Intensive gardening today is a fairly progressive technology of growing fruit (seed and stone fruit) crops. With proper organization, the economic efficiency of the site will be several times higher than in the case of using traditional technology.
In our article, we describe the basic principles by which intensive type gardens are being developed, and also provide a number of useful recommendations for those who plan to engage in this type of activity.
Even on such small trees you can get a good harvest.
General process characteristics
The traditional technology of cultivation of fruit trees and the cultivation of fruit is not very efficient. Fruit growing, especially in the area of risk farming, where climatic cataclysms and other factors can quickly destroy the crop, is not attractive from an economic point of view. That is why recently there has been an active reduction in the areas of orchards.
In place of the traditional method of cultivation comes bookmark garden intensive type.
The following advantages are characteristic of such plantations:
- First, the production of marketable products is carried out on low-growing plants, in order to significantly reduce the costs of carrying out agrotechnical measures.
- Secondly, only highly productive varieties resistant to various influences are used. In addition, stimulation of early fruiting is carried out, so that products can be obtained within one to two years after planting plants at the dacha.
The small size of the plants (pictured) makes it easier to care.
- Thirdly, the compact dimensions of the trees allow the most efficient use of the landing area.
Modern planting rates are as follows: 400–500 plants per hectare for pome crops, 500–1,200 plants per hectare for stone fruit.
- In addition, in the bookmark of an intensive garden, support structures of the trellis type are actively used. Due to this, crowns of such shape are formed, which maximally facilitates harvesting.
The result of this approach is the emergence of a highly productive garden, the profitability of which significantly exceeds the average. It is for this reason that most of the pledged areas today are designed specifically for the intensive type.
Classification of low growth stocks
If you want to try this technology with your own hands, then you need to start with the selection of planting material.
The requirements for the variety and for the seedling itself are fairly strict:
- First, the culture must be of an intensive type. In practice, this usually provides for early onset of fruiting, compact crown size, low growth rate. Also desirable zoning (compliance with local conditions) and resistance to major infectious diseases (scab, powdery mildew, gray mold).
- Secondly, dwarf or semi-dwarf zoned varieties are used as a stock (plants to which varietal material is being grafted).
- Thirdly, it is recommended to apply well-established pairs of “grade + stock”, since there are cases of hidden incompatibility, which manifests itself one to two years after planting.
- Finally, the requirement is a virus-free material. The fact is that even a small percentage of virus-bearing plants can lead to a decrease in the total yield of up to 50 - 80%.
Fruits of Golden Delicious
Popular varieties of apples for an intensive garden, as well as suitable varieties of other crops are given in the table:
- 1. Description
- 2. Growing
- 3. Diseases and pests
- 4. Reproduction
- 5. First steps after purchase
- 6. Secrets of success
- 7. Possible difficulties
Carpenterium is a monotypic genus from the family Hortensia. In nature, it grows only in the south of North America.
An evergreen shrub has erect branching stems. Young shoots are purple. Adult branches are covered with light, flaking bark. The crown is spherical, leafy plates are lanceolate. The upper side of the leaves is shiny, dark green, the bottom is gray, covered with a light down.
The peak of decorativeness comes at the beginning of summer, when the buds are blooming. Five widely open white petals and numerous bright yellow stamens in the center can not go unnoticed. Flowers solitary or grouped. Abundant flowering is accompanied by a delicate fragrance. In August - September, fruits appear - small leathery boxes filled with tiny seeds.
The plant is rarely found in flower collections, and in its natural environment, its quantity has significantly decreased. In the homeland of Carpenteria vigilantly guarded. Nevertheless, the probability of the complete disappearance of the representative of the flora is not excluded. In order to keep the genus at least in greenhouses, seeds are sent to botanical gardens around the world.
Grow Carpenterium in containers and open ground. It should be borne in mind that the plant is thermophilic and needs a reliable winter shelter. It is best to move the shrub until spring to an unheated room, since the shoots freeze already at -5 ° C. A decrease in air temperature above the allowable -15 ° C leads to the inevitable death of the plant.
