Foods like mushrooms are a valuable and beneficial nutritional product. At home, the cultivation of oyster mushrooms and champignons is widespread. Such cultivation guarantees the absence of carcinogenic substances and nitrates, which are easily absorbed by fungi.
Oyster mushrooms are recommended for use by patients with hypertension, cancer and some others. They slow down the aging process, help rejuvenation.
The article tells how to grow mushrooms and make oyster mushroom with my own hands.
What is oyster mushroom mycelium, history of elimination
Mycelium of any fungus, including oyster mushrooms, is called its vegetative body, in other words, a mycelium consisting of the finest branched roots-threads. The development of mycelium occurs within the substrate and on its surface. You can get this extensive network both at home and using laboratory methods.
In the natural environment of growth, fungi multiply mainly by spores. In order to answer the question of how to make oyster mushroom mycelium in the walls of the laboratory, scientists have tried several different methods.
At the beginning, fragments of a mycelium for reproduction in greenhouses specially adapted for this purpose were taken in the forest, in places of accumulation of fungi, then planted in prepared soil. After it was completely interlaced with mushroom threads, the substrate was dried and was ready for breeding. The qualitative characteristics of such a material were weak, the mycelium degenerated and yielded poor yields.
Later in France they found a way to remove the mycelium from mushroom spores under artificial conditions, which was very limited in use and also did not take root.
The last and all accepted patented method was the cultivation of oyster mushroom mycelium on the grain of almost any grain crops, sawdust, straw.
Ways to grow mushrooms
Oyster mushrooms are very unpretentious, fast-yielding mushrooms. Within a month and a half after disembarking, you can make the first collection. About ten kilograms of mushrooms per month are usually obtained per square meter of land.
Several methods can be used to grow this product:
- Extensive. This method is an imitation of natural growth and requires certain areas. Wood stumps are harvested for it, cuts are made in them and first they put oyster mushroom caps in them, and then parts of the mycelium. The method depends on weather conditions: under unfavorable circumstances, the growth of fungi can drag on for three months.
- Intensive. Mushrooms are grown in this way, for example, in plastic bags. It is very effective, does not require much labor and inexpensive.
For the cultivation of mushrooms at home mycelium can be obtained in two ways: buy oyster mushroom mycelium, the price of which at the moment is about 150 rubles. for a kilo, or make it yourself.
Oyster mushroom mycelium - mycelium - is planted in the substrate, where it will germinate. At home, the mycelium of oyster mushrooms with their own hands can be grown on wood or grain. Cultivation occurs in three stages in the following way:
- Obtaining uterine mycelium. It is made in the laboratory of spores and stored in test tubes or propagated material from pieces of mushroom tissue.
- Preparation of intermediate mycelium. At this stage, uterine culture is transferred from the test tubes, where it was stored, to the nutrient medium, where the basis for the sowing mycelium is initially developed.
- Obtaining seed mycelium. Intermediate material is sown in the substrate, where it grows. Portions of this substrate are used for sowing the place where the mushrooms will be directly grown.
How to prepare the base for landing
To get a good harvest you need to properly prepare the soil for planting. Manufacturing technology provides that for this you need to grind dry and clean husks, straw and husks (barley or wheat), and then conduct their heat treatment. These actions will remove from the composition of insects caught in it during collection.
In order to thermally treat the substrate, it is placed in a large metal basin, filled with hot water (70 ° C) and boiled for a couple of hours, after which the liquid is drained and the mass is cooled to room temperature. To check the moisture saturation, a small amount of the mixture is compressed in the fist: for normal humidity (about 70%), some moisture or nothing should come out, overmoistening is not allowed.
Both greenhouses with stumps installed in it and large cellophane packages of the house on the balcony will be suitable for cultivation. Below we will discuss how to cook oyster mushroom mycelium at home, plant and grow a crop of mushrooms. Oyster mushroom is the only mushroom that is easily grown if all the necessary conditions are met.
Oyster mushroom mycelium at home: stage one
To obtain the uterine mycelium, take the parts of the fruit body of fresh mushrooms. Oyster must be divided in two and cut a small piece out of the leg. Then it must be dipped in a solution of hydrogen peroxide for disinfection - the material is ready for planting in a nutrient medium.
