive in the morning and 1/3 in the evening. In some sources, you can hear the recommendation to give food in an hour after waking up and an hour before bedtime - this is not quite true.
First, in the summer the chickens wake up at dawn, at 4 o'clock in the morning - you won’t get up at 5 to feed them? Yes, if you are a “early bird” and you wake up early and it does not cause discomfort, then please.
Secondly, the activity of chickens, as well as metabolism, decreases several hours before sunset. At this time, they just wander and pick up something out of habit with their paws. And, thirdly - to fill up for the night, as well as for humans, animals are also harmful. That is why in the evening should be given 1/3 of the daily diet - for the day, walking around the yard, and so they found a lot of tasty and healthy.
The most important thing in feeding is not to wait for the “golden hour” after the animals wake up, but to give food in a strictly allotted time. Just like in humans, the digestive system in animals becomes accustomed to the same mealtime.
Attention! In feeding poultry it is extremely important to observe the time of feeding.
Biological clocks regulate the production of food enzymes and gastric juice, which causes appetite and a better breakdown of food consumed, which contributes to better digestibility of trace elements. Farmers who have adopted feeding by the clock know that by the time the owner arrives, the chickens are gathering together at the feeding place with a waiting look.
If chickens are kept in cages, the diet should be complete and balanced. Moreover, these birds should be given vitamins and minerals 1.5 - 2 times more. And the diet itself should be divided into 3 - 4 meals.
Features of feeding in the winter
To the chickens raced in the winter diet will have to be somewhat revised. In winter, chickens do not have an opportunity to get an additional source of food from the environment - there are no worms, beetles and fresh vegetation. All they can do is peck at their own frozen dung, which obviously reminds them of some kind of insect.
So what is the reason for feeding the laying hens in the winter so that they fly better? The answer will be - yes all the same. Only in the winter of laying hens the feed should contain 1.5 - 2 times more vitamins: hay (pounded into dust and added to a wet mash), mineral additives.
Moreover, the daily volume of feed should be increased by 10 - 20% and should be given in equal proportions more often - 3 times a day. In severely frosty days, in poultry houses that do not have heating, it is better to switch to 4 single meals.
We prepare compound feed for layers at home
Compound feed for chickens with their own hands is easy to prepare - you just need to mix all the ingredients and preferably chop it. Grinding will require the presence of a stupa with a large thrower or an electric household mill. To prepare 1 kg of feed, according to one of the popular recipes, you need:
· Corn - 500 g,
· Meal - sunflower waste - 100 g,
· Meat and bone or fish meal - 140 g,
· Chopped hay - 50 g,
· Salt - 3 g,
· Feed yeast - 50 g,
· Vitamin supplements - 15 g
If desired, corn can be replaced with rye or oats - the choice depends on your preferences. Experienced poultry farmers recommend watching the hens in order to understand which sort of grain they like best.
Compound feed is well stored in a dry room, used as a basis for making wet mash, or given independently. To prepare the mixers, the feed is poured with whey or warm water. It is noticed that the heated feed is eaten more readily.
What can not feed the hens
Despite the omnivorous chickens, some products should not be given to them. So what products are harmful to poultry and what can not feed the hens? These products include:
· Any products with signs of spoilage or mold. First of all it concerns wet bag masks, the shelf life of which is limited to a few hours. Prepare mash with the calculation of one-time consumption of birds, and before replenishing the new portion, thoroughly clean the uneaten remnants.
· Hay or fresh vegetation which includes poisonous plants: horsetail, wormwood, celandine, etc.
In order to avoid intestinal infections, helminthic and other diseases, all incoming feed should be carefully sorted and checked. Feeders should be cleaned and disinfected regularly. Chickens do not pay attention to the quality of food and peck everything that they find interesting, so all responsibility for the health of animals lies entirely on the owner.
We answer other questions related to the feeding of layers, which are often interested in novice poultry farmers.
· How many times do the hens feed? In the summer - 1 - 2 times, in the winter 3 - 4 times.
· What grain is better to feed laying hens? There is no definite answer - the omnivorous chickens. Here, the question of how much grain and what kind of grain will be more likely? Here it all depends on the nutritional value of the product.
Probably, it is necessary to explain the concept of feed unit. For the standard, the usual oats are taken, its value equals - 1. Different foods differ in nutritional value, some more nutritious, and some less. For example:
· Corn and soy are more nutritious than oats and have a coefficient equal to 1.34,
· Bran is already less nutritious and equals - 0.72,
What does it mean? This means that if you feed chickens with oats, then you should give an average of 85 g per day. If you decide to feed them with more nutritious corn, you should give it less by almost a third and 7% less if you decide to feed it with wheat.
But if you want to make real vegetarians out of chickens and feed them, for example, with beets, so that they get enough nutrients, you should feed each chicken 10 times more root vegetables - that is, 850 g. You can try to feed a chicken weighing 2 kg, almost 1 kg of feed - but the site "I am the owner" does not recommend this.
· Is it possible to feed laying hens? According to some reports, birds are not recommended to give white or butter bread. Black or bran bread can be. However, it should be remembered that fresh bread is equal to a wet mash and should not be more than 10% of the total feed. And categorically forbidden to give bread with signs of mold.
· Is it possible to feed laying hens with sunflower seeds or can they be fed with fried seeds? The answer is yes, but they should be given in a crushed form, and the total volume should not exceed 20% of the total volume of the grain mixture. And do not be afraid about the husk - the chicken hens stomach copes with it.
· Is it possible to feed hens with waste from the table? It is possible, but not recommended. The diet of a person is significantly different from the diet of animals: people use different seasonings and sauces, which can adversely affect the health and, consequently, the productivity of the hens.
Moreover, in no case should not give spoiled products, relying on the principle of life: "you can not eat yourself, and sorry to throw out." Why did you decide that if these products are dangerous to humans, they do not pose a threat to animals? Oh yes, they can't complain to you - they just stop rushing or, at worst, quietly die in the corner of the hen house.
Eggs are one of the most important products that people use for food since ancient times and the main role in their "production" is played by laying hens. What to feed them so that they rush a lot? An urgent question to which, in our opinion, we answered as fully as possible. Well, how you will implement this knowledge depends only on you. If you liked the article, do not forget to share it on social networks with friends - maybe this information will be useful for them. Also rate it with asterisks or write a good comment.
