Verbascum (Verbascum) - a perennial (lives 2 and more years) herbaceous plant of the family Norichnikie. In Latin, the name of the plant means "bearded." There are other nicknames among the people: fire-grass, golden flower, bear's ear, royal scepter, archer, and mullein.
The root system is pivotal, penetrates deep into the soil. The stem is erect, reaching a height of 50 cm to 2 m. The leaf plates are oblong with a pointed tip, the surface is leathery, the color is dark green, attached alternately. Inflorescence spiciform. The flowers are delicate, pyatilepestkovye, colors can be yellow, pink, purple, violet. They bloom from the bottom up, with each individual halo opening in the morning, and by evening it closes and falls, the next day a new one appears. The fruit is an oval-shaped box with seeds.
When does the verbascum bloom?
Fluffy spike-shaped inflorescences of verbascum delight throughout the summer.
The natural habitats are the Mediterranean and the moderate subtropical zone of Asia.
Verbaskum is increasingly gaining popularity in landscape design. In the care is quite unpretentious, as they say, even a lazy grow. The korovyak is perfectly adapted to the dry hot climate, they feel more comfortable in open sunny areas, shading is possible (as the flowers do not fall off longer). Easily tolerates drought and sudden changes in temperature. At the end of flowering stem completely dies.
Growing willow from seed
Verbascoma seeds photo
You can sow only seeds purchased in specialized stores or collected from varietal plants. Hybrids are not propagated by seeds. Mullead seeds are sown directly in open ground.
When and how to plant a mullein with seeds
Sowing in March-April, until the end of May. Seeds are not afraid of cold spells, you can plant as soon as possible, as soon as the ground ripens. Dig the area, level the soil, less often scatter the seeds in a chaotic manner, cover up with a rake (the embedment depth is no more than 1 cm). With the advent of shoots thin out, leaving a distance of 20-50 cm.
In the first year the rosette of leaves is formed, and the first flowering will come next season.
Verbascum reproduces perfectly by self-sowing, however, remember: seeds from hybrid varieties do not retain the characteristics of the parent plants, so it is better to remove the growth.
Reproduction root cuttings
How to plant root cuttings of verbismum photo
The procedure is carried out in late autumn. Cut the root cuttings about 7 cm long, make the upper cut even and lower at an angle (so as not to confuse the top and bottom, since the formation of buds occurs only on the root part). Plant vertically in containers with nutrient soil (2 parts of leafy land, one part of sand and peat), leaving 1-1.5 cm of cutting above the ground. Until spring, grow in a cool room, with the establishment of real heat in the spring transplant in open ground.
Reproduction of willowsque root root cuttings photo
You can cut the longer root cuttings and spread them across the surface of the substrate, only slightly pressing into the ground.
Reproduction by cuttings
Green cuttings are cut in spring and rooted in cups with loose soil. First, it is desirable to process cuttings of root or heteroauxin, and then land in separate containers and keep in a room with good lighting and high humidity (can be placed in an indoor aquarium or covered with a plastic cup.
Ventilate daily, water as the soil dries. At the end of the summer, rooted cuttings are planted on a flower bed, before wintering plants are spud, covered with a layer of leaves 15-20 cm. In the spring, after the snow melts, the leaves are cleaned and the ground is raked.
Suitable plot for the cultivation of verboukum
At one place, the ear of a bear has been growing beautifully for many years and it’s not worth bothering him with transplants once again - if the root system is damaged, the plant dies. Immediately pick a suitable site.
Bright solar lighting is preferable, although it is tolerant to penumbra. Delicate flowers require protection from drafts and strong gusts of wind.
It grows well even on depleted soils, but let it be better to be sandy-sandy soil with the addition of peat, the reaction is neutral or low-acid. Strongly loamy and heavy fully clay soils are strictly contraindicated.
How to care for verbra sound
Care of the plant royal scepter is not difficult. Deeply penetrating roots do an excellent job with the extraction of moisture and nutrients. Watering is required only during a period of prolonged drought — waterlogging, on the contrary, harms the plant.
It is not necessary to make additional feeding, potash-phosphorus fertilizer can be applied at the beginning of flowering.
Periodically loosen the soil, remove weeds from the site.
