Description of varieties> Raspberry varieties> Description of the raspberry variety Barnaul
Characteristic raspberry varieties Barnaul.
Originator - Institute of Horticulture Siberia. M.A. Lisavenko. Bred from varieties Viking and Usanka.
Raspberry variety of medium early ripening, universal purpose. Tasting score of 4.5 points.
Vigorous shrub, with high pobegoobrazovatelnoy ability (over 25 shoots / m) The shoots are thin, with a drooping top, by the fall - red-brown, with a strong wax coating and an average number of small, hard spines. The leaves are medium in size, flat, corrugated.
Raspberry berries Barnaul small and medium (1.7-2.7 g), short-conical, bright red, shiny, fragrant. Drugs are small, tightly linked. Berries ripen amicably, but they are very crumbling and are not suitable for transportation.
The raspberry variety is winter-hardy, drought-resistant, undigested shoots slightly freeze slightly. Medium resistant to anthracnose, gray rot, not resistant to purple spot and spider mites.
Productivity raspberry varieties Barnaul average (1.2 kg per bush).
The variety is included in the State Register for the Northern, Northwestern, Central, Volga-Vyatka, Middle Volga, Ural, West Siberian and East Siberian regions.
Terms of ripening varieties
• Early: Barnaulskaya, Balsam, Gusar, Kaskad, Lazarevskaya, Meteor, Novokitayevskaya, Novost Kuzmina, Sunny, Taganka.
• Medium: Kaliningrad, Red Rain, Kirzhach, Malakhovka, Prize, Shy.
• Late: Peresvet, companion
Sizes of bush varieties
• Tall 2m and above: Barnaul, Gusar, Kirzhach, Kaliningrad, Novost Kuzmina.
• Srednerosly 1,5 - 2m: Balsam, Cascade Bryansk, Lazarevskaya, Malakhovka, Meteor, Novokitaevskaya, Prize, Peresvet, Taganka.
• Low grades: up to 1,5m: Red rain.
Adaptation to environmental conditions
Reliable adaptation to adverse environmental conditions: winter hardiness, drought resistance, heat resistance, resistance to insufficient heat supply, resistance to diseases, etc. The main ones are winter hardiness and drought resistance. With improved raspberry care, survival usually increases.
The most winter-hardy, able to endure great frosts to -40ºС, are the varieties Beglyanka, Balsam, Volnitsa, Gusar, Novost Kuzmina, Meteor, Kokinskaya, Skromnitsa, Sunny, Peresvet, etc.
The raspberries in our gardens are mostly prickly, which is undesirable. There are no varieties of thorns: Arbat (K-92), Bolshaya Karetnaya, Maroseika, Patricia, Senator, Tarusa, Scottish and most of the varieties V.V. Kichiny. Many varieties of I.V. Kazakov, instead of thorns, have thornless bumps: Beglyanka, Gusar, Meteor, Peresvet, etc.
Yield varieties in the middle lane
• High yield: Balsam, Gusar, Kaliningrad, Kirzhach, Cascade, Red Rain, Lazarevskaya, Novokitaevskaya, Prize, Peresvet, Sun, Taganka.
• Average: Barnaul, Meteor, Malakhovka, Novost Kuzmina, Skromnitsa, Sputnitsa.
Opportunities for high yields, over 150 kg per hundred, have VV Kichiny varieties: Maroseika, Mirage, Patricia, Scottish, etc. However, due to the low resistance to adverse environmental conditions, high yields of these varieties can be obtained only with high agricultural technology on the plot. In industrial conditions, however, high yields are yielded by the Balsam, Bryansk, Volnitsa, Kaskad, Gusar, Meteor, Peresvet, and other varieties. Thus, the Volnitsa variety can produce yields of 150–180 kg per hundred.
The main factors determining the yield of raspberries are the size (mass) of the berries, the number of fruit sprigs on the shoot, the number of ovaries on the branch, the number of shoots on the bush.
Variation of varieties for large-fruited berries - from 1.5-2g. to 12 and more. Most common most common varieties have a mass of berries 2-3g. Modern varieties adapted to adverse environmental conditions, have a large size of about 3.5-4.7 g. These include the varieties of Brilliant (Barnaul), Zdorovie (Barnaul), Gusar, Kolokolchik (Barnaul), Coral (St. Petersburg), Obilnaya (N. Novgorod), Lyubetovskaya (Bryansk), Peresvet, Sunny, etc.
The most large-fruited, which in optimal conditions can have berries of 6-8 g and more, are varieties with mutant L1 gene. The same large-fruited ones can also be varieties whose large-fruited is determined by polygenes and retain their properties. These varieties include Maria (up to 6-9 g), Dachnaya (up to 6-7g, Kokino), Krasnokutsk (Kharkiv region), and new remontant varieties of Augustine, Bryansk divo, Diamond, Hercules, etc.
Potentially, from each node of a raspberry shoot, a fruit branch (lateral) can develop. However, due to the deterioration of the light regime (when plants are thickened in the lower and middle part of the shoot), as a rule, full-fledged fruit twigs are not formed. To increase the yields of interest are varieties whose fruit branches develop on most of the shoots: Scarlet Sail, Arbat, Glen Klova (England), Yellow Giant, Maroseyka, Patricia, etc, as well as standard varieties with shortened internodes: Krepysh, Tarusa, etc.
Fruit branches in different varieties differ in thickness, length, strength of attachment to the shoot and the degree of branching. Plants of raspberry bushes of V.Kichina breeding - Maroseika, Mirage, Scotland, Taganka, etc. have fruit branches with 3-5 branching orders, on which 35-40 berries are formed. Usually, the number of berries per twig does not exceed 15-20.
The ability to form shoots in raspberries is a varietal trait, also depends on the growing conditions. Excessive replacement shoots reduce yield. Desirable varieties that form in the bush 6-10 fruitful shoots. Deleting sprouts creates additional labor. Varieties that form a little overgrown: Arbat (K-92), Maroseyka, Senator, Tarusa, Scottish and others. Varieties V.V. Kichiny, as well as varieties Dachnaya, Gusar and others.