How to feed laying hens
- The first rule of good egg production - feeding birds should be regular and uniform.
Nothing so badly affects the quality and quantity of eggs, like occasional overfeeding or underfeeding, as well as feeding the birds at different times of the day: either early, then late, then three, then twice a day. If the feeding regime is not observed, then the chickens spend the whole day "treading time" at the porch, waiting for handouts from the owner.
When giving food at a fixed time, chickens very quickly get used to it and appear at the feeding place exactly on schedule.
So, the first (morning) feeding is desirable to carry out immediately, as soon as the bird wakes up. In winter, in order to increase the working day of the bird, feeding should also be started earlier (with additional morning lighting, immediately after turning on the light).
In the morning it is more expedient to give the hens wet mash from boiled potatoes, various ground grains, bran, crushed eggshell, salt and kitchen waste (in winter, it is desirable to give less mash than in summer because of their fast digestibility).
In the evening, chickens are fed an hour before they perch. Evening feeding time must be calculated so that the chickens have time to eat the normal rate.
It is important that the bird receives whole grains at night. , while trying to diversify the grain. This variety should not consist in giving the bird a mixture of different types of grain (this cannot be done, because usually the chicken chooses only what they like best and spreads the rest), but that the grain on different days be also different: today - wheat, tomorrow - oats, the day after tomorrow - barley, etc.
- The second is the quality and standards of feeding.birds
The quantity, quality and cost of eggs received from the hen depends largely on these norms.
Feed for layers should be composed of:
- proteins (proteins),
- mineral salts,
The largest number of eggs from an adult bird can be obtained only if the diet contains all the nutrients. With their insufficiency, the egg production of chickens is sharply reduced, and the cost of feed for poultry is increasing.
For example, a chicken that, in a year with improper feeding, will carry up to 100 eggs, will spend about 500 grams of grain on each egg, with the right one - only 250. In addition, if improperly fed, eggs are smaller and less tasty.
What to consider! - Poor feeding of layers in the spring, when a certain number of eggs is used for incubation, leads to very weak young animals, and in some cases, young animals are not hatching at all.
Poultry feeding rates
Concerning feeding rates , they should be made taking into account the actual or estimated productivity. The higher the egg production rate of chickens and their live weight, the more feed they should be fed.
For example: if a laying hen weighs 1.8 kg, and its annual or estimated egg production is 100 eggs, then the daily feed consumption for it should not exceed 125 g, with the same egg production, but a weight of 2 kg, the hen will need 130 g (130 and if the weight is even greater, then for every surplus 250 g of weight 10 g of feed is added). In addition, the amount of feed is increased by 5 g for every 30 eggs in excess of 100.
It should be understood that one simple increase in the amount of feed does not always provide an increase in the level of bird productivity. High egg production can be obtained only with a simultaneous increase in the amount of feed and their nutritional value. Simply heavy feeding can lead to obesity , which is especially undesirable during the laying of eggs, because зажиревшая птица перестает быть хорошей несушкой, а если и несется, то яйца, чаще бывают неоплодотворенными.
Следует также иметь в виду that the feeding rate is influenced not only by the level of productivity and the weight of the hen, but also by its age, season, and conditions: young hens need more nutrients than the old ones (this is one of the reasons why they should be kept separate), in winter need more than summer.
During molting the bird needs more feed and better quality. Sometimes you can arrange fasting days for the bird (this applies to such breeds as New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Australorp, Plymouth, Welsumer, Kuchinsky), even with normal rational feeding, they are still prone to obesity. Arranging a fasting day, it is necessary to replace morning and evening feeding with a dacha of water and greenery, and in the afternoon you can give the bird a half portion of a wet mash.
Feed for laying hens
The main part of the diet of chickens in amateur and household farms is whole grain wheat, barley and oats, occasionally corn is used in feeding birds (it must be crushed, and not everyone can fork out for the purchase of a grain crusher) and triticale. Consider each type of grain separately.
Corn is a valuable and readily eaten (in a ground form) feed. It is easily digested (it contains a lot of starch and little indigestible fiber), but due to the fact that corn contains up to 6% of fat, it can only be given to lightweight chickens in small quantities.
Meat-egg breeds (New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Welsumer, Australorp, Plymouthrock, etc.) are often not recommended to feed the corn, because they fatten it very quickly and reduce egg production. It is also important that our corn is more expensive than other types of grain, and its quality during storage deteriorates very quickly.
Wheat is a very good feed, not only for layers, but also generally for birds of all kinds. Unlike other cereals, it contains more protein (protein) and vitamins (B, E), therefore it can be used in laying rations up to 60% of the total mass of feed.
Triticale (a hybrid of wheat with rye) has much in common with wheat, but is richer in protein content.
Barley is a highly nutritious carbohydrate food. Protein, minerals and vitamins contain less than wheat and triticale. In the rations of hens it can be up to 40%, and if part of the barley is given in the form of small chops in the composition of wet mash, then up to 60-70%. In winter, barley is desirable to use germinated.
Oats are high in indigestible poultry fiber with a high percentage of fat. Feeding oats to birds stimulates the growth of feathers and weakens the manifestation of cannibalism. It is useful for the hens to give oats in germinated or steamed form (pour boiling water and boil for 10 minutes in salted water, then the water is drained, and the oats are dried and fed to the bird).
Rye contains a large amount of protein and is widely used in poultry feeding.
As can be seen from the above, cereal grains contain a certain amount of protein and fat, but are poor in calcium, phosphorus and vitamins, so they alone cannot ensure high productivity of the birds during the laying period.
Vitamin and mineral feed for laying hens is a condition for increasing egg production.
What vitamin and mineral feed for chickens should be used to better balance the rations?
H Green is a good diet food, an important source of vitamins. The green mass of young nettle, dandelion, alfalfa, clover and pea is most often used as this feed. Feeding fresh herbs preferably fresh, immediately after mowing. At the same time, it should be finely chopped, and it can be given to the bird in a separate or in the form of wet mash.
Those poultry farmers who do not have free time for chopping greens, we can recommend to dry the greens in the shade. From drying, it almost does not lose its beneficial properties, but dry greens can be introduced into the composition of both wet mash and dry fodder mixtures, or suspended in the form of small brooms (especially nettle), while feeding the birds takes much less time, than chopping fresh greens.
