Not all garden crops are suitable for growing at home. But there are those who, with due diligence, may well be grown on a windowsill at home. Fans of the sharp little one often grow a plant such as chili pepper at home. How to do it right, you will tell this article.
What you need to know about him
Chili or, as it is also called, cayenne pepper is one of the most ancient plants. This species belongs to the family Solanaceae. Its cultivation as a cultivated plant began another 6-7 thousand years BC. er Bolivia is home to this type of pepper. But in Europe, he appeared much later.
Initially, chili pepper was used as a delicious spice for various dishes, but then scientists found out its beneficial properties. The fruits of pepper are rich in vitamins C and A. Therefore, this plant has found wide application in traditional medicine. Medicines made with the addition of this sort of pepper are used to treat the following diseases:
Therefore, to have such a plant will not only be beneficial from the gastronomic side, but also useful in terms of having a “folk healer” in the house.
The fruit of this plant may be green or red. Color depends on the type of pepper. The fact that hot chili peppers (red and green) can be grown at home, few people realize. At the same time, pepper grown at home may have fruits of various colors (red or green), as well as various shapes. Here again, everything is determined by the variety selected for cultivation.
Each fruit (red or green), thus obtained, will contain a large number of seeds inside, which can be stored and subsequently used to obtain seedlings. Seeds of such pepper have a round shape and yellow color. Their diameter is about two millimeters.
Pepper, which was grown at home, produces fruits that have a bright taste. They can be used for the preparation of various culinary masterpieces, where he will be able to act as a seasoning or an ingredient. It can also be canned or used as a means of alternative medicine in the form of tinctures and lotions. Among other things, this pepper (red or green) can be stored at home. If you store its fruit correctly, in the winter you will have a delicious spicy seasoning for festive dishes.
In addition, it should be said that the pepper grown at home has an excellent appearance, it can be used for decorative purposes to decorate the house.
As you can see, growing at home hot pepper would be a great solution.
Very often, people who grow hot chili peppers (red or green) at home use seedlings for this. Of course, you can always just put a seed in the pot with the ground. But in such a situation, it will take much longer to wait for the first shoots, and the final result may be far from your expectations.
Therefore, to grow chili at home, you need to get seedlings. The first step is to plant and germinate the seeds correctly.
In order for chili seeds to germinate, they should not only be properly stored, but also planted. To do this, over the seeds carry out the following manipulations:
- Seeds are placed between moistened napkins and left in this form for 4-5 days. These actions will speed up the germination of planting material.
- After a specified period you need to get the seeds. They must appear to be swollen and begin to germinate. That means it's time to sow them.
- Sprouted chili seeds are sown in a shallow box.
- Planting material should be planted at a distance of 5 cm from each other. This will prevent strong stretching of the seedlings.
- Seed should be planted in fertile soil, which was added vermiculite.
- Planting material is recommended to immerse in the ground shallow, about 0.5 cm.
- After planting is completed, the soil should be irrigated with water.
Note that each pepper variety (red or green) has its own germination time.
This must be taken into account when growing plants in a seedling manner, since this period can take up to 3-4 weeks.
Observing the germination of seedlings, it is necessary to periodically check the condition of the soil. If it starts to dry, then you need to splash water on it. In this case, the water regime for chili should be respected on the basis of the golden mean. This means that the soil must remain wet, but in no case be flooded with water. Seed germination is equally badly affected by both high humidity and dryness.
In addition, in order to grow seedlings of hot peppers was successful, here, just as for tomatoes, a certain thermal regime should be observed. It should be remembered that each type of chili (red or green) requires a certain level of heat at which its seeds can be stored and grown. On average, the temperature regime for these plants grown at home should be maintained in the range of 22-25 degrees. This temperature index must be maintained constantly.
When the future seedlings appear on the surface of the first green reeds, it is necessary to change the conditions of its growing. The important point at this stage is to save the result. In order for the seedlings to further develop and grow, it needs to create the necessary level of illumination. If the light is low, the seedlings will begin to stretch strongly, which will lead to its thinning and discoloration.
The most reliable and efficient way to illuminate the hot pepper seedlings is artificial light. Lamps should be located above sprouts at a distance of 25–30 cm. In this case, the daylight hours for chile should be 18 hours. To maintain accuracy, the lamp can be equipped with a timer.
Having created all the necessary conditions for germinating seeds, you will only have to be patient and continue to water and care for them until the formation of strong seedlings, which can be planted in a permanent growing place - a flower pot.
Planting of hot pepper seedlings occurs only after it has formed two pairs of leaflets. Their presence serves as a signal for transplantation. This procedure is as follows:
- The landing tank should have a diameter of 8–10 cm and be shallow. The most suitable container is plastic pots. You can use those that are preserved from other indoor plants. But pottery is not recommended.
- At the bottom of the tank we form a drainage layer with a thickness of at least 3 cm.
- After that, pour the soil mixture suitable for growing peppers into the pot.
- Seedlings are planted to a depth of 0.5 cm, without deepening the stem.
- After this sprout sprinkle with soil.
After the seedlings have been planted to retain moisture in the soil, it should be squeezed near the sprout. Then water the plant with water. The next watering planting should be carried out in a week. By this time, the root system of seedlings will have time to adapt and settle down. Up to this point it is forbidden to moisten the soil. This is due just to the underdevelopment of the root system. If you water the seedlings earlier, it will start to rot. Keep the landing from an excess of moisture needed for the entire time of cultivation. But in order to achieve excellent harvest, pepper needs a certain care.
Care for hot pepper begins with the planting of germinated seeds. At this stage, the most important point will be the creation of the optimum light regime for the plant. If in the dark for an additional illumination of plants will meet the lamp, then the day boxes with seedlings should be put on a bright place, avoiding direct sunlight.
When a seedling forms 2–3 true leaves, it is stripped out at a distance of 10–12 cm. In this situation, it is necessary to nip off the main root by a quarter. This is necessary in order for the root system to increase its mass. A picking is done for each individual plant. If this is not done, the seedlings can stretch very much.
When conducting a picking, it is important to remember that the embedding of sprouts below the level that they were during the shoot is not recommended.
Caring for seedlings and already transplanted sprouts involves periodic watering, which should not lead to excessive waterlogging. If there is less than 50% humidity in the house, pepper leaves should be sprayed with warm water. Keep from overmoistening need both seedlings and adult plants.
The beginning of the growth of transplanted shoots and their final rooting begins approximately 15–20 days after planting.
Please note that the pinching of peppers, which is grown on the windowsill, is not carried out. In addition, there are no backups, because the stem will be powerful enough to support the entire bush and fruit.
During flowering, the branches of the bush should be slightly shaken to pollination occurred. It is also recommended to turn the pot to the window on the other side every day. Then the bush will develop evenly. Hot peppers grown at home should be regularly fed every 2-3 weeks. If the care was correct, then the fruits obtained from the bush can be stored at home.
As you can see, in the cultivation of chili is nothing complicated. Follow the rules described above, and everything will work out for you.
Choosing a grade
The following varieties are suitable for growing in the house:
- Treasure Island,
- Siberian Firstborn,
- Peppercorn for the boss.
All these varieties are small-leaved, and therefore they feel great when grown on a windowsill, where, unlike open air, there is little sunshine.
In addition, the listed varieties are self-pollinated, which means they can produce fruits in the room.
Before sowing, seed treatment is necessary. manganese solution or growth stimulants. The seeds are immersed in the solution for 20 minutes, then the water is drained through a fine sieve.
It is not recommended to sow the prepared material immediately.
