General information

What is sorghum - varieties, useful and dangerous properties, used in cooking and agriculture


This is a herbaceous plant, which belongs to the family Myatlikovyh (Grasses). Its homeland is Sudan, Ethiopia and other states of Northeastern Africa, where the plant was cultivated in the 4th century BC, and where the largest number of sorghum species known to modern science is still found. In ancient times, this culture was common not only in Africa, but also in China, India, where it is widely used in food today. In the 15th century, it began to be cultivated in European countries, and in the 17th century it was brought to America.

Today you can find both annual species of plants, and perennials. Interestingly, many young plants are poisonous.

This spring heat-loving culture, resembling corn externally, is successfully grown in the States, where places from Missouri to Kentucky specialize in the cultivation of sugar sorghum, the production of syrup and other products from it. In America, grows 40 grain varieties of the plant. The production of various sorghum products is considered to be an important part of the economies of Nigeria and India, which are also leaders in this industry, far ahead of African countries where sorghum is traditionally the main crop.

Now we know about 60 varieties of cultivated and wild species of sorghum, which are most common in Central and South-West Asia, Equatorial Africa, the Americas, southern Europe, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, and even Australia.

Among them are the following types:

  • cereal sorghum (Major - Ethiopian, Nubian and Arab sorghum) looks similar to millet. From seeds of different color - from white to brown and even black - get cereals, flour and starch, using these products for the preparation of alcohol, bread, confectionery, cereals, baby food, diverse dishes of national cuisines of Asia, Africa, etc. ,
  • sugar sorghum, from whose stems they produce molasses for various confectionary products, sorghum syrup and sweet sorghum honey,
  • technical or broom sorghumWhose straw is used to make paper, brooms and wickerwork,
  • grass sorghumhaving a juicy core that goes to livestock for feed,
  • lemongrassused as a seasoning for meat, fish, vegetable dishes and various seafood, goes well with ginger, garlic, pepper. It produces valuable essential oil for the pharmaceutical, food and perfume industries.

How to choose

Sorghum is divided into 4 categories. Herb and technical varieties are not used in cooking. Cereals or sugar are used for the production of cereals and flour, confectionery, beverages and molasses.

When purchasing grain worth paying particular attention to its appearance. A quality product should be well dried and have a reddish tint. Grain should have a crumbly texture, and in color it can vary from light yellow to brown and black.

In cooking

Sorghum has a neutral, in some cases slightly sweet taste, so it can be considered a universal product for a variety of culinary variations. Most often this product is used for the production of starch, flour, croup (couscous), baby food, alcohol.

Due to its fresh citrus aroma, lemongrass makes spices for seafood, meat, fish, and vegetables in Caribbean and Asian cuisines. They combine cereal with garlic, hot pepper, ginger. Lemongrass is added to sauces, soups, drinks.

Sweet sorghum produces delicious syrups, molasses, jam, and also beverages such as beer, mead, kvass, and vodka. Interestingly, this is the only plant whose juice contains about 20% sugar.

Nutritious and tasty cereals, flat cakes, various confectionery products, various soups and main dishes are obtained from this grain crop. Sorghum does not contain gluten, because for high-quality baking it is combined with classic wheat flour. It combines well with fresh vegetables, lime juice, mushrooms and lemon.

In dietary food, sorghum is used to make healthy and satisfying side dishes, cereals, and added to vegetable salads. This product can permanently relieve hunger, enrich the body with minerals and vitamins.

In China, maotai is made from grain sorghum. In Ethiopia, bread is often eaten instead of bread, made from sorghum sorghum.

The composition and availability of nutrients

Sorghum contains unsaturated and saturated acids, mono- and disaccharides, as well as various vitamins: PP, B1, B5, B2, B6, A, H, choline. This cereal exceeds the record of bilberry in polyphenolic compounds by 12 times. Its mineral composition is represented by phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper, silicon, aluminum, etc.

It is worth noting that sorghum does not contain an important amino acid lysine, so it is advised to combine it with other sources of proteins.

Useful and healing properties

Sorghum is rich in carbohydrates and proteins, which determines its nutritional value. Thiamine has a beneficial effect on brain function and nervous activity, as well as stimulates appetite, stomach secretion and improves the functioning of the heart muscle. It has a positive effect on growth, energy level, ability to learn and is needed for muscle tone. This vitamin acts as an antioxidant, protects the body from the destructive effects of aging.

Polyphenolic compounds that are strong antioxidants protect the body from negative environmental factors, the effects of tobacco and alcohol, and also resist aging. 1 gram of sorghum contains about 62 mg of polyphenolic compounds. For comparison, in the blueberry record holder there are only 5 mg per 100 grams.

