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Symptoms and treatment of pasteurellosis in chickens

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Pasteurellosis - a terrible disease that occurs suddenly and in a short time kills livestock. Infections are susceptible to all birds, but we will consider the disease of pasteurellosis in chickens, its symptoms and treatment. Given the nature of the disease, you need to be prepared for it.

Birds' cholera, also known as pasteurellosis, is a bacterial disease that attacks all varieties of wild and domestic poultry. Although pasteurellosis is well studied, it still manages to cause impressive damage to domestic poultry farming today.

It has been leading its history since 1782, when it was studied in France. On the territory of Russia, it occurs throughout the country, regardless of the region. Most often outbreaks of cholera are noticed in the private sectors, or in the adjacent farms that are focused on the mass production of eggs.

Diseased chickens stop eating, their diarrhea begins, and as a result they die en masse. A surviving bird remains a source of infection for life, so it is almost impossible to completely cure it.

Causes and pathogen

The causative agent of cholera is a stick Pasterella multocida. Caught in temperature conditions of about 70 degrees, she dies after half an hour, and when boiling immediately. However, we consider options when she finds herself in the ideal environment for her - in a living organism.

The wand enters the body through infected air, feed, or water. The source may be the feces of an infected individual. First of all, the infection settles on the mucous membrane of the nose, larynx and pharynx, then it affects the whole organism of the bird.

Temperature fluctuations and increased humidity contribute to the development of infection.

Symptoms and course of the disease

Pasteurellosis in birds appears quite vague symptoms, and the treatment is complex.

First of all, you will notice that Chickens significantly lose their appetite, and their general condition is slowly deteriorating. Gradually, livestock begins to die.

Broilers usually fall ill at a stage of 30–35 days. The disease is spread around 130 days. Egg pullet most often falls ill at the age of two to three months. The incubation period is very short - from 12 hours to two or three days, depending on the activity of the pathogen. The disease can be chronic and acute.

Acute form

In the acute form of the disease, the infection instantly covers all the livestock, and the bird dies at the speed of a forest fire. External signs do not have time to fully manifest, but you can see that chickens refuse to feed and are in a somewhat depressed, weak state.

After just a few days after the first symptoms, the chickens are already starting to die. The percentage of fatal outcome varies between 30–90% and higher. The eggs of the surviving hens are much smaller, but after a few months the situation is evened out.

Chronic

In the chronic nature of the disease, the symptoms are somewhat different than in the acute form of the disease. Chickens suffer from shortness of breath, wheezing while breathing, a runny nose is possible. There are also more obvious symptoms: swollen paws, crests, earrings or intermaxillary space.

Much less often the chickens turn red and their eyes become inflamed. In such a situation, the bird is very depleted, its productivity drops significantly, but it is sick for only a few months.

Such a course of the disease is possible with mild infection aggression or its insufficient amount in the body.

Diagnosis of the disease

At the first suspicions of the disease, sick individuals should be protected from healthy ones and slaughtered. Then sanitize the room. At the initial stage, the infection can be diagnosed by its symptoms, as well as by contacting a veterinarian. In the case when some individuals have already died, they need to be given to the laboratory, where they will determine exactly what infection has been fatal.

An infection can be accurately diagnosed only under laboratory conditions. At the autopsy of the bird's corpse, hemorrhage can be found in the heart and other internal organs. Another argument in favor of this disease is a small, white-washed necrosis in the liver.

It should be noted first of all that the treatment of pasteurellosis in chickens is completely meaningless. Even if the chickens survive, they will carry fewer eggs, and they themselves will remain a source of infection until the end of their lives. The best solution is to kill the bird and dispose of their carcass.

For prophylactic treatment using antibacterial drugs that are given to the bird during the week. Levomitsetin give along with food with a dosage of 60 mg per 1 kg of live weight. "Akvaprim" give together with water, mixing 1.5 ml per 1 liter. Also, all medications will be suitable, the active components of which are spectinomycin or lincomycin. The main thing in the treatment is still prevention, to prevent infection.