Then the processed piece is placed in a container with a nutrient substance and closed with a stopper disinfected with fire. Such domestic production of oyster mushroom mycelium requires mandatory sterility, so after processing the material is not touched by hands, but taken with auxiliary tools, the room must also be maintained clean.
A closed container with a seedling material placed inside it in an inclined position is left in the dark for a couple of weeks.
Agar from wort, carrot, oatmeal, potatoes or glucose can serve as a nutrient medium in this production. After cooking, it is sterilized, poured into containers and wait for solidification, after which a piece of fungus is applied.
Stage Two: Preparation of Intermediate Mycelium
The second stage is directly breeding oyster mushroom spawn. The manufacturing technology of the intermediate mycelium of the oyster mushroom requires the use of cereal grains. For these purposes, use healthy high-quality grains that boil for fifteen minutes in the ratio of material and water one to two. Then the boiled grain must be well dried and mixed with calcium carbonate and gypsum.
Next, the mixture is placed in glass containers, filling them two thirds, and subjected to sterilization. After the treatment, pieces of the previously prepared nutrient medium are placed in the obtained substance. After two or three weeks, when the mycelium expands, it can be stored for storage, spreading out previously in plastic bags. Keep mycelium allowed for three months at temperatures from zero to twenty degrees.
Properly cooked intermediate oyster mycelium with his own hands, which is developed and viable, looks like a lush white patina, which has a pleasant mushroom smell.
For planting the seed mycelium, they perform similar actions, sowing more spacious containers. To do this, add one spoon of intermediate mycelium to the liter jars. This prepares the substrate for further cultivation of mushrooms on it.
Conditions for planting mycelium
You can grow oyster mushrooms in an old barn, a stone garage or other suitable premises. The criterion for his choice can be considered:
- the ability to create high humidity, which should be maintained at 85-90%,
- maintaining the ambient temperature in the region of 15-20 degrees - with a higher mushrooms cease to bear fruit,
- the creation of a good ventilation system - the accumulation of carbon dioxide is unacceptable because of the high sensitivity to it of mushrooms,
- the possibility of sufficient lighting - solar without direct rays or fluorescent lamps for nine hours a day.
Mushroom cultivation technology
After the oyster mushroom mycelium is grown with your own hands, you can start planting it, which is performed as follows. The substrate in the amount of one kilogram is laid out on the bottom of the plastic bag, and on it is a layer of mycelium and so on in layers to the very top. The ratio of the weight of the substrate and mycelium in the package should be 1: 0.05. Mycelium should be located closer to the walls of the package, in which it is necessary to make slots for air ingress. The weight of the finished unit is 13-15 kg.
After filling, the polyethylene blocks are left in the dark at a temperature of about plus twenty Celsius - a higher one can cause the death of the mycelium, since the inside of the block can be hotter by ten to fifteen degrees.
After two weeks, the block becomes like a white monolith. Before the appearance of primordiums, the block is sprayed from time to time to maintain humidity and strictly observe temperature conditions. After the appearance of primordia in a couple of days, they become full-fledged adult mushrooms. Watering them during growth is not necessary, but it is important to ventilate the room well. When the edges are aligned on the caps, the crop is ready for harvest.
Conditions for the preservation of mycelium
In industrial conditions, the mycelium is stored in low temperature conditions or in liquid nitrogen. This content allows you to preserve the properties of the material and its germination without loss of quality. The process of freezing and subsequent defrosting for disembarking is performed slowly under the supervision of specialists.
In home-made conditions, mycelium is best stored in these types of refrigerators, which allow you to set the freezer temperature to minus twenty degrees Celsius. This will allow the material not to deteriorate and not to lose its qualities.
After defrosting for a short time, the mycelium restores its vegetative functions.
It is important not to allow multiple abrupt changes in temperature conditions, that is, defrosting and re-freezing. This can significantly degrade the quality of the mycelium, which, accordingly, will adversely affect the productivity of the mycelium.
Useful tips for mushroom pickers
For the successful cultivation of mycelium and the harvest of mushrooms it is necessary to observe the following rules:
- The ideal substrate is sawdust hardwood trees.