- Seeds are placed in a damp cloth. and leave for germination for a week in a warm place.
- The cloth must be moistened periodically.to prevent seed drying.
- As soon as the seeds seem sprouts, sowing is carried out.
IMPORTANT. Do not unfold the cloth to check seed condition. Earlier than in 6-7 days, the seeds will not spill, but when disclosing they will cool.
Soil composition requirements
A mixture is prepared for sowing chili peppers clay, sand and humus (1Х1Х2). Stir the mixture thoroughly with water.
When using the finished soil, it must be held in the room for a couple of days for oxygen enrichment and warming up.
Suitable specials. soil for pepper and tomatoes.
ATTENTION. In order to disinfect any soil, it is recommended to shed the solution of potassium permanganate.
How to plant chili seeds from home seeds
- Planting for seedlings produced in wide shallow containers at a distance of 5 cm in the row.
- Seeds are laid out on the surface, then sprinkled. a thin layer of soil (0.5-1cm).
- From above crops moisten from a spray.
- Boxes with crops cover with a film or glass to create greenhouse conditions. For germination seeds need a temperature of 22-25 degrees.
IMPORTANT. In the process of sprouting, make sure that no direct rays hit the surface, otherwise a greenhouse effect will be created inside the box and the seeds will cook.
The first shoots will appear in 10-15 days. The film must be removed immediately, and the air temperature lower to 18 degrees for a few days.
A light day for the sprouts must be at least 12 hours. Therefore, when growing in winter, illumination with special phyto or fluorescent lamps is necessary.
The boxes are placed on a light, but without sun, a place.
In the phase of two or three true leaves, pepper is necessary swoop down a distance of 10-12 cm. When picking pinch off the main root by a quarter. Such a technique helps build a powerful root mass of each plant.
Pepper pick before the formation of two true leaves is not recommended, because at this time the shoots are not yet able to transfer the transplant.
It is also impossible to delay with a pick, because from a lack of lighting the plants will stretch and weaken.
IMPORTANT. When picking do not bury the sprouts of pepper below the level that was during the shoots. Unlike tomatoes, the side roots of the stem of the pepper does not form, and when dredging the roots will suffer from lack of air.
To have chili seedlings you need to Southeast or southwest windowsThat is how you can provide optimum lighting to the pepper. The lack of lighting can be judged by the color of the leaves. If they are dark green, then the sun is enough for the pepper. On the lack of light signal faded, light leaves.
IMPORTANT. If sprouts suddenly began to lose foliage, move the boxes to a brighter place or arrange lighting. Lamps of blue-violet light are set at a height of 25-30 cm above the top of the plants.
Water the pepper should separated water temperature of 22-23 degrees. When watering no overmoistening, from this plant will get sick with a black leg.
If the humidity in the room is less than 50%, it is necessary to spray the leaves with warm water.
Pepper Transplant in Pots
When the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, the plants are placed in separate pots for rearing and harvesting. Each copy is planted in a separate pot.
REFERENCE. Sprouts can be planted in separate pots and at the first pick.
The most suitable dishes are plastic containers rather wide, but not too deep. The use of ceramics is not recommended because the soil in such a pot will dry out too quickly.
- At the bottom it is necessary to lay a drainage layer of at least 3 cm.
- Then pour the soil mixture for peppers into the pot.
- Sprouts are planted on the same level as when growing seedlings, without deepening the stem.
- Each sprout with a lump of earth is placed in a well prepared in the soil and sprinkled with soil.
- After planting, the soil around the stem is well crushed and watered.
- The next watering after planting is carried out no earlier than 7 days, when the roots begin to take root.
IMPORTANT. Before rooting, do not moisten the soil unnecessarily, from this the root system, not yet able to absorb water, will begin to rot.
Formation and pollination of the bush
Final rooting and the beginning of the growth of bushes will begin in 15-20 days. At this time, the pepper will begin to actively form new shoots. Masking a pepper grown on a window sill is not required.
Its fruits are small and the bush has enough strength to grow them. There is also no need to put any supports, the pepper stalk is powerful enough to withstand a lot of fruits.
As soon as flowers start to form on the bushes, branches need a little shake for pollination of buds. Daily turn the bushes the other side to the window for even development.
If this is not done, the shoots will reach for the light and the bush will begin to lean in one direction.
Fruiting cultures are demanding on the content of food when grown, so the pepper must be regularly fed. 2-3 times weeks water the soil with a universal fertilizer for vegetable crops or special for peppers and tomatoes.
IMPORTANT. It should not be used for feeding mixture with a high nitrogen content, plants from this will increase the leaf mass to the detriment of fruiting.
Fruiting chili pepper
As soon as the pepper begins to form fruit. Bushes, covered at the same time with flowers and fruits, acquire a special decorative effect. When sowing in winter, first peppers appear in May - June. Depending on the variety they have red, yellow or green color.
IMPORTANT. Do not forget to select and dry some of the most beautiful specimens to receive seeds for planting next season.
Growing chili peppers in room conditions does not require any special effort. Give him a little attention, and he will delight you with sharp, fragrant fruits.
Read other articles on pepper seedlings:
- Proper cultivation of seeds and whether to soak them before sowing?
- How to grow black pepper peas, bitter or sweet at home?
- What are growth promoters and how to use them?
- The main reasons why the leaves are twisted at the shoots, the seedlings fall or are pulled out, and also why the shoots die?
- Terms of planting in the regions of Russia and especially the cultivation in the Urals, in Siberia and the Moscow region.
- Learn yeast based fertilizer recipes.
- Learn the rules of planting Bulgarian and hot peppers, as well as dive sweet?
In conclusion we offer you a video on growing chili peppers at home:
Chili is one of the most popular spices in the world, which has found its place not only in cooking, but also in medicine, cosmetology, and, of course, home gardening. The benefits of this plant were well known to the Aztec and Maya - it was from these peoples that the Europeans received the first seeds as a gift. Сегодня же выращивание перца чили – дело, которое вполне под силу даже новичку, а его красивые кустики станут настоящим украшение подоконника или огорода, и обязательно порадуют своего владельца острыми, пикантными плодами.
How to get chili seeds?
First of all, it should be noted that the term “chili pepper” unites a number of plants from the family of leguminous plants: “bird's eye”, jalapeno, anaheim, habanero, and many others. They differ from each other in the appearance of the fruits, their color, and also in the sharpness, therefore, it is best to make a choice based on their own preferences and abilities of the stomach. For example, jalapeno is considered the most harmless and non-stingy of them, but the most acute and “evil” is habanero, although there are some exceptions to the rules here.
Hot pepper seeds
There are two ways to get seed for growing chilli: purchase seeds in a store or pick them yourself. In the first case, it is very important to choose a quality material that can guarantee good germination and productivity of the future plant.
Hot Pepper Fireworks
At the same time experienced gardeners recommend to follow a number of rules.
- Before buying seeds, you should carefully evaluate their appearance: damaged, cracked or deformed seeds, most likely, will not germinate. In addition, they must be of a rather large size - from too fine seed, usually weak, diseased plants are obtained.
- On the surface of the seeds should not be spot brown, orange or yellow. This means that high temperatures were used for drying, which have a detrimental effect on the seeds.
- To avoid wasting time and subsequent disappointment, seeds can be checked for germination. To do this, put them in a container, pour some water there, add special means that stimulate plant growth, and wait a day. Then pour a little ground there, and wait for the roots to appear - it usually takes two to three days. If they are not there, then the material is of poor quality.