In addition, due to the content of vitamin PP and biotin, this cereal improves the metabolic processes that break down fats and stimulate the production of fatty acids, amino acids, steroid hormones and vitamins A and D. Promotes sorghum also the formation of niacin from tryptophan, protein synthesis.

Contained in sorghum phosphorus very actively helps in the formation of the skeleton and provides the cells with the necessary phosphoric acid. Phosphoric acid is involved in the construction of numerous enzymes - the main engines of cell reactions. So, from such phosphate salts are the tissues of the human skeleton.

Sorghum is indicated for diabetics because it helps regulate sugar levels and is involved in the synthesis of glucose. The product also stimulates the production of hemoglobin and helps red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues of the human body.

The use of sorghum is recommended for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, various nervous disorders, skin and mucous membranes, it is very useful to enter into the diet of the elderly, children, pregnant women and nursing mothers. Serves this product and a means to prevent heart attack, stroke, often prescribed for rejuvenation.

It is used for problems with intestines and nervous disorders, as well as in the nutrition of patients with celiac disease (gluten intolerance).

Infusion of the rhizomes of this cereal is effective for neuralgia, gout, rheumatism. The extract of the grain is considered an excellent diuretic agent, is used to remove the swelling and the withdrawal of salts.

Sorghum - what is it

A plant of kaolian (gumay) or sorghum is an annual and perennial grassy spring crop that belongs to the family of cereals or bluegrass. Translation from the Latin word "Sorgus" means "to rise." According to the scale of production, the grass is in fifth place, which is explained by high yield, productivity, resistance to weather conditions. The grade is unpretentious, cultivation of culture does not demand use of the special equipment and equipment.

Places of growth

Sorghum is considered to be homeland areas of East Africa. There it began to grow from the 4th century BC. Today, there are about 70 species of this plant, which are cultivated in south-western Asia, Equatorial and South Africa, the southern part of the European continent, and Australia. Also grows kaolian in Moldova, the steppe zone of Ukraine, the southern part of Russia.

Energy value and composition

The plant is a natural antioxidant. Kaolian contains more protein than corn, but does not have the amino acid lysine. 100 grams of sorghum grain contains 339 Kcal. Sorghum grain has the following nutritional value:

  • carbohydrates - 68.3 g,
  • ash - 1.57 g.
  • water - 9.2 g,
  • fats - 3.3 g,
  • protein - 11.3 g

The table shows the content of essential vitamins and minerals per 100 g of seed:

Vitamin B1, Thiamine

Vitamin B2, riboflavin

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-6 fatty acids

Monounsaturated fatty acids

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

Beneficial features

The composition of trace elements and vitamins sorghum determines its characteristics and therapeutic properties. The plant is capable of:

  • strengthen the muscles of the heart
  • stimulate the appetite
  • improve brain activity
  • break down fats, activate the body's metabolic processes,
  • accelerate protein synthesis
  • remove salt from the body
  • stimulate hemoglobin production.

Gaoliang is often used for various gastrointestinal diseases, the occurrence of rheumatism, for the prevention of strokes and heart attacks. The grain, due to its folic acid content, is very useful for pregnant women, nursing mothers. Lemongrass tightens the skin, makes it fresh and elastic, so often the plant is used in the manufacture of anti-aging cosmetics.

The content of proteins and carbohydrates makes the plant nutritious, thiamine tones muscles, stimulates the secretion of the stomach, and has a beneficial effect on the higher nervous activity of the body. Antioxidants, which the grain has in large quantities, protect the human body, prevent premature aging, inflammation. Vitamins regulate metabolism, break down fats. The product is suitable for the use of diabetics, for skin diseases, nervous disorders.

Vitamins contained in sorghum are good for the body. For example:

  • potassium regulates pressure, acid, water, electrolyte balance,
  • Vitamin B1 provides the body with energy, promotes metabolism, improves the digestive, nervous, cardiovascular systems.
  • phosphorus is involved in many physiological processes,
  • Vitamin PP is involved in the restoration and normalization of the skin, improves the gastrointestinal tract, the nervous system,
  • iron prevents anemia, atony of skeletal muscles, atrophic gastritis


There are about 70 cultivated and 24 wild varieties of sorghum. Depending on the sphere of use, there is grain sorghum, sugar, lemon, marinaceous, grassy. All varieties are very fruitful, but in the first places by their fertility: “Durra”, “Gaolyan”, “Dzhugara”. We derive several hybrids that give no less yield. These are: "Quartz", "Titan", "Emerald", "Eritrea". There are 4 main groups of sorghum:

  1. sugar,
  2. lemon,
  3. technical or venic,
  4. grassy.

There are several types of sorghum. There are 8 of them, some of them have their own subspecies. There is sorghum:

  • Guinean cereal,
  • Kaffir,
  • Negro
  • bread (Ethiopian, Nubian, Arabic),
  • Chinese (kaoliang ordinary and waxy),
  • sugar,
  • grass or sudan grass,
  • technical (East Eurasian and West Eurasian).