Carpenteria can be propagated by cuttings. To do this, in the summer cut off 15-centimeters of the upper shoots. The cuttings are rooted at an angle in the nutrient substrate and covered with polyethylene. Placed in partial shade, from time to time moistening the substrate. By the autumn the plant grows its roots, and can be transplanted to its allotted place.
First steps after purchase
The best solution is to buy a flowering plant in a container. Carpenterium easily tolerates transplant, recovers quickly, without causing the owner difficulties. The bush is not subject to diseases and pests, therefore there is no need for organizing quarantine.
It is desirable to acquire seedlings in spring and plant them immediately, in which case the plant will have time to acclimatize and gain strength for wintering. Unlike adult shrubs, Carpenteria saplings need more frequent watering (once a week). An important component of plant care for this period is soil mulching.
Secrets of success
The decorativeness of Carpenteria appears only when the shrub receives enough light. When choosing a place should take care of protection from the wind.
The fertility of the soil Carpenterium completely indifferent. It grows well on any garden soil, if equipped with a good drainage layer.
The shrub is drought-resistant, so it is usually watered once every three to four weeks. Additional watering may be required in particularly hot summer. Does not need a plant in such a procedure as spraying.
If the soil is very poor, rare supplements with mineral or organic fertilizers are allowed during the growing season.
Failure to bloom most often occurs due to freezing of shoots in winter. Even if the shrub finds strength in spring to restore, flowers will have to wait at least two years. Buds are formed exclusively on last year's growth.
Reducing the number and size of flowers, as well as their rapid wilting - a consequence of a lack of lighting.
If Carpenterium looks sloppy, it is necessary to carry out formative pruning. The procedure is carried out after flowering, removing about a third of the shoot. Old, weakened by multiple flowering branches can be cut off completely. Tools must be clean, “wounds” should be processed.
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The laying of the mother liquor dwarf clonal rootstocks
On the site set aside for the mother, I dig a trench 30 cm deep and plant the acquired stock 25–33 cm apart. In order to facilitate the future horizontal bending of the seedling to the ground, I plant the plants at an angle of 45 °. The width of the inter-rows in the area with mechanized processing is chosen taking into account the parameters of the used technical means. For manual processing, it should be 1 m.Fig.1. Queen cell laying
When planting a trench I do not fall asleep to the top, but leave a groove 10 cm deep for better root formation of the future stock and saving mulch sawdust. I plant a stock in the matochnik in the fall and mulch, protecting it from sub-zero temperatures, or in early spring, with the start of field work. Care of the queen cell during the growing season consists of regular weed control, weekly watering, and chemical protection against pests and diseases.
Horizontal laying of uterine plants spend in late August or early September. Before this, it is necessary to cut off all the shoots (leaving hemp 0.5-1 cm high), as well as the tops of the plants. At the base of the plants, from the side of the bend, you need to cut off the ground, so as not to break the fragile wood, bend the trees, lay it horizontally and attach it with staples to the soil. To avoid freezing of seedlings, it is necessary to cover the mother liquor for the winter with any mulching material.
I open the mother liquor in early spring, when the threat of frost is down to -10 ° C. These works need to be done very carefully so as not to damage the kidneys. It is advisable to open the mother cells as soon as possible while the kidneys are in a dormant state, and to introduce mineral fertilizers, a nitroammophos, with the addition of 30% calcium nitrate, spreading them over the entire area of plant nutrition.
The first hilling of mulch in the mother liquor during the growing season I produce after growing shoots up to 20-25 cm. If the regrowth is uneven, you need to wait until the weaker shoots do not grow up so as not to fall asleep. As a rule, shoots grow more actively near the base of the mother plant.
As shoots grow back, hilling is required until a mound of mulch reaches 25 cm in height and 60–70 cm in width at the base. If the plants will be undernourished, they should be sprayed several times with 1% urea solution.
Cutting off clone rootstocks from uterine plants is detached in late autumn, in late November, so that young roots, grown in mulch, have time to mature. For this mulch from two sides otbrebayu chopper, rooted cuttings cut off with shears, leaving hemp plants on the mother plants about 1 cm long.