How to check the seeds for germination
To avoid buying low-quality seeds, it is best to collect them yourself.
The basic rule in this case is to give the fruits to ripen well, and this time comes not when they are already suitable for food, but much later. The period of seed collection can be determined by the appearance of the peppers - the pods begin to dry out, and the tip becomes brown. The fruit should be carefully cut in half, shake out the seeds from it, and then rub them in the hands, blowing off the remnants of the pulp. It is recommended to use glasses and gloves, since the ingress of small particles in the eyes or on the skin can cause severe irritation. Store seeds should be in a dry place, in any case, not exposing them to heat treatment.
Extracted pepper seeds
Chili can be grown on the windowsill or loggia, as well as in the open field or greenhouse. In any case, it is better not to plant the seeds immediately to a permanent place, but first to grow seedlings from them, otherwise this process will take much longer. It is best to do this in February, especially if the plant lives in the open field - before spring the sprouts will be strong enough so that they can be transplanted.
- To speed up germination, place seeds between two wet wipes or paper towels, put them in a container and leave them for a few days in a warm, well-ventilated place. It is important that the seeds are in the same plane - this will ensure uniform distribution of moisture. The "readiness" of seeds for planting can be determined by their swelling (some may have small sprouts).
Preparing Chili Seeds
For sowing, it is recommended to use a large container, which is well washed beforehand and treated with boiling water. Soil mixture is best bought in the store, as the usual garden soil may contain pathogenic bacteria and insect eggs. Some vermiculite is added to the mixture, and drainage is placed on the bottom of the tank and ground is poured so that between its surface and the edge of the pot there is approximately 2.5 cm.
Preparing a pot for planting pepper seeds
Seeds are planted in shallow holes (0.5 cm), located at a distance of at least 5 cm from each other, otherwise the plants will be crowded. Top of them need to sprinkle with a small layer of soil, sprinkle with water and cover with glass or polyethylene.
Plant the seed to a depth of about 1.3 cm
Transplanting plants into separate pots should be after the first real leaves appear on them, and for subsequent cultivation in open ground it is better to choose peat pots. They allow you to perform a transplant so as not to disturb the roots, so that young peppers will take root better.
When picking, take the seedlings by the “ears”, so as not to damage the stem
Carefully pour and fill the soil if necessary.
Growing chili peppers at home
The main condition for the successful cultivation of hot peppers in the home - enough light. With its lack of plants will be too weak, and the fruits - small and pale. For home cultivation, experienced gardeners recommend choosing those types of pepper that give shrubs with small leaves so that the area of light absorption is large enough.
Growing hot peppers
An ideal place to grow is a window sill or balcony, which faces south-west or south-east. The optimum temperature depends on the type of plant, but on average it is 22-25 ° C in summer and 16-18 ° C in winter. Another important point is that the daylight hours for chili pepper in natural conditions lasts 18 hours, therefore, in winter, the place where it will grow should be equipped with sources of artificial lighting. Best suited for this lamp with blue-violet radiation, or a combination of luminescent with ordinary incandescent lamps. The distance from the top of the plant to the lamp should be at least 25-30 cm.
Chili pepper care
Growing hot peppers at home
For growing peppers at home, it is recommended to choose not too deep pots, otherwise the root system of plants will be developed better than the fertile top. As for the material, it is better to dwell on plastic pots with drainage holes. Clay or terracotta containers often draw moisture from the soil, and they can simply dry out. In addition to maintaining the temperature and light conditions, care for chili peppers consists in regular watering (the soil should be moist but not too wet) and the monthly fertilizing of plants - the mixtures used for fertilizing tomatoes are suitable for this.
Watering and pepper fertilizer
Once the bushes reach a height of 20 cm, it is better to pinch the tops, so that they are well branched and form more fruits.
Growing hot peppers at home
Growing chili peppers in the ground
The first question many gardeners ask themselves is: where is it better to grow chili peppers in an open area or in a greenhouse? The answer to this question is unequivocal - in the greenhouse you can maintain constant conditions of temperature and humidity, so the bushes can reach a meter in height, and give a good harvest. In the open field, where these indicators can change several times a day, pepper grows worse, but this option is also possible.
Cultivation of pepper
For planting it is necessary to choose a well-lit place with nutrient, neutral or slightly acidic soil. Peppers are extremely negative about the stagnation of water, high humidity and sunburn, so a few weeks or months before transplanting it is necessary to improve the drainage of the soil, adding a little river sand and compost. Young plants should be transplanted into the ground after they have taken root well and have grown to 12-15 cm, and only when the last spring frosts have passed.
- Before planting, the peppers must be hardened so that changing their place of residence does not become too big a shock for them. To do this, the pots are taken out every day to fresh air, gradually extending the stay of the plants on the street - first 2 hours a week, then daily add one hour until they can stay on the street for a full 24 hours.
Be sure to temper the seedlings
Dig pits a little larger in the selected area than the root system, at a distance of 30 cm from each other (for some varieties a longer distance may be needed).
Plants to plant in the pits, covered with soil the upper part of the roots, but not tamping up the soil too much, because the best chili grows on loose, well-drained areas.
Carefully remove the plant from the pot, taking care not to disturb the earthen ball.
After planting the bushes should be watered, but it is very important to ensure that the soil is wet and not wet through.
Before the transplanted plants begin to bloom and bear the first fruits, it will take at least a month, during which the peppers require careful maintenance. Watering is regular, not too abundant, but not scanty: you should not allow cracks or puddles to appear near the plants. The procedure is best carried out with warm water in the morning or evening, when there is not too bright sun. It is better not to use the rain irrigation method - water droplets on the leaves can cause sunburn. In addition, you need to regularly remove weeds, make monthly compost and fertilizers containing potassium, as well as remove flowers and stems that grow inside the bush.
Red hot pepper in the garden
Diseases and pests
Most often, chili is susceptible to the disease called “black leg”, as well as wilt diseases, the first mainly affecting young plants, and the second - adult bushes. To prevent such troubles, it is very important to maintain temperature and humidity indicators that are optimal for peppers. Black leg, as can be seen from its name, is manifested by darkening of the sprouts, and the symptoms of the wilt disease are the browning of the stem and the falling of the leaves, which ultimately leads to death. Sick plants are best removed and destroyed, otherwise they can infect healthy specimens.
As for pests, aphid and spider mite cause the greatest damage to peppers.
They can be fought with the help of insecticides of organic origin or infusion of wood ash - pour half a glass of ash into an enameled bowl, pour 5 liters of boiling water on it, mix well and leave for 12 hours. This solution should wash the entire plant and slightly shed the soil next to it.
One of the valuable advantages of chili pepper is that most of its species allow you to harvest at any time. Green peppers have a bitter taste, and after reaching technical ripeness, they acquire a sharp, pungent, spicy or sweetish taste.
Selection of chili varieties for growing on the windowsill
You will be surprised how easy it is to grow a plant at home if you choose the appropriate variety. Exotic names: “Aladdin” “Dwarf” “Poinsettia”, “Spotted Troll”, as well as more familiar: “Bell”, “Swallow” - varieties have different shapes and colors of the fruit, color of foliage, time of ripening.
The fruits of early-ripening varieties ripen in 90-120 days, medium-ripening - 120-140 days from the moment of planting.
- Tabasco: the burning flesh of its fruit is the basis for the popular Tabasco sauce. It is grown on the window, and in industrial quantities - on plantations. Valued grade for precocity.
- “Salute” is one of the shortest varieties, its rounded compact bush grows up to 20 cm. Large, up to 5 cm fruits in the form of red and orange cones are directed upwards and have a strong aroma.
