The organization of a peasant farm begins with the development of a clear business plan. Work on the ground - a very expensive thing. And in order to become one of those who profit from the land, a lot of start-up capital is needed. The future landowner must have good knowledge in his chosen field. Be sure to be confident in their abilities, and the difficulties in the first steps are regarded as temporary. If the goal is to succeed and make your business prosperous in the village, he should know what awaits him and what obstacles lie in the way to well-being.
Many consider farming to be profitable. In principle, this may be true. But only if you make a lot of effort and investment.
First of all, you need to choose what the future farm will do, develop a clear business plan. Farming and cattle breeding are different branches. But with a rational approach, they can be combined.
How to start farming, what you need to know
If ownership is based on agriculture, it is worthwhile to take care of the availability of sufficient land. The important role played by technology. If the owner has the necessary amount, it can be purchased. If not, there are special companies that provide equipment for rent.
Growing livestock also requires extensive land. When it comes to cattle, an area is needed for grazing. Of course, rabbits and laying hens can be arranged in a small area. It all depends solely on the plans and requests of the farmer.
If there is a seed capital, production is easier to set up. But how to be an ordinary, average citizen of the country who simply decided for himself “I want to become a farmer” and dreams of how to organize a small farm from scratch.
How to start farming in Russia, when state farms and collective farms collapsed, and new firms are not created very often. The only way is to use state support. The authorities do their best to support those who want to create a personal farm. Created entire programs and tax breaks that help beginners in this area firmly on their feet.
LPH or KFH?
If a small plot of land is already available, it is best to start from LPH - personal subsidiary farming. It does not require registration as an IP, the tax code provides for benefits, there is no need to submit regular reports and tax payments are not as high as those of entrepreneurs. But this is under the condition that in the possession of the farmer no more than 2.5 hectares of land. The disadvantage of LPH is that it has limited sales markets, since it does not provide for the issuance of certificates and declarations of conformity.
If a farmer plans to actively develop his activity, then it is better to arrange a peasant farm - a peasant-farming enterprise. It involves the use of land in large quantities, expanding possible markets. You can take out a loan in almost any bank for your development. While with LPH banks are not very willing to work. Another advantage is that you can officially provide jobs for both your family members and employees. For KFH also provides tax benefits: during the first five years, income is not subject to taxation, and from the sixth year, you can use patents, UAT, USNO.
If the type of activity is determined, then follows the choice of industry for breeding.
If we talk about livestock, the most popular today are pig farms. Breeding of cattle, goats, rabbits, horses is also considered a profitable business. It is important to remember that animals have their own distinctive features and characteristics in terms of content. Pasture is provided for cows and goats, rabbits need careful care and the availability of a variety of green fodder, breeding horses requires a large area for walking. Pig farm can be located on a relatively small plot of land. There is no need for large stocks of hay and straw, as modern technology has gone much further than it did in the last century.
If you properly and efficiently organize a pig-breeding farm, you can make a profit in the first years of your activity.
Another promising industry is fish farming. It has its own specifics, as the breeding of the most popular fish, such as carp, sturgeon, carp, pike, catfish provides for the presence of several reservoirs. Reservoirs can be officially rented from the state, or purchased if there is such a financial opportunity.
Poultry farming can also be classified as promising areas. Laying hens are grown for a large number of eggs. Broiler chickens are popular for their rapid growth and large quantities of meat, which can be obtained in a relatively short time. Ducks, geese, turkeys, grow much longer, but their meat is more valuable and nutritious and is also in demand among consumers. For lovers of the exotic will be interesting breeding ostriches and pheasants. Their meat is not very popular among the general population, as it goes beyond the affordable price range. However, these birds are designed for a wealthy consumer.
Beekeeping is another industry that has always been and will be popular. It does not require a large amount of land and labor. A few workers are enough to serve more than 100 bee colonies.
Each animal has its own specific content. It is important to study the complete information on the proper care of animals, fish or bees. What are the conditions for their living, what food you need to prepare, to study possible diseases and their prevention. Only a responsible approach guarantees a positive result and prosperity of the business.