In the first three years it is not recommended to break down the layers on the stocks M-9 and P-60, since the destruction of dormant buds at the base of the shoots sharply reduces the productivity of the mother liquor. In the mother liquor older than three years, breaking out of layers is acceptable.
After disconnecting the rooted layers, I conduct their sorting. I do a winter graft on rootstocks with a thickness of 4 mm and above. A stock of lesser thickness is immediately planted in the school for growing (distance in the row when planting is 2 cm) and mulching. The following year, by the fall, they have a very good root system, which makes it possible to produce elite seedlings.Fig.2. First garter
The rootstocks are thicker than 4 mm, cut to 50 cm, bundle 50 pieces each, drop the roots in a clay mash, pour wet sawdust, cover it with film and place it in the basement for storage.
In the basement, where the rootstocks and seedlings are stored, there should be no vegetables, since they secrete ethylene, which affects the buds and the root system of plants.
The laying of the uterine-cutting garden and the queen rootstocks of the clone rootstocks coincides in time and is performed simultaneously in the same year by highly productive technological and promising varieties, according to the scheme 0.8–1 X 2 — 2.5 m. In the future, in order not to increase the area of the uterine-cutting garden, other new varieties can be grafted into the crown.
Graft uterine cuttings on clonal stocks
For grafting using only cuttings from the uterine-cutting garden from seedlings or young, not yet fruit-bearing garden, from fruit-bearing - not recommended.
I inoculate saplings of seed crops with winter grafting, stone seeds - with budding. Why is that?
First, I do the vaccination in February, when there is no urgent work in the garden and nursery, in comfortable conditions, in a warm room.
Secondly, during the winter I manage to acquire the missing gene pool of new varieties that interest me.
Of course, okulyanty more powerful and higher than seedlings from winter vaccinations, but I believe that this figure is no longer relevant. Excessively strong trees are good for sale, and from the point of view of the subsequent survival in the garden is preferable to seedlings of moderate size.Fig.3. The mother liquor pear stock BA-29
Occultants have a more powerful root system and provide intensive vegetative growth, therefore, less productive. The seedling obtained from the winter vaccination, "return" after planting in the garden will be higher. These seedlings look weak, they are harder to sell in the market, but they work better for the harvest, for the production of fruits, and not for growing wood.
The best time for winter vaccinations - The middle of winter, when the stock and scion are in a state of deep dormancy. The stock is still stored in the basement in wet sawdust since autumn. Cuttings to frost in early December, and stored in the basement, as well as stock. Taking into account that in our region there was no case of freezing of annual shoots, I prepare them from the uterine-cutting garden just before grafting. I bind the cuttings of each variety into bundles, attach a label with the name of the variety to each.
Before vaccination rootstock and cuttings bring in a warm room. Then carefully wash and soak in the water in which they are located during and after vaccinations, in the amount of at least one day. This technique has a positive effect on the process of callus formation and helps to improve the survival rate of grafted plants.
I instill in an improved copulation method using stock with a thickness of 4 mm and above. To do this, I make oblique cuts 2.5–3 cm long on the graft and stock. One third of the edge of the oblique cuts I slaughter the tongue. Then I connect the stock and the scion so that the cambial layers coincide (in the worst case, the coincidence should be on the one hand) and tie up the vaccination site with scotch tape.
In order for the cambial layers to coincide on both sides, it is necessary to select the thickness of the stock and the scion of the same diameter. To make it easier to choose diameters, I cut the cuttings of one variety with two or three buds of different thickness and lay them on the table, then randomly take stock of any diameter and select the thickness of the graft. Therefore, I do not sort the stock by fraction before putting it into storage.
In bundles of 50 pieces each, there is a stock of different diameter. This speeds up the selection of the diameter of the stock and the stalk during vaccinations, respectively, increases productivity. This is my practice, I think this method is convenient, although I assume that it can be challenged by other practitioners.
Vaccination height from the base of the clone rootstock 40–45 cm, taking into account the planting of a seedling to a depth of 20 cm.