The stalk of sugar sorghum contains about 20% sugar. The highest concentration of carbohydrates is immediately after the flowering of the plant. It is used in the manufacture of jam, honey, sweets, alcohol, vitamins, food additives. Sugar made from humane can be used by people with diabetes. The cost of this substance is lower than the cane or beet. The culture is able to give a good harvest in drought, high temperature, on poor soil. The plant is resistant to diseases and pests, therefore, less pesticides are used in cultivation.

Culture is indispensable for the need to restore the fertility of dry, depleted soil. Antioxidants of the grain are able to remove all toxic substances from the earth, it is replenished with useful minerals. After this treatment, the sowing of other crops, their growth will be productive. Sugar sorghum is increasingly used in the field of bioenergy for the manufacture of bioethanol, biogas, solid fuels. In China, this culture is one of the main in the production of biofuels.

Lemon gumay is easy to recognize by the pronounced aroma of lemon. This feature of the plant allows its use by perfumers, cooks. The plant is dried and fresh. For cooking - it is pulp, onion and stem, juice, perfumery uses essential oils. As a spice culture is suitable for meat and fish dishes, vegetable soups and salads. Especially often it is used for making marinades, brewing tea.

Lemongrass does a good job with seborrhea, strengthens hair, prevents baldness. Essential oil from gaolian is effective for tsetse flies and mosquito bites; it is an antibacterial, antiseptic, antipyretic agent, as evidenced by its wide use by medical workers from India, China, and Vietnam. The plant is more commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Technical or sorghum is grown in household plots. The plant does not require serious care, the land can be cultivated in the usual way. Distinguish technical Kaolian in color, form panicles, which go to the manufacture of brooms. Red varieties are valued less because they have hard, tough branches. The most valuable varieties with elastic, smooth, identical in length, thick at the ends of the panicles. In addition to brooms, the plant is suitable for the manufacture of wicker things, paper. Growing a broom can be a good start for your own business.

Application, classification and common types of sorghum

About sorghum today, few people know. However, this plant has a large number of useful properties and has a huge potential for active use in various sectors of industry, forage. In this article you will learn what sorghum is, its most popular types and areas of application.

What is sorghum

Sorghum is an annual or perennial grass plant. Refers to spring crops. His homeland are areas of East Africa, where the plant began to grow in the IV century BC. e. Culture on the scale of world production is in fifth place. Such a high popularity of sorghum due to the fact that the plant is unpretentious in the care, gives a great harvest and has many useful properties that can be used in different industries. Very beneficial is that the cultivation of culture does not require special equipment and machinery. Sorghum is a very thermophilic plant. For its normal development and yield is necessary during the growth of the prevalence of a temperature of 25-30 ° C. Frosts can lead to the death of the crop. At the same time, sorghum is very resistant to droughts, various kinds of pests and diseases. It has a well-developed root system. Undemanding to the composition of the soil, it grows on both loamy and sandy, clayey rocks. It needs regular treatment from weeds, and in the conditions of development on poor land, it is also in additional fertilizer. The plant is very rich in nutrients, vitamin complex.

Common sorghum species

There are many types of sorghum: about 70 cultivated and 24 wild. They differ somewhat in characteristics, composition and scope of application. Sorghum is a real storehouse of vitamins and beneficial elements. However, in cooking it is quite difficult to use, because the croup has a thick, bitter-tasting skin. At the same time, the plant is very actively used in the industrial sector, for feeding livestock. Depending on the scope of use Sorghum is classified into the following species:

Cereal sorghum

Grain sorghum is used in the food industry. Since ancient times, this type of plant among the peoples of Africa was considered one of the most important products for cooking. Since sorghum is resistant to the conditions of a dry climate, during periods of drought this plant is practically the only source of nutrients for Africans.

Sorghum is widely used for the production of:

  • starch,
  • flour,
  • cereals.
Sorghum flour is used for food purposes. From it cooked porridge, cakes. For baking use, such flour is necessarily mixed with wheat flour, as it does not contain a viscous substance. From sorghum flour baked bread, cooked couscous.

Sorghum starch is used in the food, mining, textile, paper, medical industry. Many plant species exceed even corn by starch capacity. At the same time, the cultivation of a crop and its processing are much easier than the cultivation of corn.

The most fruitful such grain varieties are considered: "Gaoliang", "Durra", "Jugra". Кроме того, сегодня выведено большое количество гибридов зернового сорта, которые по объему урожайности и качественным характеристикам ничем не уступают основному виду.