What can be grown
There are a lot of crops that are suitable for cultivation on an agricultural plot. When choosing them, it is worthwhile to make a start, in what latitude the cultivation of crops is planned, what care and watering conditions they require.
If the owner has a small amount of land, the following crops will do:
Cultivation of grain crops is advisable if there is more than one hectare of land in the holdings, and also has its own processing equipment, or the finances for its hiring. Wheat, barley, corn, sunflower, buckwheat, and millet are very popular. Particular attention should be paid to the seeds that will be used for planting.
What kind of activity can be selected in addition
Each main activity provides unlimited opportunities in choosing another source of income. Livestock provides an opportunity to engage in the production of finished meat products: stews, sausages, meat products. Cows and goats provide not only meat products, but also dairy products.
Agriculture allows you to open the release of flour, cereals, and even a bakery.
If agricultural ownership has additional resources, then over time animal husbandry can be combined, for example, raising pigs, and growing crops, or beets, pumpkins. This will provide animal feed and save on its acquisition.
The main law that determines the creation of the farm "On the peasant (farm) economy" No 74-FZ of 06/11/2003 (changes from 12/12/2010 N 420-FZ). All those who decided to create their own farm should be guided by it and are looking for where to start.
According to the laws of the Russian Federation, any capable citizen of the country can create a peasant farm. Members can be relatives of the owner, as well as other persons, and the total number should not exceed five. If farm ownership is created by several people, Article 4 of this law provides for the conclusion of an agreement on joint activities.
The procedure for registering a farm is described in detail in article 5 of this law.
How to become a farmer and where to start? For this to go through a number of mandatory procedures:
- Pay a state fee
- Visit the notary and certify his application for registration
- Provide a full package of documents to the IFTS. What specifically will be required, prompt in this state structure.
- After the registration documents will be in the hands of the owner, you need to register with the Funds, receive a letter with statistics codes from Rosstat.
Starting capital and investment
When a person has a question “I want to start farming, where should I start?”, The first thing we advise is to attend to the question of where to get money for development.
There are several sources for obtaining start-up capital:
- State loan
- Loan from private banks
- Become a member of the program of development of the agricultural sector to get a loan from the state.
- Own finances
Another source of additional finance is investment. The main thing is to prove your prospects and solvency to potential investors.
If you organize a small farm from scratch, you need to carefully study consumer needs, and those areas where you can later implement the product. Since the products are mainly deteriorating rapidly, the search for a permanent customer is very important.
The agricultural market has a big disadvantage - high competition. You can sell products on it yourself, but in small quantities. But for those who do not want to stop there, this option is not quite suitable.
In order to arrange deliveries to large retail outlets, such as restaurants, supermarkets, specialized retail outlets, it is necessary to have quality certificates for each product.
Small farmers often deliver their products to dealers, which adversely affects their profits, since the price in this case is much lower than that of the direct buyer. But only a farmer with extensive experience in the industry can find direct access to a large buyer.
Another way to implement your own product of production can be called the association of several farms in order to sell their goods abroad. Prices in this market are much higher than in the domestic, but it is often difficult enough for an ordinary manufacturer to get there.
From this we can conclude that it is not enough to organize a business in the village, it is important to find a regular customer and buyer for the goods produced. Only in this case, you can get to arrive and not be disappointed in their own endeavors.
Advantages and disadvantages of the farm business
Farm business, like any other, has its advantages and pitfalls. It is better to familiarize yourself with the perceived risk initially than to invest money and not to get the desired profit. If there is a desire, you can reach heights.
- small competition. More and more people prefer to look for a way to improve their life in the city. The village is not popular.
- environmentally friendly products. The manufacturer himself knows what he grows and what he invests in his production.
- knowledge and experience are essential components for beginners own business
- large financial costs in the first stage
- risk associated with force majeure (crop failure, pestilence among livestock)
- hard physical labor
How to start and how to choose a farm novice farmer
Albeit small, but your own business is an excellent alternative to hired work. However, often, even with such a desire, people are afraid to start their own business, because they see only obstacles, primarily in terms of financial investments. We will help to figure out how difficult it is to organize a farm from scratch, what is required and how to do it with minimal cost.