- The color of the used sawdust should be white or yellow, this will guarantee their freshness.
- The substrate should have a fresh smell, without impurities of rot.
- When transporting mycelium, the necessary moisture should be maintained in the range of 30-45%. The same conditions must be observed inside the plastic bag in which the oyster mushroom is grown.
- About 300 grams of mycelium will need to be inserted into one block-package measuring 35 X 75 cm; this needs to be known in order to accurately calculate the required amount of material. It is extremely undesirable to buy for the future or to defrost an excess amount of mycelium due to the short shelf life and loss of sowing qualities.
- In the production of mycelium and its landing in the substrate, it is necessary to follow strict rules of sanitation in order to avoid contamination by pests: tanks, tools and hands must be decontaminated.
In general, with the observance of the rules and technology for growing oyster mushroom mycelium, and then the fungus itself, it is possible to achieve good results with a small investment of resources and strength. With a careful attitude to the process, even a novice can handle it.
The process of breeding mushrooms at home is quite simple, but very troublesome. To get a good harvest, you must comply with all requirements for their cultivation and breeding. The most unpretentious and productive are the oyster mushrooms. Harvest can be collected within 45 days after disembarkation.
There are two methods of growing them:
- extensive (natural conditions are created for the growth of fungi, in which much depends on weather conditions),
- intensive (cultivation in artificial environment, for example, plastic bags).
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The next stage - breeding oyster mushroom spawn. For the cultivation of intermediate oyster mushroom mycelium, more often use the grain of cereals. To do this, take high-quality grains and boil them in two parts of water for 15 minutes. After that, the grains are dried and mixed with gypsum and calcium carbonate.
The glass container is filled to two-thirds with the obtained grains and sterilized. Several pieces of the nutrient medium are transferred to the treated grains.
An intermediate culture will grow in two to three weeks. Mycelium can be stored for 3 months at a temperature of from 0 to 20 degrees. If necessary, can be packaged in plastic bags.
Intermediate mycelium is a physiologically active culture for the production of oyster mushroom sowing mycelium.
Growing in a jar of intermediate mycelium
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Developed viable intermediate mycelium of oyster mushroom has the appearance of a lush white bloom with a pleasant aroma of mushrooms. Similarly, the technology of growing intermediate mycelium is grown and inoculum. In other words, the intermediate material is used for seeding new containers. On a one-liter jar enough 1 spoon of intermediate mycelium.
This type is used for planting substrate on which oyster mushrooms will grow.
Oyster mushroom mycelium has the appearance of a white plaque with a mushroom scent
The seed for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms is mycelium. Not only the appearance of the fungus and its size, but also the volume of the crop depends on its quality. Mycelium can be purchased at specialized outlets. But if you wish, you can prepare it yourself. To do this, you need to know how to grow oyster mushroom mycelium at home.
Growing mushroom mycelium at home
Oyster mushroom mycelium, which is offered by commercial structures is intended for the cultivation of mushrooms on an industrial scale. It is grown using a special technology, taking into account further processing with organic and chemical preparations. Therefore, it is almost impossible to control its quality to the domestic consumer.
Growing oyster mushrooms in buckets
For the cultivation of a small batch of mushrooms is better to use the mycelium of self-production. The main advantage of this method is constant monitoring of the quality of seed.
For the manufacture of oyster mushroom mycelium will require a separate room and sterile dishes. It is important to fully comply with the technology. If cultivation complies with all recommended rules, it is possible to grow mycelium in 16-28 days. The term depends on the conditions and variety.
It is important to create the necessary microclimate in the room. To do this, the temperature is kept around the clock +24 degrees, the humidity should be high 80-90 percent. During the germination of mycelium can not be ventilated room, and turn on the light.
To prepare the mushroom mycelium at home, you must first prepare:
- The room
- Wheat grain
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Healthy fresh mushroom or mycelium sticks
In industrial conditions, mycelium is grown in the laboratory. Therefore, when preparing a room at home, it is necessary to create approximate conditions in it. To do this, all surfaces are thoroughly washed out and treated with disinfectants. The room should be water, light and ventilation. You also need to think about how to heat the room. To do this, use gas or electric heating.