Prevention

The best prevention is the creation of excellent sanitary conditions. It is necessary to monitor the conditions of the poultry and pay much attention to the feed. The main thing in prevention is to exclude the entry of the pathogen from the external environment.

In case of suspicion of the disease, all birds should be immunized. A timely procedure can save your chickens, so tightening is not recommended.

Characteristics of the disease

Pasteurelosis is a bacterial disease better known as cholera.

It is caused by gram-negative bacteria that enter the body of the chicken through skin lesions, with food, feces, water, aerosol. Often carriers of the disease are ticks and chicken fleas infecting through a bite.

The most dangerous source of infection is the corpse of a sick animal or bird. Bacteria living on it are characterized by pathogenic aggressiveness. Improper compliance with the rules of poultry care leads to the rapid spread of the disease in the environment of the entire population.

All types of poultry are susceptible to pasteurellosis, this disease leads to the death of all livestock

Transfer of pasteurellosis among birds can occur through infected eggs. Bacteria can lead to the death of the embryo in 10 days. If the frozen chicken in the egg is not removed from the nest or incubator, then all the clutch may be infected. Sometimes pasteurellosis is less aggressive and chicks are born. But they are already carriers of the disease and can infect the whole herd.

The survival rate of the pathogen is high:

  • in reservoirs with normal water temperature or in the litter - 20-21 days,
  • in a frozen carcass - 12-13 months,
  • in the corpse of a bird - 120 days.

Chickens at 30 days are most at risk. Pasteurellosis of birds can also develop in young animals, 2-3 months of age. Adults of laying hens are capable of getting sick 120-150 days from birth.

The incubation period lasts from 12 hours to 2-4 days. The development of the disease in some cases takes several days or weeks, depending on the activity of the bacteria. The likelihood of death is high.

Chicken Symptoms

Depending on the aggressiveness of bacteria, there are two forms of pasteurellosis of birds: acute and chronic.

The symptomatic picture of each of them is based on external signs of the disease. But only a veterinarian can give a more accurate answer.

The incubation period is short, from 12 hours to 2-4 days, it depends on the aggressiveness of the pathogen

The acute form appears when the content is poor, with violations of the feeding regime, sanitary standards, and the use of poor-quality feed.

  • high body temperature, sometimes up to 43-44 ° C,
  • yellowish mucous discharge from the nose or beak,
  • lack of appetite, increased thirst,
  • frequent defecation with admixtures of green mucus and blood inclusions,
  • discoloration or blueing of the scallop, beard or the skin around the mouth,
  • apathetic condition,
  • heavy breathing, wheezing, coughing,
  • sudden death, sick birds live no more than 2-3 days.

If the living conditions of the livestock of chickens do not change, the situation is aggravated.

Chronic pasteurellosis sick birds who survived the aggravation of the disease. Symptoms are slightly different from previous ones:

  • inflammatory processes in the joints of the paws and wings, swelling and festering,
  • dark color of the leathery part of the head, swelling of the comb, barb,
  • conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eye;
  • wheezing sounds in the chest, cough, runny nose.

Patients are weak and dehydrated. They rush badly, unable to maintain and increase body weight. The chronic form of the disease allows the chickens to live for several months, and then leads to death.

Disease treatment

If the bacteria are aggressive, they will not respond to treatment, any modern preparations are useless against them. Infected incubation chickens can be treated with complex preparations.

During the first hours after the onset of symptoms, the birds are isolated in a separate room. Do injections with a suspension of Kobaktan 1 time per day (0.1 mg / kg body weight), the course lasts 3-5 days.

Trisulfone is also given in proportions of 200 g per 100 l of liquid or Levoyeritrotsiklin in doses of 1-2 ml per 1 kg of weight for 5 days.

Sick chickens are slaughtered and burned far from the place where the chicken coop is located.