Another argument in favor of feeding greens is that it promotes good digestion and gives the eggs an attractive and appetizing appearance, a bright orange color of the yolk and improving the taste of the egg.
Vegetables and root vegetables
In late autumn and winter, instead of greenery, it is possible to include vegetables and root vegetables in the ration of layers: potatoes, carrots, fodder beet, Jerusalem artichoke, cabbage. Usually they are given finely chopped, mixed into a wet mash, or simply put on a nail, hung intact. So it is easier for chickens to peck and less food is trapped.
Remember, an excessive amount of vegetables in the diet leads to indigestion in poultry, so it is more expedient to give them a little less than to feed the excess amount.
In the case of the appearance of diarrhea should be at the time to stop altogether giving vegetables. So, almost all compound rations for hens are considered. (I deliberately did not stop at animal feed, as I believe that a rare poultry farmer can afford the “luxury” to feed chickens with meat, eggs, milk or cottage cheese, and only a few breeding earthworms and collecting May beetles or tadpoles.
Now it only remains to give the structure of the ration for the hens. There are many of them, but, in my opinion, the best option is given in the book by V. Malik “1000 Tips for Amateur Breeders”.
The health and productivity of poultry is largely dependent on the presence in the diet of minerals. Calcium , for example, it is necessary for the formation of egg shells, and, as we already know, there is little calcium in the grain, therefore it is necessary to include in the diet of poultry and feeds containing minerals. The need for poultry for these substances can be met by including in the mash beans or by giving eggshell, chalk, limestone, shell grains, table salt and occasionally bone meal in separate feeders.
Publicly available sources calcium and phosphorus is an eggshell. Before you give the shell to the bird, it must be washed, boiled, dried in a hot oven and chopped. Bonemeal is also a valuable source of calcium and phosphorus, you can also collect various bones from the kitchen waste, burn them and crush them.
Source of sodium and chlorine is table salt. It improves the taste of feed, their digestibility and increases the appetite in birds. When feeding layers only finely ground salt or dissolved in water is used. If used improperly, the bird may be poisoned.
Gravel is not a source of mineral substances, but is necessary for birds for better grinding of feed in the muscular stomach.
Gravel and small stones slow down the speed of passage of food through the digestive tract, it contributes to a better absorption of nutrients. If for some reason the poultry farmer has to feed a lot of oats to the bird, then the presence of gravel in the feeder (separate) is imperative .
Preparing feed for feeding the bird or what to do at home, so that there are more eggs
Of the many ways of preparing feed for poultry, the most important are chopping, germination and yeast . These techniques facilitate the digestion of feed and enrich them with nutrients (we will not dwell on grinding, because it is not available to everyone).
For germination, oats, barley, wheat, or triticale are commonly used. Carry it out in rooms with a temperature of at least 20 degrees. They do it this way: the grain is soaked for a day in tepid water, then scattered in a layer of 5-7 cm on special boards or shelves (it is possible in boxes made of container boards) and mixed 3 times a day. Germination usually lasts for 3 days - until a sprout of 0.5 cm appears. Germinated grain should be fed to the bird in the amount of 30-40% of the daily norm of the grain part of the diet.
If it is necessary to add vitamin A to the poultry ration, then germination continues until the appearance of green shoots of 6 centimeters in length. To speed up the process of the appearance of green grain is better to put into the light. By the way, green shoots can be cut with scissors and fed to the bird, and the grain should be moistened again and in a few days get a second crop of greenery. When germinating, not only increases the amount of vitamins, but also improves the taste of the grain itself.
Yeast is carried out in any large containers at a room temperature of 20-25 degrees. The container is filled with warm water (1.5 liters per kilogram of flour mixture), pre-dissolved yeast is poured into it (100 g of yeast per 10 kg of feed) and, with stirring, pour ground concentrates to obtain a thick mass of sour cream.
The layer of the quivering mass should not be more than 40 cm, and the container itself should not be covered with a tight lid. Every two hours (preferably more often) the mass is stirred. Usually, the yeast lasts 5 hours (in winter 9), after which the yeast mass is mixed with the main feed mixture in a ratio of 1: 5 and distributed to the bird. This feed is very good for egg laying chickens.
- How to build a chicken coop with your own hands. Instructions for building, photo and video
Comments on "How to increase egg production in chickens"
Dmitry December 26, 2012 13:57
And what do you need to feed chickens so that they have larger eggs?
Anatoly December 26, 2012 21:12
The maintenance of chickens in the winter is more detailed and how to deal with a decrease in egg production at this time of year. please expand the article if you can
Summer resident January 1, 2013 12:12
Dmitriy Yes, this is nonsense, the eggs from the feed will not become larger. It is better to rush - yes, but larger NO. Eggs are small in pullets, and then the standard for the breed. Even if Pts are brought early, then small eggs can be
Valentine January 29, 2013 22:37
There is a negative correlation between egg production and live weight. To reduce the weight of the birds there is a method of limited feeding. There is a quantitative and qualitative method. When quantitative method reduces the cottage feed, you can arrange 2-3 hungry days. And with high-quality nutritionally reduced feed.
Meow January 8, 2014 13:19
Greens, as already mentioned, perfectly enhances the egg production of chickens. On personal experience verified.
Alisher January 17, 2014 10:25
Hello! my chickens have generally stopped sweeping for the past three months, I've been trying everything out. Don't tell me what to do in advance, thanks? I have them 10 common 1 rooster 3 hens for 6 months 5 more hens and one dakaniha breed of chicken 1 layer of high line 2 brahma and two hens of the breed I don’t know, and three more breeds of brahma
Editor-in-Chief January 18, 2014 11:00
Alisher, answering your question. Chickens can take natural breaks and pauses in egg production (the so-called holidays), egg production can drop dramatically if the bird is under stress (food change, room change, increase in livestock when purchasing new birds and joint non-cellular content). But you write that your bird does not rush for several months at all - this can be caused by disease, obesity or old age of chickens.
Victor January 22, 2014 15:56
What are you fed chickens? One grain what? So they have grown fat with you and do not rush. Need feed, herbs, vegetables, nettles to mix, fish sometimes.