After vaccination I lubricate one variety of the grafted cutting with a garden pitch; for each seedling I attach a label with the name of the variety. I make labels from food-grade aluminum, on which it is easy to write with a ballpoint pen, it does not rust and is durable. I fasten such labels with copper wire to the stock, below the inoculation.
Then I tie all the grafted saplings of one variety in a bundle, dip the roots in a clay mash and put it in a plastic bag. If the size of the bag allows, I stack several bundles of different varieties; I tie all the bundles below the graft site so as not to damage. Packed vaccinations lay on the stratification in a warm room (temperature 24-25 ° C). After 5 days, I clean them in the basement, put them in a vertical position, and so they are stored until the beginning of spring work.
I plant vaccinations in the nursery in early spring according to the scheme of 0.2–0.25 × 1 m. I’m manually digging a trench 20 cm deep. I put the grafted seedlings on board the trench, measuring the required distance, and half of it I fall asleep with earth.
I take the seedlings with one hand on the lower part and lift them up, setting them vertically. To take the graft part is impossible, so as not to damage the vaccine. After installing all the plants in a row, I trowel the trench with a shovel and very carefully, so as not to damage the young roots of the rootstock, I tamp the ground along the row.
All work is done under the cord.
Caring for plants in the nursery during the growing season consists of regular watering, feeding, weeding from weeds, loosening of the formed peel, systematic removal of rootstocks below the grafts.
How to plant an acquired seedling?
In the pit prepared and filled with organic and mineral fertilizers, I plant a seedling so that the graft is above the soil surface for low and medium varieties by 20 cm, for high-growth varieties - by 25 cm.
After planting, I set up a support, to which I plant the sapling in two places, so that it will not be shaken by the wind, as this will undermine the young roots that have taken root.
In our region, the best landing time is autumn. Поскольку корневая система работает круглый год, до начала вегетации саженец успевает прижиться и быстрее трогается в рост. На зиму саженцы мульчирую, штамбы обматываю мешковиной или бумагой. Обрезать такие саженцы или обрывать цветы (у 10% саженцев закладываются цветочные почки в питомнике) не рекомендуется.Рис.4. Трехлетний интенсивный сад
The formation in the first year of vegetation is that all the branches formed above the trunk (80-110 cm), you need to take away from the conductor horizontally. This can be done in any way (clothespin, tie, weight, etc.).
In the second year of life, the young trees bloom and begin to work for the harvest. Secateurs are used only when a competing conductor appears, which grows at an acute angle and cannot be bent.
In conclusion, I would like to note that the cultivation of seedlings is a creative and painstaking business, all technological operations, like links in one chain, are equally important. Growing varietal planting material is difficult, but if you love the land and love to work on it, the work is not a burden. I wish all gardeners good harvests!
Vyacheslav Levenets (Krivoy Rog, Ukraine)
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Caring for California Carpentheria
Carpenteria is a heat-loving plant that is usually grown at home, but it can also be grown in the garden, but only when there is a wall facing the south from the cold winds. Carpentery - you can plant if you want to create on your site a small passable hedge or a spectacular tapeworm.
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If you have any questions about care, I grow, water Carpenter, then create your own theme in the gazebo :)
Care and Cultivation of Carpenteria
The plant is among the heat-loving, so the place for planting choose solar, protected from the wind. Carpenterium is not demanding on soils, it can grow on any soils, the main thing is that the soil is well drained, without stagnant moisture. But best of all, the shrub grows on fertile, loose soils.
Carpenterium does not need frequent watering, it is watered only on particularly dry days. The plant can do without watering.
Top dressings bring at will, if soils are very poor. Complex mineral fertilizers are applied in spring and summer, once a month.
Carpentery does not have good winter hardiness, therefore, landings provide a reliable winter shelter. Without shelter, the bush suffers a drop in temperature to -15 degrees. In very cold winters, leaves can change color and fall off, branches can frost up.
Some growers grow shrubs in a container, due to the formation of the crown achieve compact size of the bush. In winter, containers are kept in a cool and dark place, such as in a basement.
In the spring, damaged and dry branches are removed; too long branches are pruned to maintain the desired shape of the bush.
The plant is propagated by layering, cuttings, less seeds.