- "Aladdin" - suitable for windowsill and open ground. Its numerous fruits in the process of maturation change the green color to cream, purple and red. Another advantage of this variety is early maturity and a long fruiting period.
- "Bellflower" - red fruits of unusual shape, ripen in 150 days. Acuity in the fruit is unevenly distributed.
Before planting the plant at home, prepare the container. Pots made of pressed peat are ideal for seedlings. For each adult bush will need a separate capacity.
It can be a wide flowerpot of medium depth, a wooden box covered with plastic, a plastic container. A layer of drainage, 3-4 cm, of expanded clay, gravel or charcoal must be put on the bottom.
For breeding seedlings ready earthen mixture from the store. The optimal composition of the soil when grown in a pot:
- turf ground, vegetable humus - 2 parts,
- peat - 2 parts,
- vermiculite - 1 part,
It grows best in loose, light soils that allow air to pass through well. In winter, in order to preserve the water balance of the soil and increase the luminance of the bush in case of dim sun, it is recommended to cover the surface of the soil with perlite.
Sowing seeds in a pot
In a peat pot, or other temporary packaging place a drainage layer, on top of the earth mixture. In the ground with a finger, they make indentations of 0.5 cm, where two prepared seeds are put. If the capacity is wide, you can make several such holes, retreating 5-6 cm from each other. The holes with seeds are covered with earth, watered, the container is closed with a transparent film.
The container in which the seedlings will be transplanted is prepared the day before the pick. In a suitable pot put a thick layer of drainage, on top of the earth mixture, watered abundantly.
Form a recess in which the roots of the seedling with an earthy clod should fit. Leave for a day. On the day of the picking, the sprout is watered, after 1-1.5 hours it is carefully removed from the temporary container, without breaking the clod of earth around the roots. Remove the bottom third of the central root.
An earthen clod with roots is placed in a hollow in the ground; the central root should be flattened. Add soil to the pot, so that the leaves are 2 cm higher than the soil level.
Conditions and care for chili at home
Sharp temperature drops, drafts badly affect the plant. Optimal conditions for growing plants on the windowsill:
- temperature + 25 ° С
- long, about 18 hours, light day,
- loose, wet, but not wet soil.
When watering use clean settled water at room temperature. Also the foliage is sprayed from a spray bottle.
To regulate the acidity of the soil, a solution of ash is used once a month - 1 tablespoon per liter of water. Twice a month in water, at the rate of 1 liter, add minerals to feed the pepper:
- superphosphate - 12 g,
- potassium salt - 3 g,
- ammonium nitrate - 5 g
Chili is a perennial plant, some specimens bear fruit for more than five years. The greatest yield of capsicum gives in the second and third year, after four years the number of fruits decreases.
The yield and weight of the chili peppers depends on the variety. Small varieties per season can bring up to hundreds of peppers. Fruits are removed regularly, as the pods ripen.
When used moderately, chili improves appetite, improves mood. Chili is an amazing culture that is easy to grow at home on a windowsill.
Capacity and soil for seedlings
Immediately it should be determined whether it is planned to pick a seedling or not. If so, then the seeds can be sown in one large capacity. The red pepper root system is very painful about the deformation, which is inevitable when picking. This procedure is tolerated by plants very painfully for five days, and some may even die. Such growing hot pepper is justified only if, as a result, instead of a few dozen, you want to get a couple hundred bushes. It is much easier to germinate the seeds, and then plant them in separate containers.
Important!If you plan to sow the seeds in the same capacity several times in a row, then before each sowing you should carry out its complete disinfection. To do this, you can use both boiling water and bleach solution. The seedlings of hot chili peppers feel most comfortable in fertile soils, where there is a large amount of humus, good drainage and a pH level of 6.0-6.5. The soil mixture is prepared from humus, sand and clay earth in the ratio of 2: 1: 1. It is recommended to add a little more vermiculite, which will provide a stable soil moisture and additional loosening. If you buy ready-made soil in the store, before sowing seeds into it, hold it in the room for several days to warm it up and oxygenate it.
Did you know?In Mexico, cooked soup based on hot chili peppers. It is called "Laden" and is used as a good remedy for hangover.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
To properly sow hot pepper seeds on seedlings, you need to be guided by the following:
- Семена нужно сажать на расстоянии 5 см друг от друга. В противном случае растения будут страдать от недостачи света и поэтому станут отставать в росте.
- Грунт должен быть максимально плодородным с добавлением вермикулита.
- Погружать семена в почвенную смесь нужно на 5 мм.
- По окончании посадки почву рекомендуется оросить.
Кроме всего вышеперечисленного, проследите за уровнем влажности в почве и доступом в неё тепла. Each type of chili fits its specific temperature conditions, but the average is still reduced to marks of 22-25 degrees. This temperature must be maintained constantly. The rate of seed growth depends not only on the temperature conditions created, but also on the variety of the plant itself.
Did you know?The fruits of red chilli peppers contain a huge amount of vitamin A, even more than in carrots. Its use also increases libido due to aphrodisiacs contained in the seeds. Green chili has more vitamin C than citrus.
Care and conditions for growing seedlings
The growing conditions for chili pepper imply a complex of agrotechnical measures. In order for the growth of hot pepper sprouts to occur in the most comfortable conditions, daylight hours should be at least 12 hours. Therefore, winter cultivation requires additional lighting with special fitolamps. Seed containers should be placed in a bright place that will not be exposed to sunlight.
When the first true leaflets appear, you can pick a pickup at a distance of 10-12 cm. At the same time, pinch the main root to ¼. In this way, you contribute to the formation of a powerful root system for each chili pepper. Dive plants should not be dived until at least two leaves have been formed on them, as they will not be able to transfer the transplant. Tightening with a dive of plants also should not be, because from a lack of light peppers are too drawn out and weakened.
Important!When diving chili, do not deepen it below the level seen during sprouting. Hot pepper does not form side roots, unlike its fellow tomato, therefore, deeply buried roots will suffer from oxygen deficiency. Place the seedlings of pepper in the southeast or southwest windows, thus ensuring the most comfortable lighting of the hot pepper. If the pepper does not get enough light, the foliage will fade and brighten. If it is dark green, then the seedlings get enough sunlight.
Since chili comes from a warm or even hot climate, water such hot peppers need distilled water at room temperature. Do not over-wet the soil, as this can lead to black leg disease. If the humidity in the room is less than 50%, spray the leaves with warm water.
Important!If the seedlings suddenly start to fall off the foliage, you need to rearrange the containers in a more illuminated place or arrange additional lighting. Mount the blue-violet lamps at a height of 30 cm from the top of the seedling.
A week before planting chili seedlings in greenhouses, preparatory activities should be carried out in the form of hardening. Seedlings should be accustomed to daily temperature and humidity differences. The easiest and most effective way is to take out the pallet with plants on the balcony and leave them for 2 hours. Every day, the time spent in the fresh air will need to increase. Remember: when the lowest daily temperature of the soil reaches 12-13 ° C, then it will be possible to plant chili peppers in unprotected soil.
It is especially important to harden the seedlings that are planned to be planted not in greenhouses or greenhouses, but immediately under the open sky. When hardening pepper gets used not only to changes in temperature, but also to the light, which is many times brighter than at home on the windowsill. In order not to shock young plants, they should be darkened, gradually gradually accustomed to full sunlight every day.
Did you know?Maya Indians rubbed hot peppers in their gums to stop a strong toothache.