Verbaskum in landscape design
Verbaskum in garden design photo
Verbascum looks great alone and in group plantings. Tall species and varieties are used to decorate fences, unsightly walls, as a background for a mixborder, you can create a hedge. Stunted planted on the middle plan of the flower bed, framed garden paths, curbs.
Given the predisposition to self-sowing, valebkum bushes can appear in the most unexpected places. This gives the garden a natural look.
The plant is combined with phlox, veronica, delphinium, decorative cereals. The inflorescences of lupine, catnip, lavender, sage are perfectly combined with wilbascum. At the very beginning of flowering decorative bows, lithnis, akvilegiya, perennial poppies will be a suitable addition. When flowering is over, the geyhers, Siberian irises, daylilies will decorate the voids. Verbascum violet contrasts with the colors of the yellow-orange range (gravilat, annual dahlias, escholcias).
Verbascum purple Verbascum phoeniceum
Verovcum phoeniceum purple mullein photo
Plant 30-50 cm tall, the shade of flowers corresponds to the name.
Verbaskum variety Southern Charm photo
The variety Southern Charm has inflorescences of a gentle-pink shade.
Verbascum black Verbascum nigrum
Verovcum nigrum black mullein “Dark Mullein” photo
The stem reaches one meter length. The flowers are bright yellow in color, the mouth of the corolla is decorated with brownish spots.
The low willows of inflorescence differ in shades of purple and lilac.
Verbascum silk-bearing Verbascum bombyciferum
Verbascum bombyciferum ‘Arctic Summer’ folemill photo
It reaches a height of 1.8 m. Flowers of a soft yellow color, thanks to the felt pubescence, the leaves have a silvery shade.
Popular varieties are: Polar Summer, Arctic Summer, C. L. Adams.
Verbascum hybrid Verbascum hybridum
Verbascum hybrid Helen Johnson Verbascum hybridum ‘Helen Johnson’ photo
It combines flowering varieties and garden forms of verbascum of various origins (mainly with the participation of purple verbascum). The colors are white, yellow, pink, apricot, pink-yellow, often decorated with a violet eye.
The most popular hybrids of verbascum:
Verbascum hybrid pink variety Jackie Verbascum hybridum ба Jackie ’photo
Mont Blanc, Miss Willmott, Bredol Buk - snow-white inflorescences.
Gainsborough - flowers of a pale yellow shade.
Kostvold Queen - apricot corollas.
Verbascum Hybrid Verbascum ‘Sugar Plum’ photo
Pink Domino - wine-pink hue with a copper tint.
Herri Helen - large flowers (about 10 cm in diameter), rich pink hue.
Helen Johnson - the heart of chocolate-purple, the petals smoky pink hue.
Jackie is a folded bush with a height of 35-40 cm. The inflorescences are similar in the previous variety.
Clementine Verbascum ‘Clementine’ Hybrid Verbascum
Flower of Scotland, Buttercup, Sugar Plum, Summer Sorbe, Summer Sorbet, White Candles, Jackie variety - height not more than half a meter.
Blue Lagoon, Cherry Helen, Copper Rose, Clementine, Helen Johnson, Mont Blanc, Pink Domino - plant height is 1.2 m.
Densiflorum, Miss Willmott, Wega, C.L. Adams - tall (height about 1.8 cm).
Healing Properties of Verbascum
Due to its healing properties, mullein is used in traditional medicine.
For diseases of the upper respiratory tract (shortness of breath, bronchitis, shortness of breath, catarrhs), brew tea, filter and drink. You can enter into a mixture with other herbs of similar action. It relieves the symptoms of ailments, is effective for relieving asthmatic spasms, as an expectorant for tuberculosis.
Infusion, prepared from flowers, is used in neurology (treatment of inflammation of the trigeminal and facial nerve) and for the treatment of skin diseases (copes with boils, deprives, eczema).
In case of thermal burns and suppurations on the skin, leaves that have been pre-cooked in milk are used in the form of applications - it has an analgesic effect.
An infusion of leaves taken with intestinal work disorder (constipation and even hemorrhoids).
Powder dried flowers of verbascum - powder open wounds.
Flower decoction is used to get rid of dandruff and to enhance hair growth (especially important for balding men). To facilitate the course of diathesis (scrofula) in children, the broth is added to therapeutic baths.