From the equipment you will need a thermometer, tweezers, a vertical tube rack.
If possible, laboratory tubes made of glass are used as dishes. But you can also use glass jars with sealed lids.
Agar or wheat grain is necessary to create a nutrient medium. It develops mycelium.
Peroxide is used to process a fragment of the fungus. It helps to destroy the larvae of harmful insects and diseases.
In order to maintain sterility, the room is pretreated with a chlorine solution at a concentration of 1%, or lime white. A torch, alcohol and sterile medical gloves are also required. The whole procedure is carried out indoors.
Growing uterine mycelium on agar
Pre all tools and work surface is treated with a disinfectant. Test tubes are ignited on fire. Then they are filled with nutrient medium. It is prepared from:
- Potato-glucose agar
- Wort Agar
- Oat Agar
- Carrot Agar
With the right freak, the harvest of oyster mushrooms will not keep you waiting long
To prepare the nutrient medium, it is necessary to dissolve the agar in water at room temperature, add to it a decoction of grains, vegetable juice or glucose. The mixture over low heat is brought to a boil and aged on the fire until completely thickened. When cooking the agar is constantly stirred. Burning in this case is unacceptable.
Next, the resulting broth is cooled to room temperature and poured into prepared tubes. They are tilted so the nutrient mixture took up a large area. In this position, the tubes are left until agar solidifies. The mixture should be jelly-like.
Затем в каждую пробирку пинцетом закладывают фрагмент гриба. Его отделяют от внутренней части шляпки. Each piece is gently wiped with a swab dipped in hydrogen peroxide, or completely dipped into it. It is necessary for disinfection.
After that, the tube is tightly sealed. Cork pre-sterilized over alcohol burner.
The finished closed tubes are placed in a warm, darkened place. If the technology has been fully complied with, a mycelium will appear in the test tube after 14 days. It can be used for sowing in the substrate.
This method of growing oyster mushroom mycelium at home requires effort, as it is necessary to carefully treat all surfaces and work tools.
Penetration of various bacteria and parasitic microorganisms in test tubes can cause the death of oyster mushroom spores. In this case, mold develops in the test tube. But if you follow all the recommendations for growing oyster mushroom on agar, in a short time you can get high-quality seed.
Growing uterine mycelium on grain
This method is considered one of the most common methods of growing mushroom mycelium at home.
To do this, use the seeds of corn, oats, millet. The most productive option is growing spores on rye grains.
First results at home
Before sowing, the grain must be prepared. The preparation process consists of three stages:
- The first. Grain is boiled in clean water. For this, the prepared container is filled with 30 liters of water. 30 kg of grains are poured into it. After boiling it is kept on slow fire for half an hour. Then the remaining water is drained. Boiled grains are dried and mixed with gypsum 350 g and 95 g of chalk. These impurities are necessary to improve ventilation. Also, they do not allow the grains to stick together and make them crumbly.
- Second. Boiled grains are poured into glass jars of 2 or 3 liters. Tanks are filled at 4/5. The neck is covered with a gauze napkin. Then the banks are placed in a pan or medical autoclaves. Boil the jars of grain twice for 2 hours. The interval between sterilization - day. It is important when cooking to prevent water from entering the jar.
- At the third stage, sterilized containers are transferred to a disinfected room. Infused grain for 13-15 hours.
After such preparation, the grain is seeded with oyster mushroom spores. For this, pieces of the mushroom fruit body are placed in the container.
Fragments for planting is better to select from the top, closer to the cap. Fungal pieces are necessarily disinfected with hydrogen peroxide.
Then put the jars in a warm, shaded place. You can not expose them to drafts and direct sunlight.
With the observance of technology, in a couple of weeks a fluffy patina of white color will appear in containers with grain. This is the oyster mushroom mycelium, which is used to grow mushrooms in the substrate.
When growing oyster mushroom mycelium on grain, it is important to use high-quality seed. For reproduction, a fresh, ripe mushroom with a large cap is selected. It is also important to choose pure grain without chemical treatment.
Growing uterine mycelium on cardboard
The easiest and cleanest way to prepare a mushroom mycelium for yourself is to grow oyster mushroom mycelium on cardboard.