A special approach is required to eradicate any foci of infection in case of chickens' disease with pasteurellosis:

  • sick hens are slaughtered and burned away from the yard along with the dead earlier, the remains are disposed of,
  • the chicken coop is treated with aerosol means Ecocide C or Monclavite, independently prepared with a solution of 4 parts of chlorine and 1 part of turpentine,
  • the disinfection of the room and all the utensils is carried out with a 5% bleach solution, a 10% iodine monochlorine solution, quicklime three times with 1 hour breaks,
  • the place of walking of chickens is completely mown and left in direct sunlight for 2 weeks, then sprinkled with lime and dug.

Complex preventive action

The most effective prevention against cholera of chickens is considered to be good care, regular disinfection of the chicken coop, timely comprehensive feeding, limiting the contact of layers with wild animals and birds. Regular veterinary checks also help to maintain healthy livestock. But in some regions of the disease outbreaks are repeated every year, because there act more severely.

The vaccine against birds pasteurellosis can protect chickens from the disease for 6-8 months. The drug is administered on the basis of dead bacteria to chickens at the age of 30 days. To maintain the immunity of birds, this procedure is carried out regularly, 2 times a year.

There is a live vaccine, it is administered to chickens without therapeutic purposes. But such a drug often causes complications, the development of the disease. A similar procedure is used in laboratories for research.

Prevention involves the simultaneous use of antibacterial agents. They are combined with a course of antibiotics, which are used before, during or after the introduction of the vaccine. The integrated use of drugs helps to support the protective function of the immune system of birds.

Features and characteristics of the disease

The causative agent of the disease is that veterinarians consider Pasteurella P.Haemolytica and P.Multocida, which are rods that look like an ellipse. They are located in isolation, while not forming spores, characterized by a bipolar color in a blood smear.

The causative agent of the disease is Pasteurella P.Haemolytica.

If a bacterium has been detected in a bird, it is immediately sent for slaughter, while, before settling a new young, all preventive measures are taken in the hen house. If one bird is sick in a chicken coop, the incidence rate can reach 90%, while everything will be fatal for 75% of individuals.

Symptoms of pasteurellosis

Infection in birds occurs through the defeat of the mucous membrane of the pharynx and upper respiratory tract. There is a small percentage of chickens that become infected through the digestive system and damage to the skin. Even parasites who drink the blood of a bird can carry the disease, thereby infecting it. When microbes enter the body, they immediately begin the process of reproduction.

First, it occurs at the site of introduction, then the bacteria travel through the blood and lymphatic systems and attack the entire body. In the process of the disease, aggressors play an important role, which increase the resistance of bacteria and suppress antiagressins.

Regarding the incubation period, it can last from several days to weeks. The nature of the course of the disease depends on its shape.

Infection in birds occurs through the defeat of the mucous membrane of the pharynx and upper respiratory tract.

Important. This disease has a rather short incubation period: from mid-day to 2 days, with the aggressiveness of the pathogen being the basis.

Acute and chronic forms

Regarding the first - it is considered the most common. The bird becomes very lethargic, it seems that it is half awake. Her temperature rises instantly, sometimes she reaches 43 ° C. Pronounced cyanosis begins to appear on the ridge and the beard.

Yellow liquid may be released from the beak. A bird's appetite decreases, it stops consuming food, but at the same time drinks plenty of water. The acute form is also highlighted by mucous diarrhea. In this form, the chicken can live no longer than three days.

If the chicken was experiencing an acute form of the disease, it immediately develops into a chronic one. The hosts may think that the illness has passed by itself, the chicken seems to be completely healthy, but after a while its legs and wings begin to swell, growths can form.

A bird can be sick for quite a long time, up to a month, then, it will certainly be lethal. In rare cases, it survives, but it becomes a carrier of infection.

What to do and how to treat

In order to cure a bird, the conditions of its housing and feeding must be completely revised. Attention is also drawn to the introduction of symptomatic agents.

Hyperimmune polyvalent serum and tetracycline antibiotics are often used by veterinarians:

  • well helps extract chlortetracycline,
  • chloramphenicol,
  • terramycin.

The newer remedies that can cure the disease in chickens include:

  • trisulfone
  • Cobactan suspension
  • left erythrocycline extract.