Наиболее урожайными гибридами являются: "Титан", "Кварц", "Изумруд", "Эритрея". К гибридам, которые наиболее обогащены крахмалом, относятся:

"Гранд","Эритрея", "Титан". По содержанию белка самыми лучшими разновидностями считаются: "Титан", "Кварц", "Жемчужина".


In the juice of the stems of this species there are up to 20% sugar. Due to such a high index, sugar sorghum is mainly used for making honey, jam, alcohol, and various sweets. In addition, the plant stems are used in the production of feed, vitamin complexes, food additives.

Sorghum stalks contain large quantities of sucrose. The largest amount of the substance in the plant is concentrated after its flowering. Sugargrass sorghum is very popular in production, because the crop produces a good crop and is not demanding on soil composition, climatic conditions (except for the need for heat), tolerates drought well, and shows high yields even on poor soils. Due to these characteristics, recent interest in this plant has increased in all countries with suitable climatic conditions.

The results of the research show that the cost of sugar from sorghum is half the price of the same product made from cane and beets. In addition, much less pesticides are used in the cultivation of this crop, which is explained by the high resistance of the plant to diseases and pests. Thus, the product based on sorghum is much more environmentally friendly and healthier.

Sugar grade sorghum is widely used as animal feed. Silage and hay are produced from it. The products are rich in nutrients. Mixed silage from sorghum and maize is considered the most optimal feed in the livestock sector.

Sorghum of this variety can also be used in the field of bioenergy. It is made of:

  • bioethanol
  • biogas,
  • solid fuel.
Culture is also very useful for renewing depleted soil. Sorghum is an excellent antioxidant and removes from the soil all toxic substances that are formed on the lands used by industrial enterprises. The plant is widely used in crop rotation, as it removes salts from the soil and has a phytomeliorative effect on the soil.


Lemongrass has a pronounced lemon flavor. Due to this property, the plant is widely used in perfumery, as well as cooking (as a spice or basis for brewing tea). Sorghum can be used both in dried and fresh form. Dried plants before use should be soaked in water for about two hours. In cooking, use the stem, pulp and onion. The stem is hard, so it is cut into thin strips before being added to the dish. Lemongrass sorghum is very popular in Asian, Caribbean, Thai, Vietnamese cuisines. It is widely used for cooking marinades. As a spice, it is excellent for fish, meat dishes, vegetable soups, salads.

Very tasty and healthy tea based on this plant. Culture stems are poured with hot boiled water and infused for about ten minutes. It turns out a great tonic flavored drink. Moreover, it is very useful for colds.

This type of sorghum has pronounced antiseptic, antibacterial, antipyretic properties. Due to this, they are widely used in medicine in India, China, and Vietnam for the treatment of infectious diseases, as well as a febrifuge.

In the perfumery using the essential oil of sorghum. It is also effective against mosquito bites and tsetse flies.

Technical or venice sorghum

Broom sorghum is profitable to grow on the plot. Birds can be fed with its grain, and straw-washed straws can be used to make brooms. Seeds of such sorghum are inexpensive, plus the whole plant is completely unpretentious in the care, grows even on infertile soils, gives a great harvest. Therefore, with the help of venice sorghum, you can create a good profitable business.

The technical sorghum has many types, the color and shape of panicles for making brooms depends on it. The most valuable species are those that have even, elastic, panicles of equal length with dense branching at the ends. Red panicles are least valued because they are very tough. Technical sorghum is also used for making paper, wicker things.

Grass sorghum

Grass sorghum is widely used for feeding purposes. It has a juicy core and is rich in nutrients. Since sorghum grains have a hard shell, it needs to be kneaded before feeding the livestock. The shell contains tannin. Therefore, sorghum in the diet of animals should be limited to 30%. In modern hybrid species it is much smaller. Therefore, they are more suitable for use as feed.

The caloric content and composition of sorghum

Sorghum has a high calorie content: 100 g of the product contains 339 Kcal, most of them are carbohydrates. 100 g of sorghum have the following nutritional value:

  • carbohydrates - 68, 3 g,
  • water - 9, 2 g,
  • proteins - 11, 3 g,
  • fats - 3, 3 g,
  • ash - 1, 57 g
Due to this amount of carbohydrates, the plant has a high energy value. Besides, The composition of sorghum includes such useful elements: calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, copper, selenium, zinc, iron, manganese, molybdenum. Vitamins in sorghum are also present. The plant is enriched with such vitamin groups:

  • IN 1,
  • AT 2,
  • AT 6,
  • WITH,
  • PP
  • H,
  • folic acid.
Due to this composition, the plant has a large number of useful and healing properties that are widely used in medicine in Asian countries.

Sorghum Biofuels

Sorghum is considered one of the valuable sources of biofuels. Sugar sorghum is suitable for its production. Scientists have conducted a significant amount of research, as a result of which the benefit of using sorghum to produce biofuels has been proven. From it it is possible to produce bioethanol, biogas, solid fuel in the form of briquettes. The advantages of using this culture in the field of bioenergy include:

  • high yield
  • unpretentious care,
  • low soil requirements
  • drought tolerance
  • resistance to diseases and pests
  • cultivation does not require the use of special equipment.