Chief editor February 6, 2014 11:14
Comment from Galina:
We also have less chickens to give eggs, we don’t know the reason, but we feed them more with mash, we have a lot of vegetables, maybe this is the reason. We have 30 pieces and now 5 of them want to become mothers (they sit all day on the nests. So many brooks we do not need
Maria February 6, 2014 19:36
Galina, chickens need more protein - grains, and vegetables and minerals - as an additive. In order for chickens not to hatch, they should be planted under the boxes, but not on the litter but on a flat floor.
Alisher February 6, 2014 19:41
if you do not need so many hens then take a bucket of water and wet the chicken 3 times completely each. until she stopped kicking.
Alisher February 21, 2014 20:42
Hello! How can I put the chicken on the eggs? Answer please?
Chief Editor February 21, 2014 11:41 PM
Alisher, for your question article about the hen - http: //sayt/kurica_nasedka.html
The health of domestic chickens and the quality of eggs directly depends on proper nutrition. Their productivity depends on it. If you choose a high-quality and balanced diet for laying hens at home, they will be born all year round. This article will tell you how to do it right.
The importance of proper nutrition for laying hens
To have a lot of eggs from chickens, it is not enough to choose a breed with high egg production for breeding. It is important to properly organize their diet. As a rule, breeds that are characterized by a high number of eggs when worn, put forward high demands on care and, in particular, feeding.
Chicken age also affects egg production. It starts carrying eggs from the 26th week of life, and the peak of productivity falls for a period of 26-49 weeks. Meals can slightly delay the process of reducing the productivity of birds. To do this, their diet should be enough vitamins, protein, and other nutrients. Food should be light, complete and well digested.
Wanting to increase productivity, it is important to know how to feed the chickens so that they are well born. To do this, experts recommend that you necessarily include in their diet legumes: peas, lentils, actually beans. Usually, chickens are not accustomed to such feed, therefore, it is first recommended to give them steamed grains in advance and add them to the usual feed or mixture.
Chickens need a sufficient amount of protein in the diet, because it forms muscle cells, is in the structure of the egg. In order to supplement its quantity in the ration of chickens, plant components are added to it: legumes, sunflower meal, soybeans, rapeseed crops, oilcake. An obligatory component is meat and bone meal for chickens, the remains of fish, mollusks, amphibians, earthworms.
VitaminVitamins must be present in the poultry diet. Be sure to include among them vitamins D, B, A. When they are lacking, chickens develop various diseases. To provide them with enough vitamins, the diet should include silage, pine meal, fish oil, yeast, green grass, especially during the budding period.
Carbohydrates are necessary for the body of the chicken for normal muscle and internal organs. They are in sufficient quantities in sugar, starch, fiber. The latter is in huge quantities in whole grains, so the grain for chickens is almost the main one in the diet. Also add potatoes, beets, carrots, pumpkin.
Important!In the diet of chicken should be present and fat. They not only protect the bird from the cold, accumulate under the skin, but give it energy, are used in the formation of eggs. For their replenishment in the body, it is enough to give the hens corn and oats.
How to make a diet for laying hensWhen composing a layer hen ration for a day, it is necessary to include all the elements described above in the required proportions. Protein, herbs and flour must be alternated, not forgetting about the water that must constantly be present in the bird.
Did you know?Too rich and nutritious food leads to obesity in birds. Then the hens stop moving. Therefore, the diet should be balanced. Having decided on the diet, you need to decide how many times a day to feed the bird. Usually, feed per day is given three to four times. At the first reception they give dry food and grain, pouring out to the hens as early as possible. In the second and third - wet mash with vitamins, which are issued at regular intervals. The last feeding is carried out as late as possible and should consist only of grain. Any food must be of high quality, otherwise it will affect the performance and health of chickens.
Features of the spring diet
Now let's understand what you can feed the chicken in the spring. This is the period when it comes time to move from a winter diet to a regular diet. But the transition should not be sharp, so in the spring they begin to introduce it gradually. At this time, the bird is already released into the street, where it can pluck fresh young grass. But at the same time, along with the feed, it is necessary to give more germinated grain, which is rich in vitamin E. You also need to increase the amount of vitamin B and C in the diet of chickens. To do this, add brewer's yeast to the feed.
How to feed laying hens in summerThe peculiarity of feeding laying hens at home in the summer is different in that the bird spends a lot of time on the walking, so she is able to find grass and other food for herself. Accordingly, the amount of grass, chalk and gravel in the feed is reduced. And the number of feedings is reduced to two times. In the morning they pour out a wet mash, in the evening - grain. But if chickens are not allowed out of the pen in the summer, they should be fed three times a day.
Did you know?Even in the summer, when there are many nutrients in the diet, it is necessary to constantly monitor the state of the herd as a whole and each of its individual representatives. To do this, assess the condition of bird droppings. In healthy representatives, it is dark in color with a slight white bloom, dense. If there is a deviation from the norm, it means that the diet is unbalanced or the bird is sick.During this period, the daily diet should include the following meals:
- 5.5 grams of salt and minerals
- 10-15 g of protein
- 2 g of bone meal,
- 10 g of vitamin hay flour,
- 30-50 g of green fodder,
- 50 grams of grain
- 50 g of flour.
How to feed laying hens during molting
С уменьшением светового дня у курей начинается линька и снижается продуктивность. Но именно в этот период куры нуждаются в наиболее полноценном корме, так как их организм ослаблен. It is recommended to add to the diet sulfur, minerals, make sure that the food of chickens is not only diverse, but also high-calorie.
Did you know?Some owners specifically cause the chickens to molt, reducing the lighting in the hen house and limiting the birds in the feed. For several days it is kept exclusively on the water. Having received such stress, hens begin to fade. At this time, resume full feeding .At the same time, it is not at all necessary to purchase expensive feed for this period of bird life. As a rule, every gardener, knowing how to feed laying hens at home, will find everything he needs in his backyard.
We make a diet for laying hens in the winter
The number of feedings of chickens in the winter is reduced to three times. The first is at about 8 am, then at about 1 pm, after lunch, and the last - in the evening. The last feeding must consist exclusively of grain.
Important!Blend in winter should be given only during the day, during the second feeding. At the same time it is necessary to cook it with warm water and make sure that the chickens eat it warm.
In winter, chickens need to be fed with succulent feeds, such as carrots, beets, pumpkins. Some wonder if it is possible to give zucchini to chickens. In fact, even necessary, as in the winter they will help to compensate for the lack of vitamins and fiber. Also, sunflower cake is added to the mash, which is an excellent source of fat and protein for poultry.