For the treatment of gout and kidney disease should be taken decoction of the root. Finely chop it, boil it, insist, take 100 ml on an empty stomach in the morning and afternoon in the intervals between meals.
Royal oil is made on the basis of olive with the addition of extracts of flowers verbascoma. A handful of flowers, pour 0.5 cups of olive oil, insist on a sunny place for 1 month, strain. It is used to treat middle ear infections, eczema, boils formed in the ear canal.
Consider that only plants with a hairy yellow or orange shade are medicinal. The purple shade of the hairs is decorative, but does not bear any benefit to human health.
Collect flowers should be at the very beginning of flowering, when they are drunk with their honey aroma. To dry, place on a newspaper or parchment paper in a place with protection from direct sunlight and good ventilation. Bring to the fragile state in the oven. Cooked collection should have a pleasant honey aroma. Store in a sealed glass container.
Leaves and roots can be harvested throughout the season.
Contraindications to use are individual intolerance (allergy), the period of pregnancy and lactation.
a brief description of
Verbascum, or Mullein - It is a perennial plant, which belongs to the family of Norichnikova. The natural habitat is Mediterranean and moderate subtropics of Asia.
Plant quite high - the upright stalk can grow up to 2 meters. The leaves are oval or oblong, covered, like the stems, with silver coating. The main advantage - flowers that are collected in a dense spike brush. They have an open wheel shape, consist of 5 petals. The colors are the most diverse: purple, yellow, brown, pink and white verbaskums are found. Flowering occurs from June to August. Fruits in the form of a spherical or oblong box with small seeds inside. The root system is powerful and rod-like.
Choosing a place
The plant is not demanding to the soil, it grows well even on low fertile soils. The only condition is to avoid landing on wet clay or loamy soils. Preference is better to give a well-lit areas, although mullein grows well in partial shade.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Growing willows from seed is a fairly simple process. They are sown directly in open ground in May – June. To do this, you need to distribute the seeds on the bed in a chaotic manner, sprinkle the top with earth. After germination, they are thinned out, leaving a space between the bushes of about 20 cm. In the first year, a rosette of large leaves is formed, and in the second, the plant produces a long flowering stem. With proper care in the second year, mullein will bloom.
Agrotechnical cultivation and care
Verbascum is an absolutely unpretentious plant that can grow like a weed, withstanding droughts and temperature drops with ease. Leaving mainly consists in loosening the soil and weeding from weeds. In case of severe drought, watering is necessary. Verbacum does not require compulsory feeding, but potash and phosphate fertilizers can be applied periodically.
Despite its unpretentiousness, mullein negatively tolerates the transplant due to the core structure of the root. Therefore, initially it is necessary to carefully consider a place to land. Varietal specimens can be propagated using root cuttings. Do it in late autumn. To do this, you must carefully dig up the plant and cut the cuttings about 7 cm long. Then they are planted in pots with a mixture of leafy earth, sand and peat (2: 1: 1) and cleaned into the room until spring.
Combination with other plants
In flower beds, mullein co-exists well with melissa, stachis, delphinium, young, decorative cereals, stems, salvia, phloxes. In landscape design it is used to create hedges and screens.
As you can see, mullein very unpretentious plant in the cultivation and care. You can decorate your garden with this beautiful perennial with minimal effort.
Verbascum and its varieties
Korovyak, belonging to the family of Norichnikovyh, has three hundred species. These are mainly perennial and biennial plants, although some species are annuals. Their appearance sometimes does not even have anything in common. Interestingly, more similarities are domestic types of verbaskum.
Hailingly is a golden flower from the Mediterranean and moderate Asian subtropics; only some of its species grow in the middle lane. Stem stalk tall (about a meter), upright, in some species with forks. Hybrid varieties can reach a height of two to three meters.
At the base of the rod is very powerful rhizomes formed a dense rosette of leaves. Shoots and leaves are heavily omitted. The buds are located on the stem-stalks in rows, and the higher, the smaller they are.
Inflorescences bloom throughout the summer period in turn. After ottsvetaniya formed elongated boxes with small seeds.
Unfortunately, not every variety of mullein has an attractive appearance, only some of them became widespread in floriculture. As a rule, hybrid varieties, characterized by more vivid external data, are cultivated on home plots.