Cuttings are cut in early summer, rooted in a loose and nutritious substrate under the film. Moisture the substrate as needed, the cuttings are contained in the penumbra. Rooted cuttings transplanted into the open ground in the fall.
The layers are propagated in spring, young shoots growing closer to the ground, bend down to the soil and fix with a peg, a metal clip or bury the shoot into the soil, and pressed on top with stone or brick. Escape bury so that the top remained above the soil surface. The place of contact between the shoot and the soil is plentifully watered. Subsequent watering is carried out as the soil dries. Layers are separated from the parent bush next spring and transplanted to a permanent place.
It is better to buy saplings in the spring, thus it is necessary to pay attention to appearance.
Carpenterium Californian (Lat. Carpenteria californica) is an evergreen shrub. His homeland is North America. It is from this area that the plant has spread throughout the world and, thanks to its decorative qualities, has taken pride of place in landscape gardening.
The leaves of the carpenterium narrow, dense, with a glossy shine, dark green color, pubescent below, gray. The length reaches 10 cm, width - 2 cm. In winter, the leaves are usually green, but some may grow brown and fall.
The main decoration of the Carpenterium is its flowers. They are quite large - 8 cm in diameter, consist of five to eight rounded petals in shape. Painted white. In the center of the flower are stamens yellow. Buds exude a pleasant aroma. Flowering occurs in the first half of summer. By the middle of August - in September, when the flowers are fading away, the shrub is bearing fruit - boxes with seeds with a diameter of 0.8-1.2 cm. The life span of the plant is about 20 years.
Lighting and wind protection
Place for planting ornamental flowering shrubs should be well lit and sheltered from winds. The flower is thermophilic, can not stand the shadows and drafts. The best site for growing Carpenterium is protected by the southern or western wall of the building. The plant needs several hours of direct sunlight per day.
The flower does not make demands on the soil; it will grow on almost any soil. However, the most decorative becomes in the fertile, light, loose earth.
The main requirement for planting does not apply to the composition of the soil, but to the presence of good drainage and the absence of close groundwater. Stagnation of the plant does not tolerate moisture.
Planting and breeding
Carpenteria seedlings are best purchased and planted in the spring: so they will have time to fully adapt to new conditions before the onset of cold weather. The best plant for planting - bought in a specialty store in a container. When buying, you need to pay attention to the appearance of the shrub. He should look healthy and strong. The shrub easily tolerates transplanting and quickly recovers.
The multiplication of carpenterium can be done by seed and vegetative (layering, cuttings) methods. Seed propagated very rarely. The simplest and most common method is vegetative.
Cuttings cut in June. To do this, choose the strongest and most healthy branches and cut off from the top 10-15 cm. It is necessary that the cutting has two or three buds. For rooting planting material is placed in a mini-greenhouse. For planting, they prepare a moist and nutritious substrate, cut cuttings into it and cover it with a film. Periodically, the substrate will need to be moistened, and the cuttings ventilated. Mini greenhouses are kept in a shaded place. Young plants should take root in the fall, and then they can be transplanted into open ground at a permanent place.
Propagation by cuttings produced in the spring. Young lower branches of a shrub are bent down to the ground and strengthened with pegs or they are added dropwise, pressed down with stone or brick. The top should be above the ground. The place where the shoots come into contact with the soil is periodically watered. In the spring, the cuttings are separated from the mother plant. Then they are planted in open ground in a permanent place.
How to care for a plant
Watering for carpentery is not a mandatory care event. They can be made occasionally, on very dry days and with a long absence of precipitation.Do not need shrubs and dressing - they can be made only at the request of the owner, and if the plant is planted in poor land. Complex fertilizers for ornamental plants in the spring and summer periods are suitable for top dressing. The optimal frequency of application is once a month. Since the shrub does not tolerate winter temperatures of up to -15 ° C, he needs to build a shelter for the winter.
In the spring, the plant will need to be cut off - to remove dry, frozen, old branches from it. In autumn, after flowering, too long branches are cut out to give a crown a neat and well-groomed shape. Formative haircut is produced by cutting off the shoots by one third. This haircut can be combined with cutting.