Advantages of this method:
- Pathogens develop poorly on cardboard
- It quickly colonizes mushroom spores.
- On corrugated cardboard, the necessary air is better supplied to the mycelium.
- Paper retains moisture well
- Cardboard does not require long sterilization
- Cardboard sheets are available for any consumer.
- On cardboard, you can grow a large number of mycelium at low cost.
- It is important to carefully choose the cardboard. It should not have seals, inscriptions, stickers, glue and paint. Such places are cut.
The sequence of growing oyster mushroom mycelium on cardboard:
- Sheets of cardboard are crushed and filled with hot boiled water. Aged for an hour.
- Plastic containers are prepared. Drainage holes are made in the bottom. Then the container from the inside and outside is scalded with boiling water.
- Seed is prepared. These can be special strips with mycelium, fragments of the aerial parts of the fungus or pieces of the root. The trunk and cap of oyster mushroom is divided into fibers using a sterile knife or blade.
- The soaked cardboard is squeezed and mixed with the seed.
- Further, everything fits into prepared containers. The cardboard is slightly tamped. From above they are covered with a package or food wrap.
- Containers are placed in a dark, warm place.
- Every day you need to remove the plastic cover for a few seconds. It is also important to monitor the humidity of the cardboard.
- If necessary, moisten with clean water using a spray bottle.
- Subject to the sequence and conditions of growing mycelium, within 1-2 months, the cardboard will be covered with a white, fluffy patina. This mycelium can be used for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms at home.
The resulting mycelium can also be used to bookmark a new batch. To do this, fragments of cardboard, densely covered with spores lay in a clean soaked paper. The quality of seed with such cultivation is not reduced.
How to prepare a substrate for home cultivation of oyster mushrooms
Under natural conditions, this fungus grows on stumps and tree trunks. With artificial cultivation, you can grow oyster mushrooms on wood and in special soil.
The level of yield is affected by the nutrient composition of the substrate. It should be enough protein and fat. Therefore, the most productive is the mixture with the content of cereal straw harvested in regions with clean ecology.
The main components of the substrate are often:
- Cereal straw
- Husks of sunflower seeds
- Sawdust fruit wood
As straw it is recommended to use material that was harvested the year before. In such a mixture, the concentration of nitrogenous compounds increases significantly, the structure becomes more hygroscopic.
Quality sunflower husk is usually harvested at the beginning of the season processing. Such material should contain no more than 3% fat, no more than 5% dust. Its humidity is not higher than 16%.
Sawdust must also be of high quality. It is strictly not allowed to admix coniferous chips. If cotton wool is present in the sawdust, it improves the quality of the material. But this impurity is very rare and significantly increases the cost of sawdust.
Incision in the bag for growth of oyster mushrooms
Nutritious and mineral supplements are also added to the substrate for growing oyster mushrooms. They are necessary to optimize the nitrogen content and maintain the level of acidity. Most often for this are added: hay, malt sprouts, soy flour, wheat bran, gypsum, alabaster, slaked lime.
To improve the structure and maintain the required moisture, purified drinking water is added. It is strictly forbidden to use water from open wells and natural sources.
The technology of preparation of the substrate involves several stages. They are executed in the following sequence:
Initially, thorough grinding of all components is carried out. It is especially important to well crush the substrate, which is made on the basis of straw. The smaller the fraction of the components, the easier it is in the future mycelium to fill the entire area of the prepared block.
Then additional components and necessary chemical components are introduced into the ground base. Everything is thoroughly mixed and brought to homogeneity.
Next, the substrate is moistened. To do this, it is soaked for several hours in special containers. Pure water is used for moistening. The mixture is aged in such conditions until it is completely saturated with moisture.
Also with the help of soaking, the soil is cleaned from large particles that reduce the yield. After the ground is wrung out.
Its humidity should be at least 70%. At a lower rate, it will be impossible to grow mushrooms.
Using a specially prepared substrate will significantly reduce the cost of cultivating oyster mushrooms at home and help you get a high yield the first time.
While watching the video you will learn about the cultivation of oyster mushrooms.
Growing your own oyster mushrooms and mycelium at home is possible. But to obtain high-quality seed, it is necessary to carefully observe the technology and the phased process.
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