Thus, unfamiliar sorghum has great potential for use in the food, perfumery, medical, bioenergy, livestock industries. In addition, the plant has a large number of nutrients and vitamins. Since this plant is not yet known to a wide circle of people, on the basis of its application it is possible to firmly occupy a niche in the business sphere.

Sorghum. Types, use and useful properties

A culture like srgo (lat Sorghum which means translated "Rise"), thanks to its rather long and durable stem, it is better known as natural raw material for the manufacture of high quality brooms.

Homeland of this annual plant is East Africa, where this culture was grown in the IV century BC. Then the plant was widely distributed in India, in the countries of the European continent, in Asia and America.

Due to its resistance to dry and hot climates, sorghum has long been considered the most valuable food and is still the main source of food among the nations representing the African continent.

Today, sorghum is among the five most popular plants in the world and has found application in various fields of human activity. This culture grows well in Ukraine (especially in the southern regions).

Sorghum is a fairly unpretentious heat-loving cereal plant with a well-developed root system.

It is not difficult to grow this plant, because it demonstrates good yield, is absolutely not demanding on the composition of the soil and can grow even in conditions of marginal fertility. The only negative - it does not tolerate frost. But sorghum perfectly resists droughts, is resistant to many harmful insects and infections, so in most cases does not require the use of expensive pesticides.

In addition to a magnificent set of vitamins and minerals, the plant is the most valuable source of carbohydrates and protein, so it is recommended to use it for athletes to quickly gain muscle mass and recuperate.

However, in cooking, this product in its pure form is used quite rarely, since the seeds of sorghum have a bitter taste and a rather thick skin. But the plant is effectively used in animal husbandry (as a fodder base for livestock and poultry), and vitamin complexes and food additives are also produced from it.

Major sorghum species and beneficial properties

In the world there are about 70 species of cultivated sorghum and 24 wild species.

Sorghum, depending on the scope of application is divided into several types:

A separate place is technical variety this plant from which usual brooms are made.

Cereal sorghum It is widely used as a raw material for food production: cereals, starch and flour, from which porridges, flatbreads and bread are baked, pre-mixed with wheat flour for better viscosity.

Starch extracted from these plants is widely used in the pulp and paper industry, in the mining and textile industries, and in medicine. Sorghum even surpasses corn in starch content, and it is much easier to grow it.

Sugar variety Sorghum contains up to 20% of natural sugar (its maximum concentration is observed in the stems immediately after the flowering phase), so the plant is used to produce jams, molasses, beer, various sweets and alcohol.

It is noteworthy that sorghum sugar, unlike beet and cane, is considered dietary, so it is recommended to use it even for people with diabetes. In addition, the production of sugar from sorghum costs 50% (!) Cheaper than other analogues.

Since this plant contains a large amount of useful nutrients, high-quality silage is produced from the sugar varieties of sorghum and hay is harvested.

Sorghum is increasingly being used for the production of biofuels. For example, in China there is a special state program aimed at the cultivation of this culture, since it produces solid briquette fuel, as well as biogas and bioethanol.

In addition, sugar sorghum is an excellent antioxidant, helping to remove heavy metals, harmful salts and various toxic elements from the fertile soil, and therefore is widely used in crop rotation, exerting a phytomeliorative effect on the ground.

Concerning lemongrass, thanks to the pronounced lemon flavor, this plant is widely used in the perfume industry and is used to prepare various beverages, spices and pickles. As it turned out, tea made from stalks of lemongrass, besides its excellent aroma and tonic effect, is good for colds, as it has antiseptic, antibacterial and antipyretic properties.

Also, sorghum lemon varieties are very popular in many cuisines of the world as a seasoning for meat, fish and vegetables. Valuable oil is also produced from it, which strengthens hair well, giving it a healthy shine and beauty.

Grassy varieties of sorghum in the bulk go to animal feed, because they have a high juiciness, and the core of their stems is rich in vitamins and minerals.

Varieties of technical sorghum quite a bit of. The seeds of these crops are usually used as feed for birds, and the stems are used to create brooms. The most valuable for the production of brooms are considered varieties that have smooth and soft panicles. Red varieties are less valuable because their stems are tighter.

In addition, technical varieties most often go to the production of paper.

Sorghum has a rather high calorie content ( 100 grams of product contains 339 kilocalories ).

The plant also contains a record amount of carbohydrates (68.3 grams per 100 grams), as well as a large number of proteins (11.3 grams), fat (3.3 grams) and other useful substances.