Preventive measures are to comply with sanitary standards, while chickens, which are carriers of infections, are promptly identified and neutralized. Also, all birds in the hen house, and preferably all animals on the farm, are given a protective vaccination.

As soon as a sick bird is discovered, it is necessarily removed from the healthy one, while sick chickens cannot move freely inside and outside the farm. Chicken coops, walking areas and all existing equipment are treated with disinfectant solution several times.

Veterinarians use the drug Trisulfon to treat pasteurellosis in chickens.

Important. Chickens that are already ill will not only reduce their egg production, they will be carriers of the infection until the last day of life.

Therefore, all sick birds should be disposed of. If there are clinically healthy individuals in the coop, they should take antibacterial drugs as a treatment throughout the week.

Farmers should introduce active ingredients in the lure:

  • Chloramphenicol, administered in food three times a day. Dosage 60 mg per kg of body weight.
  • Tetracyclinum, Doxycyclin and Oxytetracyclinum, enter the feed once a day. Dose 50 mg per kg of body weight.
  • Norsulfazola, 0.5 grams twice a day.
  • Spectam 1 gram per liter of water.
  • Akvaprima 1.5 ml per kg feed.
  • Flora 1-2 ml per liter of water.

Vaccinations and vaccination

Given that the causative agent of the disease has a different structure, it is most important to choose a vaccine strain. The provocateurs that cause the disease can be in frozen meat for a long time (up to 12 months), in a corpse (up to 120 days), much less in cold water (21 days) and even in litter.

For prevention, you can hang UV lamps in the hen house.

Sun rays are an excellent natural vaccination, and exposure to the pathogen is ultraviolet lamps. Also the ideal combination is treatment with a solution of 5% C6H6O, as well as Ca (OH) 2, a solution of Ca (ClO) 2 (1%).

Against the disease under consideration, there are live and inactivated vaccines. The first drugs are characterized by a residual effect and can cause complications. 5 days prior to their use, a bird should stop injecting antibacterial agents. Therefore, most often farmers choose dead vaccines.

Important. Vaccinations should be done only healthy chickens, which are already at least 30 days. Immunity persists until six months, then the whole procedure must be repeated.

In order to quickly suppress the outbreak of the disease, inactivated vaccines are used in parallel with antibiotic therapy. Vaccination is done before, after or on the same day with the introduction of antibiotics. The entire course should last at least 5 days.

Many farmers vaccinate all livestock from pasteurellosis.

What vaccines can be found on the market today:

  • Suspension against the considered disease inactivated adsorbed VIVIV.
  • Суспензия и эмусия от ООО НПП «Авивак».
  • Вакцина комплексная, которая спасает от трех главных бактериальных инфекций. ООО НПП «Авивак». Суспензия ассоциированная, которая борется рассматриваемом заболеванием, и используется для лечения salmonella, colibacteriosis.
  • Формолвакцина поливалентная, которая борется с рассматриваемом в статье заболеванием. Diavak NPF LLC.

Chicken pasteurellosis - is it dangerous for people?

A person may also become infected with the disease in question. This happens through contact with a sick bird. Microbes are able to penetrate the human body not through the mucous membrane, but through wounds or microcracks that break the skin.

There may be boils or inflammations on the body, so farmers in the infected hen house must always be in special clothes and protective gloves.

It is extremely rare for a person to become infected with airborne droplets. In this case, the patient manifests osteomyelitis, inflammation of the ear and the meninges.

Contact with the bird sick with pasteurellosis should only be done with gloves.

Important. All farm workers should be instructed before working with an infected bird. They should know how to follow the safety rules on contact, know the symptoms, observe personal hygiene, and at the first manifestations of the disease in question, go to a medical institution where the appropriate treatment will be carried out.

Features of pasteurellosis in chickens

The causative agent is pathogenic sticks - Pasteurella P.Haemolytica and P.Multocida. Birds infected with bacilli are slaughtered immediately and the chicken coop is disinfected. One diseased chicken is enough to kill 75% of the livestock as soon as possible.