- A densely flowered or scepter mullein with large buds with five petals of irregular shape, bright yellow color. The length of the peduncle reaches two meters. The size of the oval leaves gradually decreases towards the top of the plant. It has a pleasant honey aroma, which is enhanced by drying.
- A bear's ear or an ordinary mullein is distinguished by a strong hairiness, the nap has a silvery shade. The inflorescence in the form of an ear is shortened, the flowers are small. The stem is completely leafy.
- Black wearsaw does not exceed a height of one meter. Leaves in the form of eggs or hearts are interspersed with flowers, which is a distinctive feature of this type of plant. The inflorescence is yellow, long, the base of petals is brown, stamens with lilac fuzz.
- Korovyak medicinal has a plentifully leafy stem up to one and a half meters high, ending with a long branched peduncle-spike. Foliage oval, long. Anthers bright red color. The whole plant is heavily pubescent.
- Hybrid verbaskum is considered the most decorative variety, including a lot of multi-colored varieties. Plant dimensions can vary significantly in height from miniature to tall two-meter giants.
The most common hybrid varieties:
- Mont Blanc is a large plant with silvery foliage and snow-white inflorescences.
- Herri Helen with richly pink buds, whose diameter reaches 10 cm.
- Pink Domino is a spectacular orange-raspberry variety.
- Jackie variety-dwarf with a growth of 45 cm and smoky-pink flowers.
Planting willowsque: rules and secrets
- Surprisingly, mullein prefers not particularly nutritious land. Planted on a plot enriched with humus, it can die. The only wish of wilbassum to the soil is its lightness and friability. For this, the soil at the site is mixed with peat and sand, you can add a little gravel of the fines fraction. It is not necessary to plant a plant on clay soil.
- Gold flowers, like most plants, love light, but will feel good in a small shade. In the southern regions, it is desirable for him to find a corner hidden from the scorching sun for at least several hours a day. If you place a mullein in the shade, it will survive the lack of light, but it will be weakened, and its bloom will not be lush.
- Untimely weeding significantly worsens the state of welsbum. First of all, decorativeness suffers and, in cases where the plant is grown for medicinal purposes, the quality of medicinal raw materials. Therefore, regular weeding is mandatory, especially at the very beginning of flowering. Заменить прополку можно мульчированием и рыхлением почвы. В качестве мульчи отлично подойдет кора сосны, щепа, мелкие камешки.
- Коровяк практически не нуждается в подкормках. The amount of nutrients introduced into the soil during planting, enough for a plant for many years. On very poor soils, it is possible to add a little complex mineral substances or organic matter around the perimeter of the root circle once per season. It is recommended to do this before flowering.
- Winter time is different for different types of welsbum. Close to wild-growing varieties easily hibernate without shelter, but the hybrids of severe frosts can not survive. It is desirable to cover them with a thick layer of peat, sawdust, dry foliage or spruce branches. Even the simplest shelter of ordinary branches is better than nothing.
- After flowering, flower stalks are cut, this procedure will significantly lengthen the life of the bush. Wilted flowers are also regularly removed, weakening the plant and impairing flowering. If you do not need your own seeds, the flower stalks are removed as soon as the flowers wither. As a result, the plant will live more than two years, and hybrid varieties may re-bloom.
- Verbaskum very painfully tolerates transplant. This is due to the structure of its root system - too long a root is very difficult to extract from the soil without damage. For this reason, the plant is immediately placed in a permanent place and no longer disturb. In case of emergency, the bushes are dug as deeply as possible, preserving the earthy coma.
Collecting and sowing seeds
To harvest the seeds, several viable peduncles are left uncut. After the boxes are fully ripe, and the petals are dry, the boxes are removed and the seeds are removed. Then they need to be dried in the sunlight on the windowsill. Store planting material in a dry place in paper bags.
To grow a mullein from the collected seeds is a snap. They are planted directly in the open ground, without any hassle with seedlings. Sowing is done in a well heated land, not earlier than May-June. Seeds are distributed over dug, watered and tamped soil, lightly sprinkled them on top of the ground.
If the seeds are deeply buried. The emerged shoots need to be thinned so that the distance between the plants is not less than 20 cm.
During the first month sprouts grow very slowly, then the development goes more actively. For the first season, a young bush will only form a rosette of leaves. With favorable flowering care can be expected in the second year of the plant life.