The composition of sorghum includes a huge amount of fiber, protein, the most valuable macro and micro elements (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, molybdenum, etc.), as well as vitamins of groups B1, B2, B6, PP, C, N.

Due to this set of useful substances, the plant has a powerful health and healing effect, therefore, is widely used in medicine. For example, sorghum seeds, because they are rich in folic acid, are recommended for pregnant women and nursing mothers. In addition, sorghum improves appetite, stimulates brain activity, strengthens the heart muscle, promotes the removal of toxins from the body.

The plant is recommended to use and with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, eating disorders, rheumatism.

How to prepare raw materials for the manufacture of brooms

Grow sorghum is easy, because this plant is completely unpretentious. For starters, it is advisable to find seeds of a technical grade. The most suitable for the manufacture of brooms are the stems that are dried on the vine.

Before planting, sorghum seeds should be poured with water for thirty minutes and all grown grains should be discarded, since they are unsuitable for sowing crops into the ground. Next, the seeds should be thoroughly dried and can be planted.

This plant is very thermophilic, so it is desirable that the selected piece of land is well heated by the sun.

Usually sorghum seeds are planted immediately after the onset of persistent heat (usually in early May). Sow culture in rows, planting seeds to a depth of 5 centimeters.

After the mass emergence of seedlings (the process takes about two weeks) they should be thinned out, leaving the strongest and healthiest shoots. The distance between plants should be about ten centimeters.

Before planting, it is advisable to fertilize the land, and to make top dressing with humus or urea.

It is important during the entire growing season to loosen the soil, and remove weeds in time.

Around the end of August, the seeds ripen completely, the stem dries out, and panicles acquire a dark reddish-brown color. Cut the stems should be at the root.

Next, the prepared raw material must be dried thoroughly (usually for this purpose, the stems are suspended in a warm and dry room with panicles up), after removing the leaves and seeds.

Now you can knit brooms.

Cultivation of sorghum (soriz, broom, panicle). Varieties, types, varieties. Application

What is sorghum. How it is used. What are the main characteristics and features (10+)

Agricultural sorghum - Sorta

Every year, summer temperatures are rising ever higher, and the amount of precipitation is rapidly decreasing. All these weather conditions adversely affect the quality and quantity of the crop of forage crops. Therefore, farmers now pay more attention to the cultivation of crops that easily tolerate high temperatures and do not require high soil moisture. One of these is the feed sorghum crop - this is an excellent version of concentrated feed for livestock and poultry, horses, sheep and even pond fish.

The plant is very easy to adapt to the conditions of growth and undemanding to the quality of the soil. Scientists have noticed an interesting behavior of sorghum, for example, during an unfavorable dry period, the plant seems to hibernate, its growth and development stops, but as soon as bad weather recedes, the active life of the plant resumes.

Sorghum or Soriz - It is a culture of arid and semi-arid regions. The land of sorghum is considered to be the land of Northeast Africa, namely Sudan and plantations in Ethiopia.

Sorghum is an extraordinary plant. It belongs to the family of cereals. Its homeland is considered to be Africa and India, since the plant is very fond of heat. For him, even preferably dry hot weather than a small shade. For the fact that sorghum can be in the heat for a long time and without water, it was also affectionately called a “camel”. In African countries, this plant was considered to be bread for residents, since it helped many people to survive in arid regions. The plant is known for a long time. But it was "forgotten." In Russia and Ukraine, this plant began to grow relatively recently, and even then, mainly in the southern regions.

Types and varieties of plants

Sorghum has many varieties. Therefore, we decided to divide the varieties of this grass into groups. Such are lemongrass, broom, sugar, grain sorghum. Depending on the species, sorghum can be both an annual and a perennial plant. All these types of sorghum are different from each other and have a different purpose.

Lemongrass is a perennial plant. Malaysia is considered to be its motherland. However, this variety has received greater use in India. The name itself speaks for itself. This type of sorghum has the smell and taste of lemon. It has found its application in cosmetics, perfumery, medicine. Use it as an additive in food, and also make it essential oils. In appearance, the plant resembles a reed. The height of this type of sargo can reach 3 meters. The stem of the plant is hard, which is why it does not spread on the ground, but grows like a tree. The leaves themselves are tough. Usually they are not used in the food industry. But the core, hidden under this stem, is very soft. Для неё и нашлось применение в качестве ароматизированных добавок в пищу как в свежем виде, так и в сухом. Как и лимон, этот вид сорго можно добавлять в маринады, засолки, чай, использовать при простудных заболеваниях, применять для косметических процедур.