Breeding chickens, ducks, geese or turkeys does not require large financial investments, but is very profitable. It also does not require too much land and expensive equipment. It is much easier to care for a bird, than, for example, for pigs, and the profit even from a small farm is very attractive.
When growing chickens you get not only meat, but also eggs, which is also a significant advantage. The disadvantages of this type of farm include a lot of competition in the market.
Growing cows, goats, sheep and other animals can also bring excellent income. This type of activity involves several areas.
Animals can be kept for the following purposes:
- production of milk and dairy products,
- meat production,
- dressing hides,
- sales of young individuals.
Did you know? It is small farms that produce 70% of food worldwide.
To organize an apiary will not require large investments, so this direction looks very attractive. At the initial stage, only the site, the hives and the bee family are needed. It is necessary to take into account that beekeeping requires certain knowledge and skills, without which it is impossible to choose the right place or to create optimal conditions for the bees to bring honey. But if you delve into this issue and regularly learn from the experience of professional beekeepers, visiting exhibitions and fairs, you can acquire all the necessary skills and organize a successful business. Please note: at the exit you get a few bee products that sell well - honey, wax, propolis.
To organize the process you will need a reservoir and larvae or fry. Such a business can be built with minimal investment, while it does not depend on weather conditions and has practically no other risks. Beginners are recommended to breed fish, which is rapidly gaining weight and is in demand in the market - such can be attributed to carp and trout. Carp is perfect for these purposes, as the fry are cheap, it is enough just to care for it, and the grown fish sells well and pays off with interest.
The trout is more capricious in the care and requires knowledge and skills for its breeding, but at the same time it pleases with its high cost at the outlet, and therefore, with a large profit. The disadvantages of fish farming can be attributed to the fact that the number of fish in the reservoir can not be controlled. Therefore, you need to hire only trusted personnel you trust, otherwise there is a possibility that you may be deceived.
Breeding pigs is considered to be very profitable, but requires large financial investments and very laborious.
Important! Experienced businessmen recommend not to save on animal nutrition and feed them only high-quality feed, as bad food can cause pigs diseases and significantly affect the quality of meat at the exit.
In order for a pig farm to generate income, it is necessary to keep a population of at least 100 pigs. And they need to be fed, provided with vitamins and care for them. Accordingly, in addition to a large site and outbuildings, employees will be required, preferably specialists.
There are often no problems with selling pork - it sells well and is expensive, so such a business has relatively fast payback, followed by a steady income.
A great option for organizing a farm from scratch is breeding rabbits. With minimal cost at the initial stage, the business brings a high and stable income. The advantages of this type of activity include the following:
- cheap feed, especially in the summer,
- rabbits are very prolific,
- dietary meat is very popular
- competition in the market is minimal.
Important! Кроличьи шкурки можно сдавать на швейные фабрики и в ателье, что станет еще одним источником дохода, помимо реализации мяса.
Еще одна ниша для организации собственного бизнеса – это выращивание растений. В этом деле, конечно же, есть свои плюсы и минусы, но при правильном подходе и организации процесса можно отлично заработать. Financial investments can be minimal - for example, if grown in open fields, - and can be quite large if the construction and maintenance of greenhouses is required. Let's look at the most popular destinations.
The organization of the mushroom business requires minimal costs. Mushrooms can grow in basements, barns, abandoned houses, and so on - respectively, no need to invest in construction. It is only necessary to find a suitable building, to provide heating and light, to equip ventilation. And also - to acquire the substrate and mushroom mycelium. Most often, oyster mushrooms and champignons are grown for sale. Caring for mushrooms is minimal and not time consuming - you just need to maintain a constant temperature and humidity, as well as timely harvest. The demand for such products is quite high, so sales problems are rare.
The year-round demand for berries and fruits makes their cultivation very attractive for entrepreneurs. It can be carried out seasonally in open ground, or throughout the year, but with a greenhouse. Of course, the equipment of the greenhouse requires large investments, but its advantage is that in a year you will be able to harvest and realize at least 2 crops.
Did you know? The most fruitful fruits on the planet are bananas, they are grown on farms in more than 100 countries.