Be sure to in the feeders must be ground chalk or gravel. Along the walls of the coop must be warm drinking water. It is necessary to change it and wash the drinkers regularly.
The daily ration of chickens in winter should include:
- 2 g of bone meal,
- 5.5 grams of minerals and salt
- 10 g hay flour or dried nettle,
- 100 g of dairy products
- 100 g potatoes
- 7 g of meal and cake,
- 50 grams of grain
- 30 g mash.
Important!Often the question arises whether it is possible to feed laying hens with boiled potatoes. It is believed that it is harmful and dangerous for chickens. However, toxic substances that come from sprouted or spoiled tubers are dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to use only good potatoes for food, and after cooking, drain all the water from it.
Ready-mix for feeding laying hens
As you can see, feeding chickens is not an easy process. Their diet should be varied and balanced. At first glance, it seems that the only way out is to buy mixed fodder. This is fully justified if there is a large number of birds. But if laying hens are taken to be kept at home for their own needs, they can arrange feeding in their own mixtures.
There are many recipes for their preparation, but one of the best ones is the following:
- salt - no more than 3 g,
- vitamins - 10-15 g,
- peas - 20-30 g,
- grass meal - 30-50 g,
- fodder yeast - 40-50 g,
- fish meal - 50-60 g,
- meat and bone meal - 60-80 g,
- sunflower meal - 70-100 g,
- barley - 70-100 g,
- wheat - 120-150 g,
- corn - 450-500 g.
To solve the issue of avitaminosis chickens help yeast feed. To do this, take about 20 g of Baker's yeast and dilute them in 0.5 liters of water. Then add a kilogram of feed and mix well. The mixture must be left in a warm place for 8 hours. Per day for one chicken it is necessary to allocate 15-25 g of such feed.
Homemade feed or purchased - which is better
As you can see, knowing the approximate norms of feeding laying hens at home, food can be made independently. But the logical question arises, what is better - self-made fodder or factory feed? This question has no definite answer. Each owner decides on his own, based on the characteristics of the breed of chickens, their number and personal preferences.Each solution will have its own advantages and disadvantages. Thus, it is difficult to keep the perfect balance of nutrients needed by the poultry body in its own food. In any case, each time it will be an approximate combination. But this is not so important when chickens are raised not on an industrial scale, but exclusively for their own needs.
The homemade blender will always be fresh. You know exactly what it is made from, how fresh the ingredients are. And this is a huge advantage over mixed feeds, which have a limited shelf life, but can be stored for a long time with the seller. But the use of wet mash imposes increased demands on the content of the chicken coop. Feeders should be cleaned and cleaned regularly, so that the remnants of food will not be moldy and sour.
Practice shows that with equal needs, chickens eat more feed than mash. Therefore, the use of the first is justified if the bird is grown for meat. For laying hens it does not matter, so you can save on expensive purchased feed. In addition, a rich and nourishing food provokes their early onset of laying eggs, and this is bad for the health of the bird. In addition, the period of socks of small eggs increases significantly.
It is possible to feed laying hens in different ways, it is only important to maintain a balance in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. It is easier to do this using compound feed, but you can prepare mash beans yourself. For this you need to figure out when and what products can be given to the bird. The diet of her feeding differs in different seasons. It is also influenced by the bird’s lifestyle. In general, it is fed 3-4 times a day with different foods.
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Many of those who plant poultry in their backyards, know how to feed chickens, and know the direct dependence of bird productivity on high-quality and balanced nutrition. If the feed for chickens is sufficiently nutritious, and the diet is correct, then the bird will rush throughout the year. Fortunately, at home it is much easier to provide the correct feeding of chickens than on a large-scale poultry farm. All necessary products are on sale.
Required feed ingredients
In no case should we forget that the chicken is not an omnivorous creature. That is why it is strictly forbidden to use them as home processing machines. The chicken should not be fed a variety of waste, only high-quality food. If spoiled grain is used, it can negatively affect the health of the herd and reduce the overall egg production.
Among the most important components of feed for chickens in the first place will always be grain. Thanks to him, the body of the bird provides the necessary vitamins, carbohydrates and fiber. If you are thinking about what to feed the chickens, then oats, wheat, as well as barley, millet or corn supplements are perfect. Corn should not be underestimated, because if you correctly enter it into the diet, the chicken will receive the required amount of carbohydrates. Best absorbed in ground form. The only condition for its use - small, rare portions due to the high content of fat.
Wheat is the best feed for chickens, thanks to which the bird not only gets enough energy, but also begins to better rush. Oats are needed to stimulate the growth of feathers, it is better to add it to the feed in steamed or germinated form. Grain has many advantages, but it is impossible to feed them only, since there are not enough minerals in it, for example, calcium and phosphorus. That is why it is better to collect feed for chickens, diluting the grain with various additives.
The feed for chickens, which is familiar to any breeder, may consist of green and vegetable mixtures, as well as mash potatoes purchased separately. For those who breed poultry in their own backyard with a garden, the question of how to feed the chickens, certainly does not arise. From the kitchen garden and the kitchen you can take part of the waste, which perfectly complement the feed for chickens.
The concept of supplements such as greens is quite extensive, since it can include fresh grass that the chicken consumes while walking, or preparations made in advance. The second category includes tops of vegetables, various herbs and greens of legumes. Such feed must be well chopped. You can feed them only raw. Greens improve the quality of digestion processes in the hen's body and guarantee the eggs a regular shape without defects.
An excellent feed for chickens is boiled potatoes, cabbage and beets mixed with bone meal. This is an ideal feeding of chickens in winter, as the resulting porridge not only satisfies the hunger of the birds, but also nourishes their bodies with the required minerals and fiber.
How to make a balanced diet
The main rule for every breeder is that hens should be fed twice a day. This rule applies both in winter and summer. In addition, each portion of the feed includes all the necessary components. Let us return to the fact that the simplest solution in this situation would be to use compound feed for chickens in the form of a mixture. With its use, the breeder can only accompany the feeding with additives from vegetables, herbs and some types of grain. In some cases, you can use high-quality waste, as the domestic chicken is completely unpretentious.