Leakage of shoots, density of berries
Ideally, good varieties that do not require supports and do not bend under the weight of the berries, even in rainy weather. The berries of varieties suitable for machine harvesting should also be dense, have resistance to rotting, be transportable, easily separated from fruit trees, ripen together, without falling for 4-5 days. These qualities of berries are important for the backyard garden. Non-use-type raspberry varieties include standard types: Fortress, Tarusa, Stambovaya-19, and others, but they have not yet shown their advantages. The varieties suitable for machine harvesting also include the Balsam, Brigantina, Gusar, Peresvet, and Sputnits varieties that are not standard, but do not require a trellis in industrial cultivation.
Dense, having resistance to rotting, are the berries of the following varieties: Juel, Glen Islay, Glen Prosen, Heracles, Cumberland, Airlie Cumberland, Molling, New Logan, Sputnitsa, Samara dense, Stolichnaya, etc.
High quality berries
Raspberry varieties vary considerably in characteristics that determine the quality of the berries. The berries of common varieties Novost Kuzmina, Early Sweet and many forest species of raspberries have excellent taste, have a pleasant aroma. However, large-fruited, high-yielding foreign varieties, such as Molling Promis, Molling Exploit, Molling Dilight, have berries of mediocre taste.
The weather has a significant effect on the biochemical composition and taste of berries, especially during their ripening. Hot sunny weather contributes to an increase in dry matter berries. Cool and rainy weather, thickened plantings (lack of light) reduce their number, increase acidity, and also lead to an increase in vitamin C. Deterioration in the taste of berries also occurs with an excess of nitrogen fertilizers.
The repair raspberry can produce two crops:
the first - in late summer and early autumn on grown annual shoots,
second summer at last year's two-year shoots.
Gardeners do not practice getting two harvests in one season, as the first harvest retards the ripening of a more valuable second crop. Therefore, it is more expedient to cultivate remontant raspberries in an annual crop with a crop in late summer and early autumn.
Raspberries with very large berries
Prof. VVKichina created a number of high-yielding varieties with very large berries (6-13 g): Aborigine, Arbat (K-92), Big Karetnaya, Yellow Giant, Mirage, Maroseyka, Padishah, Patricia, Senator, Stolichnaya, Taganka, Taganka -2, Scottish, Tarusa (standard), Fortress (standard), and also Noble, Phenomenon and others. The raspberry variety Russia's Pride can give berries up to 23 g.
It was established that the high size of these varieties of VV Kichin is determined by the mutant L1 gene (at the same time as the large varieties of other varieties are determined by polygens). It is important that the L1 gene is not stable, because of what raspberries with this gene can eventually shred, even if the recommendations on agricultural technology are followed. The yield of these varieties on industrial plantations can reach more than 150 centner ha, and in the garden - more than 4 kg of berries from a bush.
A feature of the above varieties is the fact that they are well removed from the fruit tree and do not crumble for a long time when ripe. They form little shoots, have 6-10 shoots of substitution, this allows them to be grown in cluster form. Many of these varieties do not have thorns at all (with the exception of the Yellow Giant, Taganka, Taganka-2, Mirage, K-89, etc.).
These varieties of raspberries with very large berries do not have high winter hardiness, are whimsical in care. If one does not properly care for such raspberries, then it is better not to plant them, but to grow varieties with a high level of adaptation.
Raspberries of the standard type - Krepysh, Shtambovaya-19, Tarusa and others - do not require attachment to the trellis. Their height is 120-140 cm, the shoots are thick, rigid and elastic, the upper part is weakly thinned. In the second year, they are abundantly overgrown with fruit sprigs with a large crop. In the ads can be found the expression "raspberry tree". An inexperienced gardener thinks that such a tree grows with one trunk and should not be cut. However, this is a common raspberry, but with thick shoots. If the replacement shoots are cut and left alone, then such a raspberry bush will look like a tree that does not lodge even at full load with a crop. If replacement shoots are not cut, they can bend down under the weight of the berries (but the berries do not touch the ground). As usual, raspberry seedlings cut off the seedlings.
New varieties of one-year repair raspberry
The average yield of traditional raspberry varieties is 50-60 kg of berries per hundred (in an industrial garden) or 1 kg per bush (in the garden). New varieties and new technologies today make harvesting easier and much more. - 200-250 kg per hundred (4-5 kg per bush).
In recent years, a major contribution to updating the world raspberry assortment has been made by Kokinsky as a stronghold of the All-Russian Breeding and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery (Bryansk Region) and personally prof. I.V. Kazakov. There, more than 20 new raspberry varieties have been created, including the first Russian varieties suitable for machine harvesting. Indian Summer, Indian Summer-2, Balsam, Brigantine, Bryansk, Volnitsa, Hercules, Hussar, Crane, Cascade, Meteor, Sunny, Peresvet, Sputnitsa, Skromnitsa are introduced into the State Register of Raspberry varieties. Due to the high level of adaptation to adverse conditions, the distribution range of these varieties is very wide, they grow from the southernmost to the northern regions of the Russian Federation and the CIS. At Kokinsky gardening, 150-200 thousand saplings of promising raspberry varieties are grown annually. Such Kokinsky varieties provide in industrial conditions the yield of berries is 80-100 c / ha. In private plots, their yield may increase by 1.5-2 times.
The varieties created by these breeders compete with the best foreign varieties (Glen Prosen, Molling Dilight, Ottom Bliz). They are used by other breeders in order to develop new promising varieties, such as Noble, Veresneva, Kiev Sun, Phenomenon, etc.
Kokinsky varieties are less prone to disease and pests. Most varieties are not prickly (tubercles instead of thorns), have high yields, berries are transportable, beautiful and tasty. I.V. Kazakov fundamentally does not deal with varieties that are donors of the mutant large-fruited L1 gene. Nevertheless, its varieties are rather large-fruited (3.5-4.5g, Dachnaya variety up to 6g, new remontant varieties - up to 10g). Kokinsky varieties unpretentious in the care, among them are particularly drought-resistant.
In taste, in the content of vitamins, remontant varieties are not inferior, and in terms of the attractiveness of the berries they even surpass the best varieties of ordinary raspberries.