Planting chili seedlings at a permanent place
If chili pepper received proper care, then by the time of planting it will be strong bushes about 20 cm high. Each of them should have at least 10 leaves and, possibly, even buds. The seedlings that bloom or set fruit are wrong. Such overgrowths require special care in planting and only in greenhouses or greenhouses. The place allotted for planting hot peppers must be sunny and not blown by the winds.
Important!It is worth remembering the predecessors. Chili can be planted on the beds where cucumbers, legumes or greens used to grow. It is forbidden to plant after potatoes or tomatoes!Before planting seedlings of hot peppers, make sure how warm the earth is at the depth of the root system. At 12 cm below the ground level should be a temperature not lower than 15 ° C. Hot pepper in open ground should be planted in rows with a step of 25 cm between the bushes and with a distance of 50 cm between the rows. Pre-prepared wells fill with boiling water and level the beds. Carefully remove the peppers from the tank (or individual containers, if the picking was done). Plant not deep to shorten the duration of ripening of the crop and increase its quantity. It is not recommended to plant sweet and hot peppers in one greenhouse, as they are pereopylyaemy. The most convenient neighborhood will be with coriander, marigold, basil, parsley and calendula, no matter what sort of chili pepper you planted.
Did you know?The first resident of Europe who tasted chili was Christopher Columbus. It happened in America in 1493. After that, a hundred years later, the hot pepper spread throughout the world.
Care and secrets of growing spicy chili pepper
Once you create optimal conditions, it will not be difficult to grow hot chili peppers even in the conditions of our country. In this case, the bushes plants will be strong and healthy. If you want to see more “stocky” plants on your plot, then you can regularly pinch their tops. If your goal is large and high-quality fruits in small quantities, then you should remove some of the flowers and stems growing inside the bush.
According to experts, red spicy chili is undemanding to make additional fertilizers, except for those that are already contained in the soil. But you can help the plant grow strong, making complex fertilizer twice a month.
Do not pour peppers and do not let the ground crack, allowing it to dry too deeply. Water the plants with warm water but not at the peak of solar activity, so as not to burn the root system.
Did you know?The smaller the size of the hot pepper, the sharper it is. The most "nuclear" chili – up to 5 cm in length.
Harvest spicy pepper can be from July to October. Fruits are torn down along with the stem as they mature, reaching the desired size and crispy structure. The final unsurpassed taste qualities burning pepper gains only after reddening.
Like many vegetable or berry crops, chili pepper should be stored and allowed to ripen safely at a temperature of 18-20 ° C. So its taste finds its saturation and zhguchest. So that it lasts much longer, it is dried, strung on a thread behind the stem. Dried chili weekly at sunny temperatures. Spicy pepper pods can also be frozen.
Did you know?Capsaicin is present in chili peppers. It has no color, with a crystalline structure, and a sharp taste. It is this that gives such a burning sensation of chili.
Choosing and planting a hot pepper variety that is right for your taste and climatic conditions, and applying effective agricultural techniques is what will help you grow a decent crop of chili peppers.
Rod: Pepper, Kapsikum,
Annual and perennial shrubs and dwarf shrubs,
Height of growth: depending on the grade 30 - 150 cm,
Colour: inconspicuous, whitish,
Fruiting time: from September to October.
Peperoni, and also chiles belong to the family of the nightshade. They differ mainly in the shape and intensity of the burning sensation or the type of spices made from them. Capsaicin is responsible for severity. The highest concentration of this alkaloid is contained not in the pulp, but in the white partitions and seeds of the fruit. The flesh can be eaten raw and, depending on the variety, it may taste slightly sweet, spicy or hot.
Young plants that can be planted in the garden very soon after frost are sold from the middle of May in a specialized garden shop. The threat of the night is not strong frost is not terrible, since these plants are not particularly sensitive to frost. The earth should warm up to 15 degrees. In addition to the garden, you can plant pepper in the greenhouse.
Before planting the pepper, it is necessary to find the right place, and the soil must be properly prepared.
Pepperoni and Chile need warmth and, therefore, prefer warm and sunny places in the garden, which are additionally protected from wind and rain. In fairly warm regions, landing on the street is possible without problems. In particularly cold areas, planting in a greenhouse or under cover is preferable. The warmer the place, the faster the plants will develop and, consequently, the fruits.
Soil requirements are high. It should be humus, loose, light, permeable and rich in nutrients. Heavy soils that are threatened by soil moisture, which warm up slowly, are unsuitable, as well as soils with a low ability to retain water. The ph value should be between 5.5 and 6.8.
Peppers should be planted in the same place in 3-4 years.
Planting chili peppers next to other nightshade, such as potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants, should be avoided at all costs. On the other hand, carrots, zucchini, peas, garden leeks, onions and cabbage, as well as basil, thyme and parsley are good neighbors for this plant.
Paprika plants have a high demand for nutrients. That is why it is useful to bring copious amounts of manure or well-aged compost. Compost not only supplies the earth with nutrients, but also maintains its ability to hold water and weakens it. In addition, it is recommended to add about 40 to 80 grams of complex fertilizer per square meter before planting to improve the nutrients of the soil for growing peppers.
When the peppers are badly lacking nutrients, the leaves below turn purple.
In order for the plants not to break under the weight of the fruit, they should be tied up. To do this, use steel rods or pegs made of wood, and twine.
Chili loves to grow in warm soil and does not require too much space in the root zone, which makes them ideal for growing in a bucket or pot. The container should be at least 5 liters and a depth of about 20 cm. It should have drainage holes, store heat, such as black plastic pots. The deepest layer should be formed by drainage from clay granules or coarse gravel.
The substrate is placed on the drainage. Further, the plant can be placed at the same depth as when planted in a garden, namely, only the root system should be covered with soil.
After planting, chilli should be well watered and placed in a sunny place, for example, in front of a sunny wall of a house.
Instead of buying plants, they can be easily grown at home on their own. For this, seeds are sown at the end of February or at the beginning of March into the soil for germination. We distribute the seeds in cassettes or cups, putting them in shallow holes and sprinkling them with a small amount of earth. The soil should be wet all the time. For good germination, cover the seed container with a foil, which should be removed daily and removed briefly to prevent the formation of mold. Then the container is placed in a warm and bright place. At temperatures of about 22-25 degrees, germination will affect about 1-2 weeks.
To seedlings soared friendlier, before planting soak the seeds in any growth stimulator. You can use the Epin Extra solution by soaking the seeds in it for a couple of hours. Growth stimulation strengthens plants well and results in more yield than without this procedure.
As soon as the seedlings have 2-3 leaves, they can be planted in small pots of humus and nutrient-rich soil, and then can be cultivated in a warm and bright place. You must be very careful when transplanting, so as not to damage the roots. Before the seedlings are transplanted into the garden or in a large bucket, the pepper is hardened by placing it outside during the day in places that are not exposed to the sun.
From late April, young plants can be planted in the greenhouse and from mid-May into the garden.
- Water demand is particularly high with the onset of fruit growth and ripening,
- Water regularly during the growing period,
- The ground should not be dry or too wet,
- Overflowing peppers, as well as watering with cold water can lead to rotting of the root system. Peppers are heat-loving plants, they need watering with settled water of room temperature,
- The mulch film can protect and retain moisture longer in the ground,
- Plants do not like moisture on the leaves and fruits, but only at the root,
- If there is not enough moisture, brownish or light spots appear on the stem and peppers.
Water supply is also responsible for the bitterness of the flesh, as the amount of bitterness of the fruit increases with a humid climate.