Division of rhizome
For reproduction select strong rhizomes, which are visible processes of the first year. Dig them after flowering in early autumn. The division is made with an acute knife. The processes and part of the root should be preserved on each delenka; all sections are treated with coal or ash.
To make the rhizomes better rooted, they are laid out horizontally on a sandy substrate. Top also sprinkled with a small amount of sand and then soil. New plants will take root and even start up new shoots before cooling, but it will be possible to resettle them permanently until next spring.
Korovyak prone to self-seeding. In time, not cut flower stalks throw out seeds, they fall to the ground and germinate without much difficulty. However, despite all the ease, this method of reproduction has its drawbacks.
First, new plants grow up randomly, and, secondly, they are not able to completely copy the characteristics of their parents. Ultimately, after a few years, the variety will degenerate.
Medicinal properties of Verbascum
Traditional medicine widely applies all parts of the royal scepter, although flowers are still considered the most valuable material. The healing properties of their almost limitless, the scope of their impact depends on the type of flower and method of use.
Korovyak used as dairy and water decoctions, alcohol tinctures, infusions, oils as an effective antimicrobial, diaphoretic, expectorant, hemostatic and enveloping agent for arthritis, burns, inflammation, dental diseases, skin problems, illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract and lung.
Characteristics and features of perennial perennial
Perennial verbascum (in Latin Verbascum) belongs to the family of norichnikovy. It is found in Europe, Asia, North Africa, the European part of Russia and in the Caucasus; it grows especially in the Mediterranean. Most often it is a biennial or perennial herbaceous plant with a height of 30 cm to 2 m. The popular name is mullein.
Most of the species are xerophytes (they are not afraid of drought). It occurs in nature in the steppes, on dry meadows, rocky slopes, forest edges, along roads, in sandy places. In the first year of life, a basal rosette of oval-shaped leaves develops. On the second - an erect stem grows, crowns its spikelet of yellow, orange, purple, white, and sometimes other colors.
All parts of the plant are usually pubescent, it protects from moisture evaporation and overheating. The flower is small, 1.5–3 cm (larger in hybrids), consists of five petals, there are also five nicely pubescent stamens, less often four. Flowers solitary or bunched, form paniculate, racemose or simple inflorescence. In July, the first buds appear - from the bottom up in the inflorescence. They bloom until the end of August. The flower opens in the morning and fades in the evening.
Growing mullein from seed
Growing from seed at home is a simple process that does not require special knowledge. The main thing is to buy seeds in a specialized store. Assembled independently, they may not reproduce the varietal properties. Due to the peculiarities of the root system (pivotal), the plant does not tolerate transplantation.
Cooling does not harm the seeds, as soon as the soil is thawed and dried, you can start planting. This is usually from March-April (depending on the region) to the end of May. Plot intended for permanent cultivation, digging. If necessary, arrange drainage from rubble or expanded clay. Level the soil surface and evenly scatter the seeds. Since they are small, in order not to be carried away by the wind, they are sprinkled with a layer of earth of 1 cm. Carefully, without washing away the soil, they are watered. Shoots appear in 10-14 days. Seedlings thinned, leaving strong, strong shoots. Each copy requires 30–40 cm of space.
In the fall, at the end of September, carefully dig up the plant. Cut the roots into parts of 6–7 cm in length - root stems will be obtained.
The upper and lower sections should be different from each other (one straight, the second at an angle). This will facilitate planting, since the formation of kidneys occurs only in the upper root part.
Planted vertically in the prepared substrate, which consists of two parts of leafy ground, one part of peat and one sand. 1–1.5 cm of cutting is left above the surface. Pots set to spring in a bright cool room. With the onset of heat transplanted to a permanent place in the garden.
The procedure for breeding with green cuttings is similar to that described above. Only cut not rhizome, and the stem, and do it in the spring. The cups with the separated parts of the plant are left in a bright room, covered with bags and ensure that the substrate does not dry out. Rooted cuttings are planted in the fall in the fall.
The division of the bush is carried out in the autumn, after flowering is complete, when the mullein is at rest. Carefully, with a fork, in order not to damage the root system, dig a plant. A sharp knife is divided into several parts, so that each has roots and stems. The cut sections are treated with wood or activated carbon. Planting “delenki”, trying to injure the roots as little as possible.