New remontant varieties of the annual raspberry culture are different low cost technology their cultivation. The essence of this technology:
- After the harvest, ripening in August - September, with the onset of stable autumn frosts (end of October) the aboveground part of the plant is cut off shears or mow. From the spring of next year, new shoots grow, which in the second half of summer-early autumn bear fruit, and then after freezing the soil they mow again.
Of particular interest are remontant varieties for the southern regions, where one of the negative factors for ordinary raspberry varieties is drought during summer, during crop formation.
If you plant in the garden summer raspberries with different ripening and one-year repairmen varieties, you get a "raspberry conveyor", supplying you with fresh berries 5-6 months!
The peculiarity of agro-technology of annual raspberry varieties: after the autumn harvest in the winter all shoots mown or cut pruning to the ground. And so it repeats every year.
As a result of breeding in recent years, more than 20 first domestic remontant raspberry varieties have been created, among which eight included in the State Register of the Russian Federation - Apricot, Augustine, Indian Summer-2, Indian Summer, Diamond, Heracles, Golden Domes and Elegant. The rest pass the state test.
Repair raspberry varieties give from 1.7 to 3.7 kg of berries from a bush, under favorable conditions big harvest (more than 20 t / ha) give varieties Bryansk divo, Atlas, Ruby necklace and Elegant. Interesting varieties are Indian Summer-2, Bryansk Jubilee, Eurasia, Nadezhnaya and Penguin, which combine the early ripening of berries with a long period of autumnal fruiting, as well as other valuable properties.
From varieties with average weight of berries 3, -4.5 g: Augustine, Indian Summer-2, Indian Summer, Bryansk Jubilee, Firebird, Golden Domes, Mulatto, Elegant, Reliable, Amber.
Most large-fruited varieties: Hercules, Ruby necklace, Golden Autumn, Atlas, Merchant, Bryansk miracle, Orange miracle, their mass up to 7-11,5 g They are successfully grown in the middle band.
In terms of unidimensionality of berries grades stand out: Augustine, Brilliant, Penguin, Firebird, Elegant. The one-dimensionality of the berries is more dependent on agricultural technology (adequate food and watering).
The most popular with gardeners are varieties with large, leveled in size, brightly colored berries - red, raspberry, yellow, apricot, black.
The most popular attractive bright berries are the following varieties: Indian Summer-2, Bryansk Jubilee, Ruby Necklace, Firebird, Snegirek. Brightly colored fruits with a strong brilliance are different varieties: Augustine, Diamond, Merchant, Mulatto and elite forms 1-125-1, 26-139-1, 18-183-1.
With golden-apricot color of Apricot variety, Golden domes. on the branches Large "lanterns" of amber-yellow berries look spectacular in the variety Golden autumn. Beautiful fruit from the variety Orange miracle.
The elongated-conical shape, large fruits are different varieties: Atlas, Bryansk miracle, Golden Autumn, Hercules, Merchant, Orange miracle. Original. Elongated cylindrical ladies' finger - berries are of the Ruby Necklace variety.
One of the main indicators of berries is their taste, which is determined by the ratio of sugars and other substances. Recently created remontant varieties have good taste berries (4,0-4,1 points). Among them: Apricot, Augustine, Indian Summer-2, Indian Summer, Diamond, Reliable. The result of the selection of the most recent years have become high-yielding remontant varieties with dessert flavor and "raspberry" flavor berries - Orange miracle and the Firebird.
A decrease in density (up to 50%) is observed in all varieties during rainy and excessively hot seasons. Varieties of autumn harvest raspberries, compared with summer, denser and more suitable for machine cleaning: Penguin, Hercules, Atlas, Bryansk miracle, Eurasia, Ruby necklace, elite forms 23-70-2, 15-146-2, 3-62-1. The cultivars Penguin, Atlant, Eurasia) are also distinguished by good separability from the fruit tree, by straight-growing bushes, and besides, by early and friendly ripening. All these varieties are quite suitable for machine harvesting.
Modern assortment of raspberries
Early raspberry varieties: Aborigine, Barnaulskaya, Runaway (yellow fruit), Cascade Bryansk, Vera, Daughters of Whistles, Crane, Yellow Dessert, Amateur Sverdlovsk, Lazarevskaya, Marlborough, Meteor, Novost Kuzmina, Novokitaevskaya, Odarka, Padishah, Early Sweet Soviet, Spolokh, Taganka, Taganka-2.
Raspberry varieties medium ripening: Arbat (K-92), Balsam, Noble, Big Karetnaya, Brilliant, Freemen, Wislukha, High, Hussar, Daughter of Amurchanka, Dachnaya, Yellow Giant, Zorenka Altai, Kaliningrad, Kirzhach, Kenby, Kokinsky, Bell, Red Rain, Malakhovka , Maroseika, Maria, Milton, Newburgh, Abundant, Patricia, Ruby, Ruby Bulgarian, Stolichnaya, the Sun of Kiev, Tarusa, Phenomenon, Scottish.
Late varieties raspberries: Brigantine, Coral, For Health, Latham, Mirage, Siberian Flame, Peresvet, Samara dense, new remontant varieties.
The common remontant varieties Progress, September and others with signs of repeated fruiting have shortcomings: small fruits, the autumn harvest is placed at the tips of annual shoots, the berries of the autumn harvest do not have time to ripen to frost. Large-fruited varieties Zharptik, Zhuravlik fruit twice: at the ends of one-year shoots in the fall and the rest of the shoot in the summer of next year (the berries of the autumn harvest have time to ripen).
Advantages and disadvantages of the annual culture of remontant raspberry
The advantages of the annual raspberry culture include:
- Cultivation of remontant raspberries by the type of annual crop simplifies the fight against diseases and pests. With autumn harvest there are no wormy berries, since the raspberry beetle has gone in the winter.
- Removal of planted stems from the plantation does not require the use of chemical remedies to get rid of diseases and pests. And therefore allows you to get environmentally friendly product.
- Excluded labor-intensive work on the shelter of shoots for the winter, and in the spring - garters to the support.