To provide all the nutrients to pepper, fertilizer can and should be applied before planting. Thus, during the growing season there is a continuous supply of useful substances. The additional addition of compost provides a common stock for the plant with humus and nutrients.
During growth, it is recommended to use infusions of nettle, which supplies the plant with all the important minerals. The leaves just need to spray.
During flowering, Chile and Peperoni require a lot of minerals, trace elements and nitrogen. Peppers always have their favorite fertilizer ash. It is used for foliar fertilizing at the rate of (2 tablespoons / 3 l of water) at any time, but with an interval of 10-14 days.
There are different opinions when it comes to whether to trim the chili or peperoni pepper. In fact, paprika plants are mainly grown annually and thrown away after harvest.
In March, it is necessary to cut the bushes to rejuvenate them and free them from old and weak twigs.
We pollinate indoor pepper
In order to better form on the bushes fruit ovaries, during flowering, you need to shake them regularly. If the pepper is grown properly, has sufficient care, then from the middle of May it will delight you with lush flowering all summer long, and in the autumn it will overgrow with not less beautiful peppercorns!
Peppercorns ripen on the plant for a long time and alternately. The longer they mature, the more intense the bitterness will be. However, peppers must be harvested before the first night frosts.
If the plants overwinter indoors, in this case there is no hurry, and the fruits can ripen quietly.
Hot pepper can be removed and eaten at any stage of maturity: green, fully mature (the color of a ripe fruit depends on the type and variety of the plant), as well as at any time between these two conditions and even if the fruit dries on the bush. Mature peppers have a more sweet and spicy taste.
- The ideal place would be a bright and cold room with a temperature of 10 to 15 degrees,
- temperatures below 10 degrees can affect growth and fruit formation next year,
- temperature up to 20 degrees is not a problem
- too wet and too dry substrate in winter can lead to the death of plants,
- in cool places, the earth dries out slowly, consider this before watering,
- no fertilizer is required during the winter.
As soon as the temperature in the spring becomes constant 10-15 degrees, Chile and Peperoni can be transplanted into the containers a little more, into a fresh substrate and also carry out additional feeding.
If conditions during hibernation are not ideal, the plant can easily become infected with parasites (leaf lice, white flies).
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Bitter pepper - a description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing
- 3.2. Growing seedlings
- 3.3. Picks
- 3.4. Growing at home
- 4. Landing
- 4.1. When to plant
- 4.2. Priming
- 4.3. How to plant
- 4.4. Growing in a greenhouse
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to grow
- 5.2. Watering
- 5.3. Top dressing
- 6. Pests and diseases
- 6.1. Treatment
- 7. Collection and storage
- 8. Types and varieties
- 9. Properties
- 9.1. Beneficial features
- 9.2. Contraindications
Planting and care of bitter pepper (in short)
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in February-March in areas with a cold climate and in January-February in an area with warm. Seedlings are planted in open ground during the budding period, when the average daily temperature in the garden rises to 15-17 C.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, permeable.
- Watering: frequent and abundant, especially during flowering and fruiting: the soil in the area should not dry out. In the heat will need daily watering, and in drought will have to water the beds twice a day.
- Top dressing: At the beginning of the growing season, fertilizers containing phosphorus and magnesium are introduced into the soil, and as the fruits ripen, the amount of nitrogen must be reduced.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: aphid, spider mites, colorado beetles, whiteflies, moths, thrips, and black bear slugs.
- Diseases: white, brown and black spot, black leg, tobacco mosaic, late blight, bacterial carcinoma, strick, gray, white and top rot, verticillis, fusarium and peronosporosis.
- Properties: The plant has medicinal properties.
Bitter pepper - a description
Красный острый перец – кустарник высотой до 60 см с ветвистыми и одеревенелыми в нижней части стеблями. Листья у него эллиптические, черешковые, заостренные к вершине, цветки крупные, сероватые с фиолетовым или белые. Fruits of the pepper of the trunk or spherical shape are berries with a small share of the pericarp. The color of the fruit can be different shades - from yellow or red to dark olive. Hot peppers are a close relative of tomato, so the rules and conditions for growing these crops are very similar to each other.
Sowing chili seeds.
The cultivation of hot pepper begins with sowing seeds for seedlings in February or March in cool regions and in January-February in warm ones. The soil mixture can be purchased in the store, and you can make your own: mix non-sour peat, humus and river sand in equal proportions. The seeds of hot pepper also need to be prepared for sowing: first lower them for half an hour into a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then wrap in a damp cloth and wait at 25 ºC until they are folded. After that, the seeds are very careful not to break off the sprouts that appear, close up to damp soil to a depth of 5-10 mm, keeping at least 5 cm between them. Sow the seeds in boxes or peat pots, which are covered with film or glass and placed before germination in a warm place.
Growing seedlings bitter pepper.
Seeds of different varieties of bitter pepper germinate at different speeds, but as soon as shoots begin to appear, the crops need to be rearranged to light. If the plants lack the light, they should be placed above them at a height of 25-30 cm fitolampa or another lighting device: the light day for normal seedling development should last at least 18 hours, otherwise the seedlings will stretch out painfully. And do not forget to keep the substrate in a slightly wet state, at the same time not allowing it to be overwetted. From time to time between seedlings, it is desirable to loosen the soil.
A pick of hot pepper.
At the developmental stage, the seedlings of two pairs of true leaves need to pick out seedlings in shallow pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm - if you plant them in deeper dishes, then by the time the seedlings are planted in open ground the root system will be developed more than the fertile ground part, and this preferably not allowed. Before starting the procedure, seedlings are watered. When picking, try not to damage the seedlings' root system, but if the central root is too long, shorten it.
Before planting in the ground, hot pepper seedlings are fed twice - two weeks after picking and two weeks after the first feeding. Fertilizers are applied in the form of a solution of Chalice, Agricola, Mortar, Fertica Lux or other suitable preparation.
Growing bitter pepper at home.
If you intend to grow peppers at home, during a pickling, transplant seedlings into a pot in which a layer of drainage material is laid under the soil mixture. Place the pepper pots on the south, southeast, or southwest window sill, but if there is little light, arrange for the plants to artificially highlight them. When straightened plants reach a height of 20 cm, pinch the top of them to enhance tillering.
Caring for hot peppers at home includes regular watering and periodic feeding. Pepper is poured over with distilled water at room temperature, which is poured not onto the surface of the soil, but into the pan under the pot. As soon as the water from the pan disappears, you need to pour more.
During spring and summer, paprika is fed with complex mineral fertilizer for house plants. Do it on wet soil after watering. When airing the room, make sure that the pepper is not in the draft.
When flowering begins, the pots of pepper should be shaken slightly to allow pollination to occur. In winter, when heating devices work intensively, it is advisable to cover radiators with a damp cloth - this measure prevents excessive air drying. The plant, which turned one year old, needs to be transplanted every spring into a new soil and a larger pot.
When to put hot pepper in the ground.
Planting of hot pepper in open ground is carried out at the stage of formation of seedlings of the first buds. A prerequisite is also to establish the average daily temperature at 15-17 ºC.
Two weeks before planting, hot pepper seedlings undergo hardening, which consists in the daily “walking” of seedlings in the open air. You need to start with 15-20 minutes, but gradually the duration of the session is increased until young plants can spend the whole day on the air. Once the plants become accustomed to the environment in which they are to grow, they can be planted on the garden bed.
Ground for chili pepper.