It is very important to think over the sales channels of products in advance, even at the initial stage, since the majority of fruits and berries quickly deteriorate. In the presence of start-up capital and the proper organization of the process, such a business can bring a very large income.
As in the previous case, there are two options for the vegetable business: growing seasonal crops in the open field, or year-round in greenhouses. Both options are very profitable. Only in the first case is it possible to take into account possible risks - for example, sudden changes in the weather or an invasion of pests. These factors can reduce the yield and, accordingly, reduce the estimated profit. In a greenhouse, cultures will be reliably protected from changeable weather, and it is more difficult for parasites to penetrate there, but costs are required for its arrangement and maintenance.
Important! On average, vegetable farming fully pays off in 12 months.
Plants in the open ground and in the greenhouse need regular feeding and preventive treatment with special preparations, which must be taken into account when writing a business plan. The competition in this niche is quite high, so you should think over the sales markets in advance, and also worry about the premises for storing crops and transport for its transportation. Now you know what to organize a farm under the power of each. The main thing is to have a desire, and to choose a direction that does not require large financial investments and quickly pays off is completely real. I would only like to have more government programs that are aimed at supporting small agricultural businesses, since this assistance is urgently needed for novice farmers.
Video: visiting the farmer
Tips for the novice farmer
• Experience comes with time. For starters, you can take 10/20 chickens. In a year, you can understand your occupation or not, whether it is to your liking or to clean, to take care of the bird does not bring any pleasure. You get 5 heads of goats or cattle, and they need to be milked every day, fed, and it’s impossible to go on vacation or go to friends and drop everything. In order to grow potatoes it is not necessary to be able to dig up a plot, you need start-up capital and a great desire.
• You only need to rely on yourself. Large state money is allocated for the development of agricultural business, which, as a rule, is poured into large-scale agricultural holdings. Advice to a novice farmer - do not count on state subsidies. After that, when the company has gained experience and recognition in the market, tax and credit history can be hoped for subsidies for the conversion of agricultural equipment, for animal feed and hectare support for tillage (1 hectare - 1 thousand rubles). As for loans, things are not so simple. In agriculture, the return on credit does not occur immediately. For example, if a farmer borrows money for sowing in the winter, he can get income from the crop only in the fall. However, you must pay every month.
• Sell surpluses and do not pay taxes. The legislation permits the sale of surplus products to personal subsidiary farms, since federal law does not stipulate the number of poultry or heads of livestock that can be grown. At the moment, this law allows small private farms to exist. The organization of personal subsidiary farms at the moment is not considered an entrepreneurial activity, therefore, individual farms (personal subsidiary farms) are not registered as individual entrepreneurs, therefore taxes are not paid.
• Do I need to arrange the farm-peasant economy. Farmers can supply their products to the stores, which LPH cannot do. Farms go through the registration procedure, as the PI and pay a single tax - 6% of the total turnover. If a farmer wishes to receive state aid, he registers his farm. In general, only agricultural producers who are engaged in large, serious businesses do this.
• Before you buy land, think about where your products will be sold. Agricultural land that is close to Moscow is almost impossible to rent or buy at a reasonable price. At the same time, it is better to grow fruits or vegetables far from megalopolises. Another important advice to a novice farmer is to pay attention to the climate, for example, the easiest to grow strawberries in the Krasnodar Territory.
• Look for your buyer. We must understand what and where to sell. As a rule, the price set by dealers. This is 100% sales of products, as visiting dealers buy everything, because big megacities eat up everything.
Important tips for the novice farmer:
1. The farmer does not have to trade independently, in the first place, the farmer is engaged in cultivation.
2. From an economic point of view, it is not profitable for a farmer to keep his point in the market.
3. It is important that he could, upon arrival at the market, immediately ship his goods and receive cash for him.
4. It is necessary to search for clients at agricultural exhibitions, at fairs, on the Internet.
5. Do not forget about the benefits of "word of mouth", this is a great advertising campaign.
Considered good advice to a novice farmer, will help you in organizing your business in the early stages of formation, we wish you good luck and prosperity, and of course an excellent harvest.