- Annual mowing of the stems in the fall removes the problem winter hardiness remontant varieties, which is important for the promotion of raspberry culture to the north.
- A significant, even very, extension of the consumption of fresh raspberries. Moreover, in the late-summer and autumn periods there are no other berries with such a dessert taste.
- New varieties of standard type with stalks not running under the weight of the harvest do not need a trellis device and a stalk garter to wire.
- Dense, non-crumbling berries, easily removable from the fruit tree (Indian Summer-2, Heracles, etc.) allow to apply mechanization of care and cleaning harvest.
- In the southern regions, where it is very hot in summer, the annual repair raspberry does not suffer from drought. as the ripening of berries occurs closer to autumn.
“The repair raspberry grows with few substitution shoots and offspring, which practically excludes the job of removing their excess.
The last merit of the raspberry makes flaw her. Compared with a two-year crop, the annual raspberry culture has a one-year development cycle, during which the plant directs its energy mainly to the development of the aerial part and the crop, without having time to develop roots and offsprings. Because of the small number of offsprings, remontant raspberries are harder to reproduce, which creates a shortage of seedlings and their high cost.
How many varieties of raspberry to plant in the garden?
You can have fresh raspberry berries throughout the year, growing early, middle, late and remontant varieties in your garden, as well as freezing berries for the winter. When frozen, the color, taste, aroma of berries and their biochemical composition are preserved. In addition, different varieties react differently to weather and soil conditions, so it is recommended to have several varieties in the garden so that one cannot remain without a crop in one year.
Description of the bushes
When describing the raspberry variety “Barnaulskaya”, it should be noted that its bushes are not very sprawling, erect, slightly higher than the medium-growing varieties, they reach two meters in height.
They also have a fairly high ability to form shoots: on 1Q. m square can form up to twenty siblings.
Branches are thin, with tops looking down. The shoots are light brown, dull, with medium internodes, closer to the autumn they turn brown with a red tint and a rather strong wax coating. The spikes on them are short, thin, but hard, the same color as the shoots, and with some green expansion at the base.
On the branches are corrugated, wrinkled, flat leaves from medium to large size, on top of green, and below - whitish felt.
Description of berries
Bernaul raspberry berries are not very large, short, egg-like forms, red, dull, tasty, sweet and sour, with a delicate aroma and some shine. The weight of each berry is up to 2 gr. Fruits loosely coupled, therefore not suitable for transportation. The berries ripen early and almost at the same time, for 2-3 picking them can be collected, but if you do not have time to do it quickly, then they begin to crumble. This type of plant is popularly called “obsypnaya”.
On the one hand, such organization in harvesting is convenient enough, but, on the other hand, I want to get berries longer. The fruits of the purpose of the appointment of universal, suitable for processing, tasting them - 4.5 points.
It relates to medium grades in terms of yield. Up to 1.5 kg of fruits can be harvested from a single bush; the average yield from one hundred squares of plantings may be 60 kg of berries. The entire crop is harvested in a short time, if not in time, it can crumble.
This variety is not resistant to diseases, viruses and pests common among fruit-bearing plants.
It is moderately resistant to gray rot and anthracnose and is susceptible to damages with spider mite, purple spot, didimella, botrytis, raspberry mosquito.
The fight against these diseases begins almost from the moment the first leaflets appear on the plant.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like every cultivated plant, raspberry "Barnaul" has both advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of this class include:
- almost simultaneous ripening of berries,
- the ability to harvest in a short time,
- the taste and aroma of berries,
- sufficient endurance of the plant in terms of winter and drought tolerance,
- possessing beneficial therapeutic and cosmetic properties, vitamin C.
The disadvantages of raspberry "Barnaul" are the following:
- not resistant to all sorts of diseases,
- not high enough yield
- rapid shedding of berries after ripening,
- cannot be transported
- young raspberry shoots can freeze,
- quite high tendency to form shoots
- non repair
Variety of domestic breeding, distributed in the Altai, Belarus and Lipetsk region. Bush of medium height (1.5-2 m), semi-sprawling, with an average number of offspring. Annual shoots are thin and medium with medium internodes, light green, with a strong wax coating.
- The spikes are short, thin, in color do not differ from the shoot, with an extended green base. Densification is average. The leaves are medium, with three to five leaves, flat, strongly wrinkled and crimped, tucked down along the midrib.
- Berries of medium size (2 g), red, dull, egg-shaped, good taste. There are many kostyanok, but they are small, tightly linked. Not transportable, differing in early and amicable maturation, but crumbling.
- Winter-hardy, unstable to viral diseases, purple spot, anthracnose and raspberry mosquito.
Variety of national selection, distributed in the Altai and Siberia. Bush of medium height (up to 2 m), sprawling, gives a lot of root suckers. Annual shoots are dark purple, with numerous purple or purple spikes, covered with a waxy coating. The leaves are medium, corrugated, twisted, heavily pubescent on top.
- The berries are medium in size (1.5-2 g), round or dull-conical, light red, of pleasant taste. Drugs securely fastened to each other and with fruit. Not transportable.
- Winter-hardy, unstable to viral diseases, purple spot, anthracnose and raspberry beetle. Kaliningrad.
- The berries are large (2.2-3.2 g), red, dull, rounded. Drugs of medium size, firmly bonded to each other and fruit. The flesh is juicy, sweet-sour, pleasant taste. Not transportable. Suitable for fresh consumption and processing. The variety is productive, medium-resistant, unstable to viral diseases, purple spot and anthracnose.
Domestic variety. The bush is of medium height (1.5-2 m), semi-sprawling, gives an average number of offspring. Annual shoots are thick and medium with long internodes, not hairy, with a waxy coating, by autumn in the lower part, dark purple, long, thick, with a thickened base. The leaves are medium and large, wrinkled, mostly pyatilistochkie.
- The berries are medium (2-3g), red, dull, oval-conical. Drugs are small, medium-linked. Berries non-transportable, dessert flavor and medium flavor.
- Winter-hardy, unstable to viral diseases, especially sprouting, purple blotch and anthracnose.