Neither bitter, sweet pepper does not carry heavy cold soils, so peat and humus should be brought into the clay soil for digging to the depth of the spade bayonet. If your soil is light and permeable, fertilize it from the fall with rotted manure at the rate of 2 buckets of organic matter per m² plot. Although it is possible to fertilize directly into the hole when planting seedlings.
How to plant hot peppers in open ground.
Make a hole in the soil at a distance of 30-40 cm with 60 cm row spacing. You can plant peppers in the nesting way, according to the 50 x 50 cm scheme, placing two seedlings in one well. The depth of the hole should be such that the seedling plunges into it to the root collar. In each well, place a tablespoon of complete mineral fertilizer, mix it well with the ground, carefully remove a seedling with an earthy clod from the pot and roll it into the hole. Cover the hole with soil by half or a little more, pour into it a third of a bucket of water, and when it is absorbed, fill the hole with soil to the top. After planting, grind the bed with peat and, if necessary, tie the bushes to the supports. If at night the air temperature is below 13-14 ºC, cover the bed with peppers with non-woven material, throwing it onto the dug-in arcs. Seedlings should be planted on a cloudy day or in the late afternoon, after sunset.
Growing chili peppers in a greenhouse.
Experts say that chili grows much better in greenhouses than in open ground. This can be explained by the fact that in greenhouse conditions it is easier to control the temperature, and the level of air humidity in the greenhouse is more stable than in the garden. Pepper seedlings are planted in closed ground, when the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, and night temperatures are set at 10-12 ºC. Before planting, the seedlings are hardened by the method already described by us.
The optimum daily temperature for growing chili peppers in a greenhouse is 16-18 ºC. In a heated greenhouse, the plants are watered frequently, but not abundantly, in an unheated greenhouse in cold weather, watering is reduced. Moisturize the soil with warm water. After watering, do not forget to loosen the soil around the bushes and remove weeds. Since the formation of the fruit, the plants are fed once a week with liquid fertilizer for tomatoes. Shrubs tall varieties tied to supports. If at the end of summer the ripening of fruits starts to slow down, hang the bushes pulled out of the soil onto the eaves of the greenhouse “upside down” - this measure will accelerate the ripening.
Keep in mind that in greenhouse conditions it is better to grow self-pollinating varieties, but if you have planted peppers that require pollinators, you will have to do this procedure yourself. To do this, you will need a soft brush to transfer the pollen or a fan, but sometimes shaking the plants is enough.
The last harvest of fruits is carried out before the onset of severe frosts, after which the bushes are transplanted into flowerpots and transferred to a heated room on the window sills. With the onset of spring, they can again be planted in a greenhouse or in open ground.
How to grow a hot pepper.
When the seedlings reach a height of 30-35 cm, they pinch the tops. After that, the bushes acquire a compact form, side shoots appear on them, which will also give fruit. If you want to grow large peppers, remove a few flowers on the bush, then the remaining fruits will be larger. The optimal number of fruits on a bush is 25, the rest is better to remove. When the air temperature is above 30 ºC, the hot pepper stops pollination, and in order for it to happen, you should shake the bushes a little. By the way, do not plant Bulgarian peppers next to bitter chillies: these cultures easily pereopylyatsya among themselves, therefore the distance between them should be at least 3.5 m.
Watering chili peppers.
Pepper is a moisture-loving culture and it especially needs moisture in the period of flowering and fruiting. Do not allow the soil to bed strongly dry. Be prepared to water the pepper in the summer every day, and in extreme heat even twice a day. Water for irrigation should be warm. To do this, in the garden in the bright sun sets a large container and filled with water. During the day, the water can settle and warm up. After watering, you can loosen the soil between the plants and remove weeds.
Pests and diseases of hot peppers
Of the pests, the most dangerous for solanaceous crops are aphids, spider mites, Colorado beetles, whiteflies, moths, thrips, bear and bare slugs. However, pepper is a more sustainable plant than a tomato, and is therefore not so often damaged by insects.
Of the diseases, hot pepper affects the same ailments from which tomatoes and eggplants suffer: white, brown and black spot, black leg, tobacco mosaic, late blight, bacterial cancer, strick, gray, white and apical rot, verticillis, fusarium and peronosporosis.
Processing chili peppers.
We have repeatedly told about all these pests and diseases, so we will not describe them again - you can find information about them in the articles posted on the website about growing tomatoes, eggplants and sweet pepper. Recall in brief that fungal diseases in emergency cases are treated with fungicidal drugs, among which Abiga-Peak, Bayleton, Bordeaux mixture, Gamair, Maxim, copper sulfate, Oksihom and others are most often used, and bacterial and viral diseases are incurable. As for pest control, the best insecticidal and acaricidal drugs are Agravertine, Akarin, Aktellik, Karbofos, Karate, Kleschevit and others.
However, the use of pesticides can lead to disastrous consequences for your health, so try to get rid of the problems of folk remedies - although they do not act so drastically, they are much less harmful to their health. And if you observe the agrotechnical conditions of a crop and properly care for it, you will be able to reduce the risk of plant diseases or their occupation by pests to a minimum.
Collection and storage of hot peppers
Red hot peppers can be used both in the stage of incomplete maturity, and after full ripening, therefore, if necessary, it can be collected as soon as the fruits are formed. If you plan to put the pepper for long storage, then wait until it is fully biological ripening, otherwise it will be poorly stored: the storage time for red hot pepper depends on a special substance, the amount of which in the fruit increases as they ripen. That is, the fruit is more ripe, the more bitter substances are in it, which manifest themselves as preservatives during storage.
Red hot pepper has pronounced signs of ripening:
- - the pods should turn red, yellow or orange,
- - pepper leaves turn yellow, and dry on the lower part of the bush,
- - if you rub your hand with pepper, a slight burning sensation emanates from the ripe fruit.
Usually, chillies begin to collect at the end of September. It is very simple to prepare it for storage: for several minutes, pepper is placed in a basin with warm water, washed from dust and dirt, rinsed with cold water, wiped with a towel and dried.
There are different ways to store hot pepper - the choice of method depends on how you are going to use it. You can store the fruits of chili, hanging them on the stalk on the rope - with such a garland you can decorate the kitchen. It is important that the peppers do not touch each other. Well dried fruits are put in bags of thick cloth or in glass jars, covered with parchment and stored in a dry place. Pepper can be dried by spreading it on a window sill on parchment paper - with regular turning, the fruits dry out in three weeks, but if you want to speed up the process, cut the peppers in half.
You can grind the peppers in a meat grinder, put the mass on a baking sheet and dry in the oven at 50 ºC. When the pepper has cooled, it is placed in a bag. Some housewives dry the peppers for a couple of hours in the oven at 50 ºC, pre-baking the paper with the paper and turning the peppers over from time to time.
Many housewives prefer to preserve pepper in sunflower oil. To do this, put the peppercorns washed and freed from the seeds into a sterile glass jar, pour them with sunflower oil, lightly salt it, roll the jars with a sterile lid and store in a dry, dark place for 2-3 months.
Canned pepper and marinade. Whole or sliced fruits from which the seeds are removed are put into sterile jars, filled with a sourish-sweet marinade and sealed with sterile caps. You can add your favorite spices to each jar - cherry or currant leaves, garlic, basil, cloves. For normal storage is enough one teaspoon of vinegar per liter jar.
Excellent taste for salted pepper: put dill, celery, a few cloves of garlic in a jar of pepper, and pour in brine (50-60 g of salt per 1 liter of water). Store salted peppers needed under a capron lid in a refrigerator or a cool cellar.