If you decide to open a livestock farm, the farm will provide you with meat, milk, eggs and skin. In addition, no one forbids combining the cultivation of animals, plant growing, fish farming or beekeeping. The main thing is to remember that all animals will require the care of proper quality and adherence to sanitary standards.
Let's take a little closer look at exactly which areas may be the case for an individual entrepreneur in a peasant farm.
We breed piglets
Pork is always in demand in the market and costs a lot. This business is quite profitable, because taking up this direction seriously, with good care you can get up to 30 pigs from one sow during the year. Each adult pig is about 200 kilos of meat and fat.
For breeding, piglets of one month of age are usually purchased. They are less susceptible to disease, they are well adapted to new conditions. The room for them (pigsty) should be kept clean, insulated during the winter period and must be provided with vents. Tightness of animals is contraindicated. They are fed according to the regime, with pauses not exceeding eight hours.
As food serves greens (in large quantities), products of meat and dairy origin and special feed for pigs. One piglet can be purchased for an amount of 3 500 to 5 000 rubles. It depends on its breed, age and livestock area. You can breed pigs, starting with buying a pair of healthy piglets.
Goats, cows, horses and sheep
To keep the animals listed above is not so difficult. They are pretty unpretentious. The cost of an adult horse is from 30 to 50 thousand rubles. Dairy cows - 40-50 thousand rubles. Sheep and goats can be purchased cheaper - 10-20 thousand rubles each. per head (price depends on the breed).
In the summer, they are all able to eat grass. For the winter they need soft hay of good quality. For feeding horses give oats, and cows - feed.
The yield of a good dairy cow is up to 30 liters of milk daily. From one goat you can get from 5 to 8 liters, and the cost of goat milk is higher, as it relates to delicacies.
Horses are most often used as a plodding force. Rams are bred for meat, which is also considered a delicacy. As for the sheep, their wool has long been considered the most valuable material. Breeding both goats and sheep is one of the most popular and profitable types of business in the field of agriculture.
They get both fur and meat. At the same time, the animals are quite unpretentious in terms of content and breeding. A rabbit farm is a system of enclosures, cages, holes or sheds. The choice of premises for the content - a private business farmer. However, it is necessary to adhere to certain conditions:
- Keep animals away from direct sunlight and drafts.
- Provide complete feeding.
- Do not forget about timely vaccination.
- Keep cages clean and provide the animals with high-quality drinking water.
- Remember about optimal temperature conditions.
The rabbit diet combines a large amount of fresh seasonal fruits and vegetables with concentrated dry foods. Hay and grass are quite suitable for feeding.
Nowadays, this business is one of the most profitable. But their occupation requires certain knowledge, as well as considerable investments. Agricultural enterprises such as fish farms are most often organized on the basis of artificial ponds, which can be of different types. It depends on the volume of production and preferred species. Due to the need for a large area for the construction of the pond, the cost of this business can be overwhelming for a novice farmer.
Who can most often be found in an artificial pond? Common carp, crucian carp, perch, silver carp, carp and tench. Although pond fish is able to provide itself with food, it is still necessary to feed without additional feeding. As her take bran, cake, feed.
From about May, fish are fed on “feed tables”, which are heavy trays of square-shaped wood measuring approximately 50 x 50 cm. Each hectare of pond will require at least four such “tables for feeding” fish.
It may be the most common - in the form of chickens, geese, turkeys and ducks. Or quite exotic for our locality. It is about breeding partridges, pheasants, guinea fowls, peacocks and even ostriches. The choice of breeds depends on the market in which the farmer wants to establish itself.
How to start a farm if you decide to engage in poultry farming? As the most unpretentious option suits the usual cultivation of chickens. These birds are inexpensive and unpretentious. From them you can get organic eggs and high-quality chicken meat. The demand for ducks, geese and turkeys is somewhat less, but their cost is several times higher.
If you are thinking about breeding guinea fowls, pheasants and peacocks, then know that the occupation is quite expensive, and you will most likely have to sell them to private buyers or to restaurants.