Domestic variety. The bush is of medium height, half sprawling, gives the average number of offspring. Annual shoots are curved, arcuate, with a weak wax coating and long internodes. There are many thorns, they are dark purple, short and thin, with a thickened base of purple color. The leaves are large, drooping, slightly wrinkled, five-leaf.
- The berries are medium (2-3 g), red, short-conic. Drugs coupled not firmly. Pulp of excellent taste and weak aroma. Not transportable.
- Winter-hardy, productive, distributed in Ukraine and the North Caucasus, is undergoing extensive testing in many regions of the country.
Domestic variety, derived N.V. Kuzmin in the late 19th century. The bush is high (up to 2.5 m), semi-sprawling, with an average number of replacement shoots and root shoots. Annual gray shoots with a strong wax coating and long internodes. Thorns are purple-violet. Bearing average. The leaves are large, twisted, weakly wrinkled.
- Medium-sized fruits (1.8-2.2), red, short-conic, Drupe with fruit-fruit tightly interconnected. The taste is pleasant, sweet-sour, with an average aroma. Berries are low transportable.
- Winter-hardy, unstable to viral diseases, affected by purple spot, anthracnose and shoots gall midge.
Raspberry early sweet
Domestic variety bred V.V. Spirin in the Vologda region. The bush is tall (2-2.5 m), half sprawling, gives little offspring. Annual shoots are curved, with long internodes, prickly, with a waxy coating. Thorns are dark purple, few, short, thin. Leaves are large, drooping, slightly wrinkled, five-leafed.
- The berries are small (1.4-1.6 g), red, short-conic with small, loosely coupled drupes. Taste is pleasant, with strong aroma. Not transportable.
- Winter-hardy, unstable to all viral diseases, purple spot and anthracnose.
Variety bred in Bulgaria in 1957. The bush is tall, powerful, compressed, with an average number of offsprings and replacement shoots. Annual shoots are green, by the end of the season in the lighted areas dull-purple, thick, straight, without wax coating. Thorns are numerous, dark purple, short, thick, with a thickened base of the same color. The leaves are large, flat, slightly wrinkled, rounded, mostly three-leaved. The variety is prone to remontance.
- The berries are blunt-conical, red, large (3.6 g), of high taste and technological qualities, with tight adhesion of the drupes to the fruitful. Transportable.
- The winter hardiness of the variety is average, unstable to viral diseases, purple spot and anthracnose, but bears fruit well even in the presence of these diseases.
High bush - 2-2.5 m, powerful, slightly sprawling, with high pobegoobrazovatelnuyu ability. The spikes are small, straight, semi-rigid, the same color as the shoot. Biennial shoots bright purur, with a small number of thorns. The leaves are three-leafed, large, twisted, wrinkled, with the opening of the tip of their red-brown.
- Fruits of medium size - 2-3g, freely separated from the fruit bearing. The taste is sour-sweet, with a faint aroma. The bush is formed on the 2-3rd year after planting. Flowering begins in the second decade of June, fruit ripening in the second decade of July.
- Winter hardiness is average, resistance to fungal diseases is average. High productivity - 3-3.3 kg from a bush.
Bush 1.5-2m tall. The spikes are short, thin, straight, dark purple, with a hard base. Two-year shoots are purple, sometimes gray-brown. The leaves are medium in size, strongly corrugated, with a slight luster of the upper side, densely whitish pubescent below and with spines along the central vein.
- Fruits are large - 3-4 g, raspberry, with large, well-connected between the drupes. The flesh is sweet, pleasant taste, with aroma. Flowering begins at the end of the II decade of June, ripening - at the end of II - the beginning of the III decade of July.
- Winter hardiness and productivity varieties are high (2.5-3 kg per bush). Resistant to fungal diseases.
Bush 1.8-2m tall, slightly sprawling. Thorns straight, tough, short, green. Two-year-old shoots are light brown, leaves are medium in size, green, wrinkled.
- Fruits 2-2.5 g, ruby, rounded-conical, with a large number of moderately linked to the drupes, good taste, with aroma. It blooms at the beginning of the II decade of June, ripens at the beginning of the II decade of July. Productivity is average.
- Winter hardiness is high. Resistance to fungal diseases is average.
Low bush 1.5-1.8 m, slightly sprawling. Thorns are stiff, thin and straight, light purple. The leaves are medium in size, almost flat, green.
- Fruits from medium to large - 2.5-3 g, bright red, truncated-conical, with heterogeneous drupes. The flesh is sweet and sour, with flavor. Grade remontantny. For the first time flowering begins at the end of the second decade of June, ripening - at the end of the second - beginning of the third decade of July. The tops of the shoots begin to bloom in early September, and the ripening of berries continues until frost.
- Winter hardiness is high. Productivity is above average - 2.5-2.8 kg of berries from a bush. Resistant to fungal diseases.
Bush srednerosly - 1.8-2 m. The spikes are short, tough, dark at the base. The leaves are medium and large, pyatilistokovye, green, dull, corrugated.
- Fruits are large - 3.2-3.8 g, round-conic, crimson, with a large number of farms. The pulp is sour-sweet. Flowering begins in the third decade of June, ripening - in the third decade of July - the beginning of the first decade of August.
- Winter hardiness is average; fungal diseases are moderately affected. High productivity - 1.9-2.2 kg of berries from a bush.
Raspberry variety “Vera” was bred by crossing using three popular varieties: “Kaliningradskaya”, “Novost Kuzmina” and “Barnaulskaya”.
- Bush srednerosly 1.6-1.8 m. Thorns thin, medium length. The leaves are of medium size, dark green, dull, folded.
- Fruits of small or medium size - 2-2.7 g, round-conical, dark crimson, with an average number of farms. The flesh is sweet and sour, juicy.
- Flowering begins in the second decade of June, ripening - in the second decade of July. Sufficiently high yield.
- Winter hardiness is average, prone to freezing. Drought resistance is low.
- High productivity - 1.6-2 kg from a bush. Relatively resistant to fungal diseases.
- Due to its low drought tolerance, “Vera” needs abundant watering (using a drip system).
- Weakly resistant to diseases, requires treatment in the initial period of flowering.