In many villages, feeding chickens is a wet mash. But it is very important to remember that such chicken feed spoils quite quickly, so it is always prepared at one time.
Remember that when feeding, the feeders are only two-thirds full. Such a precaution will significantly save on the procurement of feed for chickens, as the birds will no longer scatter and trample the grain. As vitamin supplements suitable grass and tops from vegetables. The number of them in the feed for chickens depends on the method of keeping the bird, that is, on whether the bird has the opportunity to walk on green lawns. Greens are very important in winter, when a lack of vitamins can cause serious diseases due to a general decrease in immunity.
Another point for those who are thinking about how to feed chickens at the age of forty-eight weeks, when they become young hens, is that such a special diet is practically no different. Only the feeding regime is different - three to four times a day.
Continuing the theme of layers, it must be said that good egg-feeding is also necessary for high-quality egg laying. We have already figured out that the daily ration of chickens should include greens, grain, vitamin bait and feed. Best of all, when the daily rate of feed for chickens steamed or germinated. So to feed the bird is much better and easier, since everything is assimilated without problems. It often raises the question of how to feed the chickens, if you want to save on grain. In the daily rate of feed for chickens, you can replace the rate of grain at twenty-five grams of wheat bran or millet, as well as twenty grams of sunflower cake.
Always remember that the main thing that affects the health and productivity of birds is how you feed them - there should not be an overabundance or deficiency. Even in the mandatory requirements always means to feed the chickens in a certain mode.
The first feeding of chickens should be carried out immediately after waking up the birds or turning on the light, that is, early in the morning. For this meal, a wet mash is ideal, with the inclusion of potatoes, ground grain, salt, bone meal and food waste. In the evening, feed for chickens is issued an hour before the light turns off. Compound feed for chickens is ideal for this meal, as the bird must get all the useful substances from it that it did not receive in the morning.
Also, the content of whole grains is obligatory, but without mixing, since the chicken will peck out only what she liked more and the rest will trample. It is better to alternate and feed one day with oats, the other with wheat, and the third with millet. Such compliance with the regime is an excellent addition to the general poultry care. A breeder should remember that care is a whole range of activities, including cleaning, food, and inspection of individuals, and much more.
Dosage and storage of feed
In the process of drawing up the ration, it is necessary to pay attention to the breed of birds, as some of them have features and require various mineral supplements to maintain their health and their genetic potential. But some breeds should have an automatic unloading day, made to the diet. Such a precaution will save the bird from obesity. True, the fasting day does not mean at all that it is not necessary to feed the chickens at all, only the replacement of the norm of the grain for greens and vegetables.
A standard ration of chicken per day should consist of one hundred and twenty grams of grain, thirty grams of mash, one hundred grams of vegetables, seven grams of cake meal, two grams of bone meal, one gram of yeast and half a gram of salt. Yeast is necessary in order to ensure the process of yeast as one of the stages of poultry digestion.
Another way to calculate the diet is based on the average mass of the bird. Each breed has its own average weight, respectively, each need its own rate of feed. For example, for a standard fish with a weight of 1.8 kilograms, which gives one hundred eggs per year, one day twenty-five grams of food is needed, but individuals with the same productivity indicator, but with a weight of two kilograms, a portion of one hundred thirty grams
It is necessary to store feed for chickens in a dark and dry place, since this substance may become covered with mold or rot due to high humidity. By the same principle, harvested herbs are stored, without which the question of how to feed chickens in winter would remain unanswered for a long time. It is best for such blanks to use mowed grass before flowering, and give the bird in ground form, mixing with other ingredients.
Continuing the topic of how to feed the chickens in winter, it must be said that pine and spruce needles will be an important component. It is stored in a dried form in a warm, dry and dark room, and before serving it is ground with the help of a meat grinder and added to the grain mixtures. Actively used for storing greenery silage method, especially it is relevant for household plots. For silage only fresh legumes, vegetable tops and greens are used. After grinding, all ingredients are packaged in barrels or tubs, which are then sealed.
Video "Drawing up a diet for adult chickens"
This video is shown and narrated. How to make a diet for adult chickens: what are the ingredients, what are the proportions of food, when to ask the food.
The maintenance and breeding of laying hens is a responsible matter that requires strict compliance with the rules of care. For good bird productivity, an important role is played not only by a balanced diet, but also by diet. With all the rules of feeding, chickens can be carried in year-round mode. Today, in specialized agricultural stores you can buy everything you need for this: combined feed, grain, vitamins and minerals.
The basic rule is that domestic chickens of egg breeds should be fed at least twice a day: immediately after waking up and one hour before turning off the lighting in the hen house. At the same time all the elements important for the organism of birds should be contained in each portion. Significantly simplifies the process of ready-made feed purchased on the market. In this case, it will be necessary to include only grain, vegetables and fresh greens in the hens ’diet.
In some cases, feeding can be three or four times a day. This is true for young individuals up to 48 weeks of age. It is also recommended to carry out a slight increase in servings in the cold season to get the right amount of energy to the hens and to protect them from overcooling.
Feeding Chickens - Photo
Rules of cooking
Before serving, food must be weighed to avoid malnutrition or overeating of birds. Any deviation from the norm negatively affects the health and egg production of chickens. It is better to fill the feeder not to the brim, but 2/3 so that the birds could not scatter and trample the food.
Sometimes laying hens are given self-made mash. Such feed must be prepared exclusively at one time, because it is perishable. Confirming the cost-effectiveness and practicality of the content, poultry are not too whimsical in food: the remnants of the table with the addition of additional ingredients will not harm them, and an important part of the chicken’s diet is made up of inexpensive vegetables, fresh grass, and tops of plants.
It is important to know that fresh bread, recently brought from the bakery, is not suitable for adding laying hens to the feed. Bakery flour products in the stomach of birds swell and stick together, which can cause their death. It is permissible to use bread only in the form of powdered crackers subject to the absence of mold. The content of such additives - a maximum of 30% of the total mass of feed.
Правильный суточный рацион для кур-несушек
Быстрой кладке и набору необходимой массы тела способствует наличие в питании домашних кур яйценосных пород зерна, овощей, свежей растительности и минеральных элементов. Для ускорения продуктивности ежедневное меню должно состоять из определенных компонентов и грамотно рассчитанных пропорций.
In the morning, feeding should include a wet mash with the addition of crushed egg shell, bone meal, boiled potatoes, grains, and food waste from the table.
