Conducted in several techniques:
- in the beginning of March, immediately after the snow melted, they carry out sanitary pruning, removing the branches damaged during the winter,
- in April, before the beginning of active movement of tree sap and swelling of buds, they begin to form pruning, designed to correct, and in the case of young trees, to begin forming the crown of the tree.
Do you need crown formation in summer?
About the need for a summer pruning gardeners are ambiguous.
Stages of summer pruning cherries:
- in late May, early June, after flowering, but before the start of ripening, in order to stimulate the growth of horizontal branches and correct the direction of their growth, they are pruned by pinching the still non-lumbering shoots. At the same time, the main trunk is shortened,
- in the middle of July and until the beginning of August, after harvesting, shoots grown after the first pruning are shortened by 10 cm.
Proper pruning in the fall
Is held after the fall of the foliage with the aim of:
- thinning: removal of broken, old and weak, as well as branches and branches growing at the wrong angle,
- shortening the length of the shoots by a third.
Autumn processing needs to be completed in September. In the fall, the wounds from slices are slowed down. The tree must recover before the arrival of cold weather.
Sweet cherry pruning:
Features of the autumn pruning
- The main goal of the autumn pruning, performed immediately after the leaf fall and ending at the end of September, is to remove all weak and damaged branches, because a tree that has got rid of weakened shoots will be better able to endure the period of hibernation.
- In the autumn period, you can thin out the crown, providing for the removal of all branches growing at the wrong angle.
- Another popular type of autumn pruning is shortening, consisting in cutting by a third of all annual branches.
To perform the autumn pruning of cherries, it is best to use a well-sharpened garden saw, since the cuts left by this tool heal much faster than the damage caused by shears.
Why do I need to prune the cherry trees?
Many gardeners believe that it is better not to practice pruning stone trees, especially cherries and cherries, allowing trees to grow naturally.
Agree with this - do not quite right. Forming pruning stone fruit allows to improve the crown of trees (cut dried boughs and twigs, which serve as additional gates for penetration of harmful infections and pests into the wood). Removing the branches growing inside the crown during pruning allows air access; this operation can significantly reduce the risk of developing pathological fungal infections.
When pruning, a strong skeleton of a tree is formed, the height of the trunk is reduced, which facilitates harvesting and makes it easier to work on the garden from pests.
Tip! A strong healthy tree is a pledge of a bountiful harvest, regular pruning helps to stimulate fruiting.
Schemes pruning trees in Cherry Orchard
The classic scheme of the formation of cherries - sparse-tiered. On one tree, there are only 8 branches of the main skeleton, arranged in three tiers. The lower tier consists of 3-4 main branches, which must be directed in different directions (no overhang of the branches above each other is allowed).
The second tier rises above the first 60 cm, and the intervals between the branches of the second tier are up to half a meter.
First year (pruned when planting sapling)
The one-year sweet cherry sapling, planted in the garden at a permanent place, is already subject to pruning. For the correct formation of the crown adhere to certain rules:
- In the southern regions of Russia, it is customary to leave a stem up to 60 cm, the further north, the shtamp height is less - in the northern and chernozem regions, a cherry tree is formed on a stem of 30-40 cm.
- For cutting use a sharp clean knife, in advance it is necessary to prepare the compositions to protect the cut point: oil paint, garden pitch, special protective mastics. Slices sections in order to exclude the possibility of infection through the wound surface.
The first pruning is carried out in the spring months.
The second year of cultivation of sweet cherry: the rules for pruning a two-year sapling
Pruning a two-year tree is carried out in the spring, it is important not to delay the procedure. Strong branches developed from the buds left in the first year, of which 3-4 pieces are left. The remaining branches are cut near the trunk, leave hemp is not allowed.
The remaining branches should be arranged harmoniously around the trunk, without touching. It is necessary to cut off the branches of the first tier, leaving up to 50 cm in length. Simultaneously with pruning the branches of the first tier, in the second spring, the main stem of the cherry is shortened. 4 buds are counted from the uppermost branch of the 1st tier and the upper part of the trunk is trimmed with a sharp knife. The cut points are reliably covered with special means.
Third year: spring cherry tree pruning
The scheme of pruning a cherry tree in the third spring is carried out according to the following rules: on the branches of the first tier, one is determined, with the worst annual increase. Pruning of this branch is not carried out, and the remaining branches of the first order are truncated to the size of the weakest.
Tip! At the same time, pruning of all branches growing deep into the crown is carried out.
In the second tier form second-order skeletal branches, while it is strictly necessary to ensure that the branches grow outward and are approximately at an equal distance from the trunk.
After pruning the branches, they proceed to the formation of the main stem of the cherry tree, for which 50 cm recede from the second tier and leave 4 to 6 buds, which will give rise to branched branches of 3 orders. The magnitude of the future harvest depends on the angle of the directed growth of the branches: the greatest harvest is collected from the horizontal branches.
Fourth year: spring cherry pruning
The central trunk of the tree should be cut to the weakest side shoot, such an operation will help limit the growth of cherry in height. All side shoots are cut, leaving no more than 80 cm on shoots 2 and 3 tiers, the branches of the first tier are cut more strongly - leave up to half a meter long shoots.
In the fourth year, not only the branches of the main skeleton are cut, but also strong shoots are shortened on the skeletal branches. At the same time strictly follow the direction of growth of the branches - all shoots directed inside the crown ruthlessly removed. Also remove one of the two intersecting shoots.
In the fifth, sixth and subsequent years, the pruning of cherries is carried out similarly to the 4 year scheme, and the shoots on the skeletal branches are removed: weak, underdeveloped, broken, with the direction of growth inside the tent crown. The central trunk and the main skeletal branches shorten no more than half a meter.