- For fertilizing use organic fertilizer and humus.
- Regions of growth: Central Chernozem, West Siberian and Volga-Vyatka regions of the Russian Federation.
Bush srednerosly - 1.7-2 m, spikes short, thin, straight, purple, located along the entire length of the shoot. Three-leaved leaves, medium to large in size, green above, slightly pubescent, whitish below, more densely pubescent.
- Fruits are large - 3-3.5 g, dull-conical, red, with heterogeneous drupes. Pulp sweet-sour taste, with aroma. It blooms from the middle of the II decade of June, ripens in the II decade of July.
- Characteristic winter hardiness. High productivity - 3-3.5 kg of berries from a bush. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases.
Bush 1.6-1.8 m, half-sprawling, spikes straight, short and hard, mostly at the base of the shoot. The leaves are light green, flat, medium in size, hanging down.
- The fruits are very large - 4-5 g, light red, conical in shape, with homogeneous small drupes. The flesh is sweet-sour pleasant taste with aroma. It blooms from the middle of the II decade of June, ripens - in the II decade of July.
- Winter hardiness is average. High productivity - 3.5-4 kg of berries from a bush. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases, insensitive to spider mites.
Bush 1.3-1.6 m, sprawling, spikes straight, small, medium-sized, located mainly at the base. The leaves are medium in size, light green, slightly wrinkled, drooping.
- The fruits are very large - 5.5-6.5 g, bright red, shiny, conical in shape, with large heterogeneous drupes, sweet, with a rich aroma, transportable.
- Flowering begins at the end of the II decade of June, ripening - at the end of II - the beginning of the III decade of July.
- Winter hardiness is average. High productivity - 3-3.5 kg of berries from a bush. Resistant to fungal diseases.
Bush 1.6-2 m, slightly sprawling, thorns large, straight, thin and tough. The leaves are medium in size, green to above with pubescence, below - whitish, densely pubescent, with light purple soft spines along the main veins.
- Fruits are large - 3-3.5 g, blunt-conical, raspberry, with homogeneous drupes. The flesh is sweet and sour, pleasant to the taste, delicate and aromatic. Flowering from the middle of the II decade of June, ripening - at the end of the II decade of July.
- Зимостойкость хорошая. Продуктивность высокая – 3-3,5 кг ягод с куста. Resistant to fungal diseases.
In this article, we describe the delicious and winter-hardy raspberry varieties that.
Known for today rosehip varieties, for the most part, created in n.
In this article we will discuss the varieties of felt cherries, a popular plant.
The content of the article: Varieties of strawberry garden Venta.
For cultivated plantations, the most valuable types of honeysuckle are Kamch.
Characteristics of plum varieties cultivated in central Russia.
Planting work can be carried out in the fall and spring.
Caterpillars are yellowish-white with black b.
Mealy dew, white and black spot, rusty.
In the amateur garden varieties of raspberry garden, as well as others.
In this article we will describe in detail the form of the structure of PL.
The appearance of the bush
Sufficiently tall bush, up to 2 m, with not very strong, green shoots with lowered tops. In the fall, stems covered with short, small and stiff thorns become almost brown and covered with a touch like wax. Processes gives a lot, 20-25 pieces. The leaves, like any raspberry, green above, very bright below, complex, different sizes.
Red bright, with a tint, weighing up to 3 g, slightly elongated, sweet-sour taste, excellent flavor. Dense consistency, with small drupes. The fruits are very good for processing, but do not tolerate traffic, especially over long distances.
When it matures
Early and harmonious ripening is good because you can quickly harvest, process and switch to other varieties. The bad thing is that ripe berries do not hang for a long time, but easily fall to the ground, even from touching the plant.
From each raspberry bush “Barnaulskaya” you can collect from 1500 to 2500 g of fruits. One weave will give 5-6 buckets of berries. This is the average yield rate.
Unfortunately, "Barnaul" is often affected by various kinds of diseases, pests, viruses, dangerous for this type of plant. In drought, without watering, a spider mite can appear on the bushes.
Very often planting infects the fungus, causing purple spotting. If the stems and leaves are damaged, then the pest of galley penetrates inside, creating additional conditions for the fungal disease. Cracks can appear from severe frosts or sunburn. Also, this attack appears from an excess of moisture, in old plantings, with dense and heavy soil.
It is spread by infected remains and spores, weeds, rain with the wind, by the person himself.
Stem or shoots gallitsa - mosquito, active with the onset of heat, when the raspberries begin to bloom. More accumulated in thickened areas, where little wind penetrates. A good reason is excess nitrogen, due to the effect of which the crust exfoliates.
The berries themselves are often affected by gray rot, characterized by the formation of a similarity of gray moss on them. This disease is dangerous during wet and cold summer. She can also go with the adjacent row of strawberries.
Another type of fungus that affects this variety is anthracnose, which is expressed by brown spots on the leaves, without sparing the berries and stems. Appears at high humidity and extreme heat.
In order to continue to harvest a good harvest of this variety, the main thing is to plant the material correctly and care for it properly.
Any raspberry does not tolerate cramping, as it loves light no less than other plants, although not very bright. 10 stalks are enough for 1 m 2. Between the rows of rows from 1.5 to 2 m, depending on the height of the bush, between the bushes 0.7 m. It is better to have rows from north to south or 45 degrees to the right.
The tracks between rows should never be left open to avoid cracking the soil. Loosening chopper, cut down the weeds, along with the unnecessary shoots, and leave.
It is categorically not recommended to plant raspberries in old plots, if it is not 5 more years later, it will grow badly after potatoes, eggplants, peppers, tomatoes.
The plot for planting is prepared in advance for the year: plowing, fertilizing, weeding during the summer, before planting, digging on the floor - a spade bayonet. Fertilize in 3 years with manure.
Planted seedlings in October, when the temperature reaches 0-5 about heat.
In the first half of summer, planting is required to be watered regularly to the depth of the roots, approximately 40 cm, and mulched.
From early spring, when the first, still small leaves appeared, it is necessary to fight diseases.