There is another way that will seem simple and reliable: hot pepper is placed in the freezer, where it does not change its color, attractive form, does not shrivel, and most importantly, retains all its valuable qualities. The fruits of red pepper are washed in cold water, soaked with a towel, laid out in bags, sealed tightly and placed in the freezer. You can freeze and chopped fruit. They are laid out in one layer on a pallet, frozen, then transferred to plastic bags and again put in the freezer - for storage.
Types and varieties of hot pepper
There are more than 3000 cultivated varieties and varieties of chilli. The classification of hot pepper varieties takes into account such characteristics as color, aroma, shape and degree of stinginess, which is determined by the scale of the American chemist Wilbur Scoville and is estimated at ESSh (Scoville unit). A unit of stinginess indicates the amount in one or another variety of the plant alkaloid capsaicin. We offer you an introduction to the most popular varieties and varieties of hot pepper:
- this family has a pleasant sharpness, an original type of fruit and a persistent fruity aroma. Grades:
- – Trinidad Small Cherry (160 000 ECU) - fruits of plants of this series look like orange or red round berries with a diameter of not more than 2.5 cm with a characteristic cherry flavor. Of most interest are the late-ripening varieties of the Moruga Scorpion Red and Moruga Scorpion Yellow series.
- – Trinidad scorpion (855 000-1463 700 ESSH) - These small bright yellow peppers are grown for the production of tear gas and paint that protects vessels from the growth of mollusks. They are so burning that they collect and recycle this pepper in chemical protection suits,
- – Family 7 Pot - this series is represented mainly by late-ripening chili varieties. The fruits of these varieties are distinguished by an unusual, as if crumpled form, a characteristic fruit aroma and a high content of capsaicin. These are close relatives of the Trinidad scorpion. Of the varieties, the most popular record holder for the pungentness of taste is Primo (800,000-1,000,000 ECU) with bright red fruits and Gigantic - a variety with very large fruits of the same pungentness.
Naga Jolokia (970 000-1 001 304 ECU)
- This pepper is grown by the Indian tribe Naga, and it is used for the manufacture of pepper smoke bombs. But there are edible varieties of this group:
- – Naga Morich, or Dorset Naga (1,000,000 ECU) - a grade for gastromazohists,
- – Bhut Jolokia (800 000-1 001 304 ECU) - until recently, the hottest pepper in the world listed in the Guinness Book of Records, but in 2013 it gave way to the Karolina Reaper variety (1 569 300-2 200 000 ECU). Pepper Bhut Jolokia is used to make grenades used by Indian police,
- – Bhut Jolokia Chocolate - the same hot pepper, but Indians cook with it some varieties of curry dishes.
Habanero (350 000-570 000 ECU)
- peppers in the form of a flashlight, usually of a bright orange color. There are legends about this pepper: allegedly once the Indians of Yucatan offered a person a choice: to be sacrificed to the gods or to drink half a liter of tincture of this pepper, and many chose the first. Today, Habanero pepper is used to make Tabasco sauce and make tequila sharp. Of particular interest are:
- – White Habanero (100 000-350 000 ECU) - variety with small white fruits. However, to grow it is not easy, so it is rare,
- – Chocolate Habanero, or Congo Black (300 000-425 000 ECU) - variety grown from Mexico to Jamaica for making hot sauces,
- – Red Caribbean Habanero (300 000-475 000) - Mexicans use this pepper for salsa and other sauces.
Jamaican Pepper (100 000-200 000 ECU)
– ароматный, но опасный для человека перец, способный вызвать ожоги. По жгучести эта группа сортов близка к Хабанеро. В культуре популярны сорта Ямайский красный и Ямайский желтый. Используют ямайский перец для приготовления соусов, его также кладут в соленья, маринады, мясные и молочные блюда. Самый острый сорт ямайского перца:
- – Шотландская шапочка, or Скотч Боннет (100 000-350 000 ЕШС) – чаще всего этот перец можно встретить на Канарских островах, в Гайане. Шотландская шапочка может быть красной или желтой. The name got its own pepper for the similarity of the fruit with the Scotch beret. The acuteness of this pepper causes numbness of the limbs and dizziness. They use it for making sauces and first courses, and some gourmets like to enjoy its fruits with fruits and chocolate,
Thai pepper (75 000-150 000 ECU)
- Portugal is the birthplace of this pepper, but it is grown mainly in Thailand. They use Thai hot pepper varieties to prepare fish and meat dishes, sauces, salads, as well as to get rid of cellulite. The most famous variety in our latitudes:
- – Thai dragon - variety with red or yellow fruits up to 7 cm in length and up to 8 mm in diameter. Widely used in Vietnamese, Malaysian, Filipino and Thai cuisine.
Cayenne pepper (30 000-50 000 ECU)
- The name of the pepper comes from the toponym of the port city in French Guiana, through which spices from South America were brought to Europe from the 15th to the 19th century. This group includes peppers from Malaga, Tabasco peppers and Tiri Tiri, Malawi peppers Kambuzi and all Thai peppers. Use cayenne pepper varieties for cooking canned food, sausages, pickles. Apply it for medical purposes for the treatment of sciatica. Cayenne pepper is one of the most popular varieties in amateur gardening,
Poblano (1,000-1,500 ECU)
- The main pepper of Mexico, the softest of all described. Its large green fruits of elongated shape with a thick rind resemble prunes to their liking, in stewed form with white peanut sauce and pomegranate seeds are traditionally prepared on Independence Day. It is stuffed with cream cheese, seafood, pork, potatoes, beans and other products.
Among the gardeners of the middle band, the following hot red pepper varieties are popular: Jalapeno, Thai Dragon, Astrakhan, Chinese Fire, Satan's Kiss, Indian Elephant, Shishito, Peter, Sharp Tongue, Anaheim, Hybrids Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprout New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprut New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprut New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprut New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Octopus, New Years, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Octopus, New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Octopus, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell others.
Useful properties of hot pepper.
What is useful chili pepper? The composition of red hot pepper includes:
- - vitamins: A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, PP, K, E, C,
- - macro-and micronutrients: potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese, copper, calcium, sodium, zinc, selenium, phosphorus and others, but in smaller quantities, as well as dietary fiber, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, mono - and disaccharides, wax, colorants and the most valuable alkaloid capsaicin.
What is the effect of hot pepper on the human body? It is a good means to stimulate appetite and, having a bacterial action, relieves bowel disorder, and as an external agent is used for myositis, rheumatism, polyarthritis, gout, and upper respiratory catarrh. Chili is useful for its strong antioxidant effect, it stimulates the metabolic process, activating the burning of calories. Bitter pepper enhances immunity, increasing the body's resistance to colds, viral and bacterial diseases, thinning the blood, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, tones the nervous system and increases the potency. Red pepper treats such diseases as bronchitis and other bronchopulmonary diseases, vitiligo and felon. Chilli helps produce endorphins that increase pain threshold and resistance to stress, and recent studies have shown that it is effective in treating some of the complications of diabetes.
The harm of bitter pepper - contraindications.
The use of bitter pepper is contraindicated for people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - gastritis, duodenitis, ulcers, diseases of the liver and kidneys. It is not recommended for patients with angina pectoris, arrhythmia, and hypertension. Bitter pepper and preparations from it can cause skin irritation, and they are especially dangerous if they come in contact with eyes, so do not forget to wash your hands after touching them. If you have accidentally eaten hot peppers, it is useless to drink it with water, in this case it is better to drink milk or yogurt. May relieve steam burning sips of fresh lemon juice.