For the evening portion of the feed, it is better to use whole grains mixed with other menu items not consumed in a day. It is recommended to steal part of the grain to improve the metabolism and digestion of chickens. It is not necessary to give the birds the same grain for several days in a row, it is better to alternate it daily: today - barley, tomorrow - millet, and so on.
How to calculate portions depending on the body weight of the bird
Laying hens, depending on the breed and egg production, may have different weights. Accordingly, they should receive a different amount of feed. For example, an ordinary domestic chicken weighing up to two kilograms, bringing in hundreds of eggs annually, normally needs to eat about 125 grams of feed per day. A bird with a body weight of two kilograms will need 130 g of food. Then for every 250 grams of chicken weight, 10 grams of feed is added. It is necessary to take into account the increase in egg production - for every three dozen eggs, 100 g is added.
Factory feed for layers
Combined feed is a mixture specially designed for feeding chickens, taking into account the individual characteristics of the breed and all standards regarding a balanced diet. The composition of high-quality feed for egg breed of chickens includes such components as:
- fats of both vegetable and animal origin,
- coarse fibers (fiber),
- as well as the necessary vitamins and minerals.
In the case of prevalence in a certain form of the combined feed of one of the components, the products are recommended to be mixed. It is important to carefully study the composition and when it detects growth hormones or any synthetic additives, it is better to refuse to purchase such a product for layers - this can adversely affect the health of the birds.
For feeding chickens that are more time indoors, the best choice would be easily digestible crumbly product. And those birds that have the opportunity to often go on the run, more suitable combination food in pellets.
The most common types of industrial feed
During the day with the standard mode of two meals a day, the chicken needs an average of 80 to 130 grams of feed. Increase the portion of the combined feed to 165 grams is recommended if the bird additionally receives nutritional supplements fresh. Exceeding the daily norm threatens obesity and hypervitaminosis in chickens, which significantly reduces egg production.
Grain combined feed is the basis of the diet of domestic chickens of any breed. Grain contributes to the flow of carbohydrates, various vitamins and fiber in the body of the chicken. Wheat or oat grains are always taken as a basis, while millet, barley and corn are used as additives.
Root vegetables, vegetables and fresh herbs
Vegetable porridge or wet mash is prepared from shredded boiled potatoes, beets, cabbage with the addition of bone meal or chopped. A mixture of vegetables as a feed perfectly quenches the hunger of chickens, contributes to the proper functioning of the digestive system, saturates the body with important trace elements and fiber, which are necessary for the formation of eggs.
The lack of vitamins, calcium, phosphorus in the body of the hens can be replenished by walking birds in the warm season, when the ground is covered with fresh grass. However, the chickens are not enough of the greenery that they extract independently. In their diet, you must also include top dressings from: vegetable tops, dandelions, alfalfa, nettle leaves and stalks, legumes, clovers, and so on. Giving extra greens should be finely chopped.
Immunity and the general health of laying hens and, consequently, the volume and quality of their products, depend on the balance in the diet. Lack of important elements such as protein and calcium in the diet can lead to the eating of the eggs of the hen. In addition, a similar habit from one hen is often transmitted to all its relatives in the hen house.
Possible causes of low productivity
Even a thorough study of the proper diet of egg-laying chickens cannot guarantee the complete absence of performance problems. There may be several reasons:
Their health, resistance to diseases, compliance of this breed with the speed of carrying eggs, directly depend on the correct feeding of the hens. Regardless of the choice of ration for domestic laying hens, be it a high-quality combination feed in combination with natural food or food prepared independently from simple household ingredients, there is a need to carefully monitor the balance of important substances in the diet of birds.
Video - How to feed a chicken
Regardless of the purpose for which the farmer keeps chickens in his own farmstead, health and productivity of poultry always come to the fore. And it depends on what feed the chickens, what feed to enter into their diet, how often to offer food. If you properly organize the feeding of laying hens, you can get eggs from them year-round.
Nutritional value of feed
At home, when organizing the feeding of chickens, it is necessary to take into account that the bird should receive a diverse and nutritious food. It depends on the ratio in the products of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, etc.
- Proteins - the main material used for the structure of the cells of the body of the bird, as well as the main component of the egg. Feed intended for laying hens should include vegetable proteins (meal and meal of sunflower, rapeseed, soybean, legumes) and animal (bone meal, fish production waste, incubation, shellfish and amphibians, earthworms) of origin.
- Fats are essential elements. They constitute the main energy reserve of the bird, which is deposited in the subcutaneous layer, and also goes to the formation of eggs. To get the bird fats in the feed for chickens you need to enter the grain of corn and oats.
- Carbohydrates - ensure the functioning of all organs and muscles. Therefore, feed prepared for laying hens should contain the required amount of starch, sugars and fiber. Most carbohydrates contain juicy food, such as potatoes, fodder beets, carrots, pumpkin. But for the normal life of the bird, fiber must be present in the food, which is contained in the shells of whole grains.
- Vitamins are vital substances. For chickens, vitamins A, D and B are of particular importance. When there is an insufficient amount of vitamins in food, chickens start to hurt and, as a result, their productivity very quickly decreases. The main sources of vitamins are green herbs during budding, fish oil, baker's yeast, silage, pine flour, etc.
- Mineral substances - the main building element for the skeleton of poultry and egg shell. It is good if in separate feeders chickens will always contain chalk, gravel, bone meal, lime or wood ash, crushed shells.
Types of feed
In the subsidiary farm, in order to organize high-quality feeding of laying hens, it is necessary, if possible, first of all to use the waste of the garden, vegetable garden and kitchen.
- Potatoes. Potatoes unsuitable for food purposes (sprouted, small, green), as well as its cleaning are introduced into the diet of laying hens. You can give 50-100 g of potatoes per chicken.
- Bread. Dried and stale black and white bread in the soaked form readily eats chickens.
- Kitchen waste. Fish heads and giblets, remnants of meat dishes, fresh crushed bones in the composition of the feed prepared for laying hens will have a positive impact on the productivity of the hens.
- Green and juicy feed. They are mainly represented by waste from the vegetable garden and garden. These are tops of carrots and beets, apples, pears and plums, cabbage leaves, fruit and berry wastes. All this in a crushed form is used as additives introduced into the masses for laying hens.