Raspberries varieties Barnaul like not everyone. In its cultivation there are both pros and cons. Those who choose this variety, while providing it with the necessary care and care, will enjoy the fragrant pleasant berry from the beginning of summer.
Favorite berry gardeners for the Northwest region
Raspberries - one of the oldest berry crops, the most popular and loved by both adults and children. In Russia, it grows almost everywhere where a person is engaged in agriculture. It became widespread in the dacha and household plots, where it now occupies more than 20 thousand hectares of land.
The popularity of this culture is due to its ability to grow in different climatic conditions, and often in those where many other berry plants freeze, thrown out, damaged by late spring and early autumn frosts, suffer from lack of moisture in hot summer days. Unpretentiousness of plants allows planting raspberries in the very initial period of the development of the garden plot.The wide spread of this culture is also explained by the valuable nutritional and medicinal properties of its berries, precociousness, annual fruiting, late flowering, as a result of which plants and flowers are rarely damaged by return spring frosts. In addition, it is valued for a long period of fruiting, which is determined by a set of varieties with a large amplitude of ripening periods - from super early to late and reparative.
In historically established regions of commercial cultivation of raspberries in home gardens, the yield of a plant can reach 5 kg of berries from a bush. Usually amateur gardeners get 1-1.5 kg from a bush. The use of the best modern varieties allows us to increase the average yield of raspberries, cultivated on amateur plots, up to 2.5-3 kg per bush.
On the territory of Russia with its diverse soil and climatic conditions, one cannot do without a large set of raspberry varieties, however, in each specific region, its own regionalized assortment is formed, including 6-8 best varieties of “cosmopolitans” with a broad adaptive potential and high level of economically valuable traits.
Currently, 40 raspberry varieties are registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Allowed for Use (2002), approximately the same amount undergoing state testing.
For the North-West region, the State Register recommended for use (zoned) 10 raspberry varieties: Meteor, Novost Kuzmina, Barnaul, Balsam, Kaliningrad, Kirzhach, Skromnitsa, Sputnitsa, Coral, Reward.
In recent years, Russian breeders have developed many promising new varieties that are in great interest and demand from amateur gardeners. Particularly great achievements in the cultivation of new raspberry varieties were obtained in Bryansk at the Kokinsky stronghold of the TSUC (the All-Russian Selection and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery) Kazakov - Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, who created more than 20 popular varieties growing from the northern to the southern regions.
The most famous and common ones are varieties Meteor, Runaway, Bryansk, Zhuravlik, Cascade Bryansky, Sun, Balsam, Volnitsa, Hussar, Dachnaya, Kokinskaya, Skromnitsa, Sputnitsa, Brigantina, Peresvet and a number of remontant varieties - Apricot, Augustine, Indian Summer, Indian Summer-2, Hercules, Frogger, Peresvet, Bryansk Miracle, Golden Domes, Monomakh's Cap, Diamond et al. (we told about the varieties of the remontant type in the last issue of the journal).
VSTISiP (Moscow), Doctor of Science, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation V.V. Kichina also created a group of highly productive and large-fruited varieties, which, despite their insufficient winter hardiness, are of great interest to amateur gardeners, because with good care and the obligatory shelter of the stems for the winter, they are able to produce up to 4 kg of berries from a bush. The most valuable of them are Aborigine, Maroseika, Stolichnaya, Taganka, Mirage, Patricia and Tarusa.
Here, candidate of agricultural sciences E.I. Yaroslavtsev obtained varieties Rosyanitsa (Yaroslavna), Spolokh and etc.
A number of interesting new raspberry varieties were obtained at the Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia, at the Leningrad Fruit and Vegetable Experiment Station, and at other research institutes.
The specificity of the selection of raspberry varieties for household and country farms, which are the main producers of the berries of this crop, is very peculiar.
Selecting varieties from the number of zoned and promising, it is necessary to determine in advance what to do with the crop, how many berries the grower can remove and sell (use fresh, process, sell). Everyone probably wants to feast on fresh berries all summer long, so for planting choose varieties of different ripening period: early, middle, late and remontant.
A set of varieties on the site may be different. Preference is given to those varieties in which, when overripened, the berries do not crumble and do not darken, or large-fruited varieties with high taste and commodity qualities of the berries. However, due to insufficient winter hardiness of such varieties, it is necessary to bend down for the winter and cover the plants with snow - in this case, the shoots must be flexible, pubescent or covered with a waxy bloom and bearing (suitable for bending down).
Or, on the contrary, to be with strong, stable even with a large load, low - up to 1.5 m shoots, with short internodes, powerful leaves and deep root system. Such plants do not require bending down for the winter and their garters to the trellis.
For transportation and sale of the crop in fresh form and for its freezing, preference is given to varieties with strong berries that are highly resistant to fruit rot. For making juices it is not necessary to have varieties with strong berries, it is more important that they are brightly colored. But compote required and high strength of the berries, and their intense coloring.
Yellow fruit varieties of raspberry, which are sweet and loved by children, are also of considerable interest for home gardens. In a word, it’s not easy to choose varieties for your plot, and everyone decides for himself.
Often, of course, planted proven and well-proven varieties in each region, however, giving preference to new products, gardeners bring great benefits, as they accelerate the inspection and reproduction of promising varieties.
The following is a brief description of the main raspberry varieties that are zoned and promising for the North-West region.
variety of early maturity. Berries of medium size (2.7-3 g), ruby-colored, rounded-conical, good taste with the aroma of universal purpose. Differ friendly ripening, opening the season of consumption of raspberry berries. Productivity is high (1.9-2.5 kg per bush). Bush 1.8-2 m tall, slightly sprawling, shoots form an average number, weakly sloped. The annual shoots are straight, green in color, biennial - light brown. Winter-hardy. Increasedly sensitive to spider mites.