Все мы рано, или поздно, берем в руки такую вещь, как веник. Ни один пылесос не заменит эту вещь. Но никогда не задумывались, из чего он сделан. It turns out that it was made from one of the varieties of sorghum. It is used mainly for technical purposes - brooms, brooms, brushes, wicker baskets, etc. are made. The leaves and stems of this type of sorghum are good food for animals, which is obtained after grinding. This type of sorghum was very popular in the Donetsk lands, where the most favorable conditions contribute to its cultivation. Like other types of sorghum, it is sown at a temperature not lower than 20 degrees. Broom sorghum can be used at the dacha as a “temporary fence”.

Sugargrass is a product that can compete with sugar beet. Use it as a substitute for our main product - sugar. This type of sorghum contains the largest percentage of sucrose. Due to this, sugar sorghum has found application in the food industry for the manufacture of syrups, sugar, alcohol, jam, jam and other confectionery products. The harvest of this species reaches from one hectare to 30 tons. Use sorghum and as animal feed. According to the content of nutrients it can be compared with corn.

Another type of sorghum - grain. It gained great popularity in agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry farming as a product containing a large amount of protein, fiber, amino acids, vitamins A and B, tannins. Grain sorghum is used to produce starch, flour, alcohol, and alcohol-containing products. Starch obtained from grain sorghum, is used not only in cooking. It has found its application in industry in the manufacture of paper and various types of fabrics.

Sudan grass belongs to grain sorghum. Plants of this species are considered undersized - reach up to 1.5 meters in height.

Culture is represented by the following most famous species:

  • sorghum
  • jugara
  • durra
  • kaoliang
  • sorghum kafir
  • sorghum tailed
  • dohna (grain sorghum)
  • sugar sorghum
  • coronoid (paniculata) sorghum
  • Sudan grass.

Depending on the shape of the panicle, sorghum is classified into two types:

According to the principle of use of culture in the economy, the plant is classified as follows:

  • grain sorghum is cultivated for the production of flour and cereals,
  • sugar sorghum is used in the preparation of sugar syrups for confectionery,
  • coronary sorghum has tough branches that serve as excellent material for brooms and wickerwork,
  • herbal sorghum goes to pet food,
  • lemon Sorghum is a seasoning to dishes in Asia and Africa.

In our country sorghum grain became the most popular, which is mainly used as animal feed.

General characteristics of culture

The plant easily survives drought due to a highly branched, fibrous root system.

The root reaches 2 meters, and the side shoots - up to 60-90 cm, so the plant can feed on deep groundwater. The stem of a plant can grow to a height of up to 7 meters (tropical species). The grain variety is characterized by a dry stem when ripe, and the sugar form, on the contrary, is juicy. Corngrass simultaneously develops several stems. Leaf of a lanceolate plant with sharp edges. The inflorescence of the plant is a panicle with a length of 6 to 10 cm. The grain of sorghum is very small, so 1000 pieces are only 20-35 grams of weight.

The foliage and stem of the plant are also adapted to the burning heat of the sun, as they are completely covered with a waxy coating. Such a "protective agent" saves water. The fruits of the plant are represented by grains of a rounded, ovate and oblong shape.

Depending on the variety, the grains vary in color: white, red, brown or brown. Sorghum grain is also classified as filmy and naked.

Soriz is a heat-loving plant, so late spring frosts can be detrimental to crops. At a temperature of 10-12 degrees Celsius sorghum seeds begin to actively germinate. But the temperature of 40-45 degrees Celsius does not affect the growth of the culture at all, therefore, for dry wind and air drought for sorghum are not terrible.

Why is the grain of the plant useful for agriculture?

Sorghum grain consists of:

The nutritional value of sorghum grain is almost as good as corn, and many species of domestic animals eat it willingly. So, greens can be given to feed for milk pigs, but not more than 60 kg per day due to the presence of hydrocyanic acid. It is very good to give grain sorghum to chickens and adult chickens, since amino acids and trace elements together with proteins and carbohydrates promote rapid growth and weight gain in chickens, as well as increase egg production in adults. Such types of fish as carp, crucian carp or silver carp are also not averse to taste the food from sorghum. Feeding sorghum gives an increase in live weight of fish up to 34%.

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Sorghum grain - Excellent concentrated food for all types of animals. By chemical composition, it differs little from other grain crops.

The content of the main components of grain sorghum is not inferior to corn and barley. It can only be noted that sorghum grains contain more protein and less fat than corn. The nitrogen-free extractive substances of sorghum grains consist mainly of starch (over 70%), so their digestibility is very high and reaches 90%.

The chemical composition of sorghum grain varies significantly depending on the species, groups, varieties and hybrids, as well as the growing area, the specific conditions of the year, agricultural technology, etc. Therefore, different authors give different data on the content of nutrients in sorghum grain.

In the experiments of the Department of Plant Industry of Odessa Agricultural Institute, the protein content, for example, depending on the varieties, hybrids and conditions of the year, ranged from 9.04 (1978, Skorosheloy 89) to 14.81% for absolutely dry matter (1977, Grade Efremov white 2). The same can be said about the fat content: in 1978, the Khazin 4 grain contained 2.97% of its dry substance, and in 1979

the variety Horizon - 5.01%.