Application in landscape design
Planting options flowering plants set. Verbascum looks great as a “soloist” on a trimmed lawn, normally coexists with other colors in a mixborder. Tall varieties camouflage household buildings and other unsightly buildings, they will turn a hedge, a screen. Low-growing species are grown on alpine and stone hills, planted in the foreground in front gardens and on rabatkah.
Popular types and varieties of the flower, their description
In the wild, these species are more common:
- ordinary (in another way called the ear of the bear) - a biennial culture, reaches 50-125 cm in height. Erect stem with felt pubescence, oblong leaves, yellow flowers collected in a brush,
- medicinal (or shaggy) - height is 1.5 m, the stem is densely covered with oval foliage, spike-bearing spike-seed, all parts of the plant are covered with pile,
- Olympic - a native of Asia Minor. Bright yellow inflorescences on long peduncles from 1.5 to 2 m, leaves are silvery, elongated,
- shelkosnosny (bombuziferum) - comes from Turkey. Height is up to 180 cm, leaves are felt, silvery-gray, flowers pale yellow,
- Long-leaved - native of the Balkan Peninsula. It grows in the form of a bush 70–120 cm, flowers with a diameter of up to 8 cm, yellow-golden,
- black - perennial, stem 40–110 cm, erect, green leaves, pubescent. Inflorescence in the form of a brush, on which flowers with a yellow corolla and brownish spots are collected in bunches of five to ten,
- violet is the progenitor of modern hybrids. Up to 1 m tall, the leaves are arranged in the form of a rosette, trimmed from the bottom, the color of the buds is purple, pink,
- shrub - evergreen shrub up to 30 cm tall, 1.5 cm in diameter, leaves gray, pubescent.
The table shows the varieties of hybrid mullein.
Description and photo
The flowering period lasts from the beginning of June to the end of August. The flowers are collected in spike-shaped or paniculate inflorescences and bloom from the bottom up.
The palette of colors of blooming verboux consists of white, pink, yellow, brown and purple hues. In late August - early September, the fruit-boxes with a large number of small seeds ripen.
In the suburban areas in the suburbs flowering culture can be grown from seeds, cuttings and with the help of the division of the bush.
Sliced cuttings of length 7-8 cm are put into a special substrate for rooting as early as autumn. The most suitable soil consists of two parts of leafy ground and one part of sand and peat. Before the arrival of spring, the cuttings are watered and transplanted to a permanent place approximately in the second half of April. The distance between the landings is 50 cm.
The division of the bush into saplings can be carried out in the second half of September - early October. An adult plant must be carefully removed from the ground and divided into root processes. It is better to treat the places of separation with manganese solution or sprinkle with charcoal, after which you can plant delenki on the garden plot. The main thing - do not forget to water!
Regular moderate watering is important only in the first years of plant life, and in the future there will be enough natural moisture in the form of precipitation. A long taproot, extending deep into the ground, is capable of providing itself with the necessary amount of moisture.
Verbascum negatively refers to excessive feeding. It is sufficient fertilizer with the content of potassium and phosphorus, which can be applied to the site during the digging of the soil before planting.
Tall varieties of willows with long peduncle needing support and tying.
Weeding and loosening is carried out as needed. These procedures are not required if there is a mulch layer. As mulch, you can take chopped bark or sawdust. Humus or compost applied to flower beds in the fall will help plants survive the frost without complications.
Disease culture is resistant. Possible pests - leaf-eating insects.
Perennial propagated by seeds, which are sown in the spring in a moist and compacted soil. It is not necessary to sprinkle the seeds with earth, but it is recommended to moisten and cover with a film. For effective germination should be daily ventilate the soil, removing the film, and to ensure a warm temperature. When shoots appear, it is necessary to provide illumination up to twelve - fourteen hours a day. With this care, the seedlings will look beautiful, strong and not elongated.
How to land
The transshipment of a plant is carried out at a distance of at least forty centimeters from each other, without destroying as much as possible the ground at the roots.
You can sow Verbascum directly directly into open ground in late spring or early summer. To do this, form wells, in which they sow two to three seeds. If all the seeds grow, it is necessary to leave only one, removing visually weaker ones.
The plant will please you with its flowering at the end of May and until September itself, after which spherical seed-boxes will appear at the place of inflorescence.