News Kuzmina -
early old Russian variety, distributed almost everywhere. Berries of medium size (mass 1.9-2.7 g), truncated-conical, dark red, with firmly linked stone stones of medium size, pleasant taste with a strong aroma. Fruiting annual, stable with relatively friendly maturation. The average yield - up to 1.2 kg per bush. Winter hardiness is high, average sprint formation. Shoots 1.8-2 m high with a strongly drooping top, prone to branching, medium prickly, light green with a faint wax coating. It is damaged by fungal diseases, shoots gall midge and raspberry mosquito.
variety of early ripening. Berries of medium size (weight 2-2.7 g), round-conical, red, shiny, good taste with an average aroma. Strongly showered, non-transportable. The average yield - up to 1.2 kg per bush. The bush is 1.5-2 m tall, it forms a lot of shoots, they are powerful, bright red in the autumn, very high, so many fall off at the base, the top wilts a lot. The number of spikes is average, the wax deposit is strong. Winter hardiness is good, but when damaged by spider mites, purple blotches, shoots, and with prolonged growth, the plants freeze slightly.
variety of medium ripening. Berries are large (weight 2.7-3.5 g), conical, dark raspberry, good sweet-sour taste with a faint aroma. The yield is high - up to 2.5 kg per bush. The shrub is medium-tall - 1.6-1.8 m, slightly sprawling, forms an average amount of shoots, they are green, become purple by autumn, two-year-olds are light brown, prickly. The variety is distinguished by high winter hardiness, is relatively weakly affected by fungal diseases and spider mites. It is one of the most promising new varieties.
G. Alexandrova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Description and photo varieties raspberry raspberry Polka
This raspberry belongs to remontant varieties, fructifying on both two-year-old shoots, like ordinary raspberries, and on annuals. Its bushes reach a height of 1.5–1.8 m. Spikeness is present, but weakly expressed and does not interfere with the care and harvest. White flowers with a diameter of about 1 cm are collected in inflorescences, located on the tops of the stems and in the axils of the leaves.
Berries of large and medium size (5–7 g) have the form of a regular thimble, dense flesh of bright red color, small drupes. Brushes with 8-10 berries are under the leaves that protect them from the sun. The taste of raspberry is excellent: with the perfect combination of sweetness and acid, a pronounced aroma.
Polka bears the title of the best raspberry dessert variety in Europe, its berries are considered a model of the balance of sweetness and pleasant sourness.
Video: Polka virtues
Variety Polka breeds easily. Raspberries take root well in another place, therefore, having only a few plants, in 2–3 years you can grow a rather extensive plantation.
There are several simple ways to breed raspberries:
- Reproduction by lignified offspring. Produced by autumn digging and transplanting lignified annual sprouts. Healthy plants that grow no closer than 30 cm from the mother plant are suitable for this.
- Reproduction of root suckers. Planting is carried out in the spring, when the shoots reach 20–30 cm in height. They are carefully dug up and transferred to a new place.
- Reproduction root cuttings. Part of the roots that are between sprouts and have a length of at least 10 cm and at least 1–2 buds are suitable for this. Transplantation is possible during the entire growing season.
- Reproduction by dividing the bush. The bush is dug up and divided into parts, leaving 2–3 young shoots on each. The best time for the procedure is spring and autumn.
Basic rules of care
The basic rules for caring for the remontant raspberry. Polka include dressing, pruning, watering, loosening, garter, shelter for the winter. The more carefully the rules of care are observed, the greater and better the yield is.
Grade Polka needs abundant feedings. For full development and obtaining high yields the plant requires a large amount of nutrients. When there are insufficient quantities of raspberries weaken, the quality of the fruits deteriorates, eventually the soil under the bushes will be exhausted and the plantings will die. To prevent this from happening, Polka needs to be fed almost the entire season.
In the spring, as soon as the plants grow, apply a complex fertilizer in dry form. This may be nitroammofoska or azofoska, which should be scattered in rows of 100–120 g per meter of planting (for young plants, reduce the rate by half). After applying fertilizer immediately rake up the soil to prevent the weathering of nitrogen.
In the summer, after flowering and the first harvest, you can repeat the spring version of top dressing, but the best results will be when using solutions of cow manure (1:10) or bird droppings (1:25). Under one plant poured a bucket of liquid.
In the fall, in the end of September - the beginning of October, raspberries do not need nitrogen, which regulates growth processes, but they feel the need for phosphorus and potassium, which strengthen the root system and frost resistance. During this period, it is advisable to make superphosphate and potassium chloride in the amount recommended by the instructions for use. The last fertilization of the season to do in preparation for the winter. Per running meter of landings pour in a bucket of manure or compost.
The main work on pruning raspberries are carried out in the autumn, after harvest and leaf fall. At this time, you need to trim the entire aboveground part of the plant. This technique will allow Polka to transfer the cold season without loss, there will be no reason to worry about the freezing of the shoots. Young shoots that have appeared on the side of the main bush and which are not planned for further transplantation, need to be dug up and removed with a root.
Весной, когда поросль достигнет высоты 10–15 см, нужно провести прореживание: в кусте выбрать 7–9 самых сильных побегов, остальные удалить. Если этого не сделать, посадки будут загущены, побеги ослаблены, а ягоды станут мельче, ухудшат свой вкус.
Малина Полька требовательна к содержанию влаги в почве. Поливы проводят несколько раз в сезон: перед цветением, в период созревания, после сбора первых ягод и при подготовке растений к зиме. Of course, the amount of watering is individual for different regions and should be done by self-assessing the soil moisture.
When watering a plant to spend 10-20 liters of water. This can be done in different ways: form holes around the bush and pour water into the buckets there (it makes sense with a small number of plantings), dig grooves 30 cm in both directions from the center of the row and put moisture on them (very large fluid flow), use drip irrigation (most preferably with a large number of plants). After watering all the holes and watering ditches fall asleep.
Loosening should be carried out in order to prevent the emergence of weeds, improve air permeability of the soil. This should be done carefully, to a depth of 5–7 cm, so as not to damage the roots of the plants. This procedure is also called dry irrigation, as it retains soil moisture.
Shelter for the winter
To the onset of cold weather raspberries Polka need to be properly prepared. These works in the order of priority can be represented as follows:
- Cleaning of fallen leaves and weeds.
- Soil mulching.
As mulch, it is better to use chopped straw or sawdust (shavings) of hardwood trees. The layer of mulch should be about 15 cm. In the spring it can be mixed with the ground, it will become an additional fertilizer for plants.