In the work of L. A. Stafpychuk and N. Ya. Telyatppkov the chemical composition and nutritional value of sargo are compared with corn (average for 133 analyzed samples of sorghum and 189 - for corn). There are more protein and BEV in sorghum than in corn — 11.2 against 10.8% and 68.9 against 68.6%. But not much less fat and fiber - 3.5 against 4.0% and 2.0 against 2.3%.

In 100 kg of grain sorghum and corn contains, respectively, 125.8 and 130.4 to. Units.

Sorghum grain is also distinguished by a higher content of macro - and microelements in comparison with corn and barley.

The data show that the sorghum grain contains 1.5 times more calcium, 4 and 1.3 times, respectively, potassium and magnesium than in the corn grain. Barley grain on the macronutrient composition is almost identical to sorghum. The content of basic trace elements sorghum is not inferior to barley and surpasses corn.

According to the content of essential amino acids, sorghum grain can be characterized as equivalent to corn grain.

According to the content of basic amino acids, the protein of grain sorghum corresponds to the protein of maize, slightly inferior to barley. The grain of sorghum contains a number of chain vitamins: provitamin L (carotene), B vitamins, among which riboflavin predominates, as well as tannins. The content of carotene depends on the growing conditions and varietal characteristics: the red and yellow grain forms contain carotene more than the white grain. The content of riboflavin (vitamin B2) sorghum significantly exceeds other cereals.

In the grain of many varieties of sorghum, especially immature, contains tannin glucosides. When ripe content tannin in most varieties and hybrids, tannin also disappears completely at the phase of full ripeness. Farm animals are usually reluctant to eat tappin-containing grain, and therefore they need to be taught to this kind of food, gradually adding sorghum to the diet. A high content of tannin can lead to a decrease in digestibility and, ultimately, to an overrun of feed. However, tannin in feed plays a positive role, as it prevents various animal feed shipments.

Special experiments on feeding pigs proved that the presence of tannin does not reduce the feeding value of sorghum. So, when feeding the Ukrainian 107 grade (0.034% tannin), the average daily weight gain was 410 g, and the Gaoliang variety 178 (0.34% tannin) —397 g, i.e., only 3% lower.

Thus, grain sorghum has a high nutritional value and can be successfully used as a concentrated feed for animals both in pure form and as an integral part of compound feed. Experiments on the study of fodder — the values ​​of sorghum grains showed that it is only slightly inferior to the grain of maize and barley, accounting for 85–90% of their nutritional value. Thus, in the experiments of the former Rostov-Nakhichevan Experimental Station, when feeding piglets with derty, the average daily gains were: 710 g for barley, 740 g for corn, 640 g for sorghum

When fattening pigs X. L. Makhitrov recommends the use of a mixture of barley and sorghum derti. In this case, the average daily gains of pas 44 g were higher than with fattening only with barley pulp. On the output of pork from 1 ha the author cites such calculations.

Experiments of the Grozny Experimental Station showed that grain sorghum can replace barley for bacon fattening pigs. In these experiments, 4.13 kg of sorghum derti was consumed by 1 kg of weight gain, and 3.85 kg of barley weight was consumed, and 71.8% and 71.2%, respectively, of meat output.

Sorghum grain is also widely used in poultry farming. At the Voronezh Experimental Station, when feeding sorghum grain to chickens, their mass by the end of the experiment was 19.2% more than when millet was fed, and 28.0% more than corn. At the same time, the consumption of grain per 1 kg of chickens weight gain was as follows: sorghum - 4.0 kg, millet - 4.53, and corn - 4.50 kg.

Experiments conducted in Australia show that when feeding white Leghorn breed chickens and broilers of two industrial lines with corn and sorghum grain, the results of the exchange energy of both crops were the same. In India (Mankur’s College of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry), when replacing corn grain in chickens rations with a sorghum, their weight gain until the age of 8 weeks remained practically unchanged. In the USA, in the production of mixed feeds for chickens, turkeys and other species of poultry, the share of sorghum grains accounts for more than 60%, which was the basis for calling sorghum "bird food".

After harvesting the sorghum for grain, the stems with green leaves remain. With a grain yield of 40-50 centners / ha, the collection of leafy mass is 140-150 centners / ha. This mass is harvested separately by a silage combine and serves as an additional feed. It is beautifully ensiled both in pure form and mixed with corn. 100 kg of silage prepared from sorghum leafy mass (without panicles and grains) contains 17 k. Units. Thus, in addition to the grain, it is possible to additionally get another 24–25 centners from each hectare of crops at the expense of the stems and leaves.

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