For the cultivation of poultry will need to acquire an incubator, special insulated for the winter aviaries, feeders, trays, as well as a certain space for walking. Most often, farmers purchase couples for divorce, or young offspring, which are subsequently grown, in a certain amount. Another option is to purchase eggs and lay in the incubator. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Feeding young chicks will require cereals, boiled eggs, greens, cottage cheese, insects, as well as special feed mixtures. The diet of adults is practically the same. Their menu is dominated by grain - wheat, barley, oats. Vitamins and minerals should be added to the feed mix.
We grow mushrooms, berries and fruits
For the mushroom industry, the most unpretentious (albeit expensive) truffles. And the most common - mushrooms and oyster mushrooms. Bred mushrooms in a special room, where an even microclimate is maintained, in bags filled with mycelium and straw. You will spend from one and a half to two thousand rubles for seedlings for truffles. Much cheaper you can buy a base for breeding mushrooms and oyster mushrooms.
If you are going to do strawberries, you cannot do without greenhouses. A number of varieties grown in open ground. Such a business will require start-up capital of about 100,000 rubles. Add to them another quarter of the monthly expenses.
Raspberries are grown on a different principle. For it saplings are bought and the site is prepared. She is engaged in the summer season, in the winter the bushes are instilled in order to protect against frost.
Cherries, sea buckthorn or apples are grown in specially designated garden plots. You will need to purchase seedlings, a special film for shelter for the winter. Harvest from young trees, you will wait at best for next year. The fruit and berry business is profitable at around 60-100%.
How to register your activity
How to start a farm in legal terms? Every business needs registration, and an agricultural one is no exception. The stages of the procedure consist in paying the state duty, notarizing the corresponding application, preparing and submitting a package of documents to the IFTS. Then you should wait for the issuance of finished documents, go through the registration procedure in the necessary funds and receive a letter in Rosstat, in which there will be statistics codes. Of course, care should be taken to open a bank account.
We rent land
Rent of the land plot can be taken care of before the procedure of legal registration. The rental application is submitted to the local administration. After consideration of the case, you will receive information about where the proposed site is located. They will need to call representatives of the land management organization. They will conduct a survey and determine the exact boundaries of the site. Then the land is put on cadastral registration, a corresponding passport is issued.
After that, the documents are again sent to the administration, which makes a decision to transfer the site. In addition, you will need to register a lease agreement.
The state will help us
In recent years, assistance to young farms has been a priority for the state. Now for the development of such a business is easy to get a grant, the size of which can be from one to four million rubles. It may be designed specifically for the creation of a farm or to have a lump sum payment procedure for a household device.
This money is purposefully given out to a novice farmer for renting or buying land, developing a project, acquiring the necessary machinery, carrying out the required engineering communications, as well as buying materials for planting, animals, fodder and fertilizers.
Who can claim such a payment?
Money is paid to citizens of the Russian Federation of working age, heads of farms and peasant farms, the registration period of which is less than 24 months. At the same time it is necessary to have education and not less than three years of experience in the field of agriculture.
The package of documents that need to be prepared consists of a business plan for the farm, a transcript of the costs and price reduction. The amount of own funds that will need to be invested in this case is obliged to be at least 10% of the amount of the grant. The recipient is obliged to create three or more jobs and spend the funds issued within 12 months from the date of issue.
They issue grants based on the results of contests, during which young entrepreneurs must prove the profitability and relevance of the future business. Such support can be considered a great way to solve the problem of initial investment. In the case when the payment is denied, there are other options for assistance from the state - in particular, in the form of a loan for the farm. In addition, there are various options for government subsidies.
Modern business in the field of agriculture is not at all the one, the idea of which is firmly rooted in the minds of many (heavy and dirty business, low-income and ungrateful). Nowadays, farms are equipped with the most advanced equipment. The most advanced technologies are used in the cultivation of animals and plants. In premises for breeding birds and livestock, it is possible to maintain cleanliness and the desired microclimate. Most of the operations are really automated, which will greatly facilitate farm work.
Financial support of the state in the conditions of the current crisis is especially important. Она позволяет фермерам развивать свой бизнес. К тому же, в связи с широким развитием сети кафе, ресторанов и многочисленных частных магазинчиков проблем со сбытом готовой продукции, как правило, не бывает.