- Protein feed. Milk and its products (cottage cheese, skimmed milk, buttermilk, yogurt, whey), mollusks, frogs, small fish, meat and fish waste are used in private farms for feeding chickens. Plant cake and meal is usually made from plant waste. They are offered to chickens in the composition of wet mash, as well as one of the parts included in the feed for laying hens. Full-fledged protein feeds are earthworms, May beetles, small amphibians.
Harvesting wild food
Good food for laying hens are forage grown in the wild. These include plant seeds (quinoa, horse sorrel, clover), pine and spruce needles, hay and silt of weeds (alfalfa, nettle, etc.), leaves and berries of wild bushes and trees (acorns, chestnuts, wild rose berries, rowan hawthorn).
Such feed additives are harvested in the summer or fall, during the period of the greatest accumulation of vitamins and other useful substances in them. Billets are made away from roads and industrial plants. The collected mass is crushed and dried in the shade or in a well-ventilated area, and in winter it is added to the mash or dry feed mixture for chickens.
Preparing food for layers
In order to feed more eagerly poultry, as well as the largest possible amount of nutrients assimilated by the body of the chicken, the farmer needs to take care of the appropriate preparation of food.
- Sprouts and green potatoes contain a toxic substance - solanine, which, when cooked, goes into the water. Therefore, the liquid after cooking is poured, and the potatoes are well kneaded by adding flour, and fed to the bird as such.
- Potatoes and root vegetables can be grated in a grater in a paste or pulp, which is mixed with flour mixtures or added to other food.
- We must not allow moldy bread to be prepared for chickens, since the waste products of mold fungi can lead to the poisoning of poultry.
- All protein feed must be chopped beforehand and then added to the composition of the wet mash.
- Fish and meat waste can be harvested for the future using canning in whey. The mass poured with fresh whey can be stored for up to two weeks at a temperature not higher than 20 ° C.
- Grain mixtures are better eaten by the bird in a crushed form (grains size 1-2 mm) or flattened condition.
- Grain legumes before feeding should be soaked, and then steamed in a minimum amount of water. This will increase the absorption of protein by the bird.
- Waste of the garden and vegetable garden before use is thoroughly crushed, and if necessary, boil (apple holly) or scald (nettle).
- In winter, the bird is very useful to get germinated grain, because it contains more vitamins.
- To increase the content of vitamins of group B in food, yeast feed is used. For 1 kg of feed mix add 5-10 g of soaked baker's yeast and thoroughly mix the whole mass.
What do the hens eat?
To date, the best option for feeding layers is dry feed for chickens. However, it is quite expensive, which significantly increases the cost of production of eggs, and farmers prefer to dispense with those foods that require less financial expenditures. So, let us consider how to properly feed laying hens without industrial feed.
The daily diet of laying hens should consist of whole grains, flour, green fodder, and also include vitamin and mineral supplements. The best option for the preparation of food for chickens will be a regular alternation of types of grain and flour, protein and green supplements. Mineral feed should always be available to the bird, as well as clean fresh water.
Feeding rates in summer and winter periods
The norms of daily feeding of laying hens in the summer suggest the following composition:
- grain - 50 g,
- flour mixture - 50 g,
- vitamin hay meal - 10 g,
- succulent solid food - 30-50 g,
- protein feed - 10-15 g,
- bone meal - 2 g,
- mineral supplements and salt - 5.5 g.
In winter, green succulent feed is replaced with wet mash and potatoes, be sure to use protein feed. The daily diet of chickens is as follows:
- grain - 50 g,
- mash - 30 g,
- potatoes - 100 g,
- meal and meal - 7 g,
- hay flour or dried nettle - 10 g,
- yogurt or dairy products - 100 g,
- bone meal - 2 g,
- salt and mineral additives - 5.5 g.
As part of industrial feed, designed specifically for feeding laying hens, most of these components are present, but transferring pets only to dry food at private farmsteads is too expensive and unprofitable.
After the composition of the food for the hens is determined, it is important to determine how many times a day the hens should be fed. To maintain good egg production, chickens should be fed 3-4 times a day. In the first feeding of laying hens they are given a grain or a dry mixture, they carry it out as early as possible. In the last feeding - always only grain, as late as possible. The two remaining feedings consist of vitamin feed and wet mash. By the time they are issued to the bird at regular intervals. In cold weather, the wet mash should be prepared with warm water or the mixture should be heated so that the bird can eat the food warm.
All components of the feed should be of high quality, in the absence of any component, it should be replaced with equivalent nutritionally. In no case it is impossible to overfeed the hens, since they begin to grow fat and cease to nest.
When feeding chickens of meat breeds, it should be borne in mind that the breeding process to which the chickens underwent was aimed at a drastic change in the body of the bird in order to get early meat. After a period of rapid growth in broilers, puberty begins when they barely grow. As soon as the chickens of meat lines begin to decrease in growth rate, you should immediately respond to this by reducing the amount of feed produced. Broilers carry fewer eggs, and, therefore, they have lower metabolism, and they grow fat faster.
When organizing the feeding of poultry meat, you can go in two different ways. In the first case, the chickens are fed plenty, but low-calorie mixtures, in which the carbohydrate and protein content is limited. And in the second - for feeding use full-fledged feed, but strictly take into account the norms for each chicken.
How to feed during the molting period?
The molting period usually comes with a decrease in daylight and provokes a decrease in egg production. Therefore, some poultry farmers cause an onset of molting artificially - they reduce lighting in the hen house, and the bird is subjected to additional stress, forcing them to starve. For several days, the bird should receive only clean water, and after it starts shedding, they begin to feed it. During the molting period, the chickens especially need a complete feed. During this period, it is necessary to add more minerals to the feed, among them necessarily sulfur. Meals should be less calorie, but more diverse in composition.
The farmer should constantly monitor the condition of the herd as a whole, and its individual individuals. The easiest way to control the quality of food is by bird droppings. Litter healthy birds with a balanced diet dense dark color with a slight white bloom. Any deviation from this norm should cause the owner to pay attention to the revision of the feeding process and the feed given to the bird.
For the poultry breeder, it is not necessary to purchase expensive feeds and additives in order to contain healthy and productive chickens in the compound. Everything you need is around us, you need only a little effort and knowledge to please your pets with useful and diverse food.