The causative agent of the disease was isolated and grown in 1880 by L. Pasteur. In honor of the scientist, the bacterium got its name - Pasteurella.

All types of chickens are subject to the disease - meat and egg, but the young are especially vulnerable. Pasteurellosis is more common in countries with a temperate and warm climate, less often in the north. Bird cholera is found both at home and in large egg farms. Even if the bird survived the disease, it is a source of infection forever - it is completely impossible to cure it.

Causes and methods of infection

The disease affects not only birds, but also mammals. Animals, especially rodents, spreading the microbe in the environment, can trigger an epidemic. The disease most often affects broilers of one month of age, egg pullets 2-3 months old and layers at the stage of separation - at the age of 4-5 months.

The disease outbreak is promoted by temperature instability and high humidity. The duration of incubation is determined by the aggressiveness of the microbe, and can last from half an hour to 3-5 days.

Chickens can become infected:

  • through the respiratory tract due to contact with a sick bird, corpses are especially dangerous,
  • the penetration of bacilli through damage to the skin,
  • food or water contaminated with pasteurella,
  • bites of blood-sucking insects, mites - argas and red chicken - are especially dangerous.

Pasteurella can live for a long time in natural waters, in damp earth, but the bacillus does not like manure - here it is rare. The microbe is also extremely sensitive to direct sunlight.

Once in the body of chickens, wand rapidly multiplies. Having spread to the point of penetration, bacilli enter the blood and lymph. The incubation period lasts several days.

Embryos in eggs can be affected by weakened pathogens that do not interfere with its growth and development. After hatching, the chick becomes a carrier of infection, and under favorable circumstances, a dormant infection will trigger an outbreak of bird cholera in the hen house. If the egg is affected by aggressive bacillus species, the embryo dies for about 10 days. Staying in an incubator, dead embryos can infect other eggs.

Symptoms of cholera in birds

The first thing that should be alerted is the poor appetite of chickens. At first the birds eat worse than usual. Then the condition of the hens worsens, they begin rapidly, one after another, to die.

The symptoms of pasteurellosis are vague and depend on the form of the disease, it can be:

The hyper-acute course is usually observed at the beginning of the spread of the disease and causes sudden death of the bird. The chicken dies literally before our eyes. A bird that does not seem to cause anxiety, suddenly, flapping its wings, falls down dead.

In order not to confuse pasteurellosis with another disease, we recommend to get more information about other diseases of chickens here.

In acute form

The sick hen is depressed, she is sitting loudly, her head is hidden under the wing or thrown back. Other symptoms of the acute form:

  • increased body temperature - up to 43-44 ° С,
  • bluish tint of scallops and earrings
  • lack of appetite,
  • ruffled feathers
  • constant thirst
  • outflow of mucus and foam from the beak,
  • hoarse, shortness of breath,
  • diarrhea with blood.

With the development of the disease, the bird becomes weaker, convulsions may occur. For 2-3 days the chicken dies.

With chronic form

The chronic form develops after an acute course of the disease, and is associated with a weakness of the pathogen strain. In chronic form in chickens is observed:

  • general weakness
  • progressive exhaustion,
  • inflammation of the meninges
  • runny nose hoarse breathing
  • swelling of paw, scallop, jaw,
  • eye inflammation,
  • damage to the joints of the wings and paws.

The chronic course of pasteurellosis lasts for months, the bird is depleted, its productivity decreases, but death in this state occurs rarely.

How can I diagnose a disease?

Without laboratory tests, the final diagnosis cannot be made. Having noticed the symptoms characteristic of pasteurellosis, sick birds are immediately sent for slaughter. The next step is to go to the veterinarian, who will take the tests, the corpses of dead birds, and send it all to the laboratory. Only after research will it be possible to establish the cause of the death of chickens.

The diagnosis of "pasteurellosis" is made only on the basis of bacteriological research. Pasteurellosis is important to differentiate from avian flu, salmonellosis and Newcastle disease. Also, evidence of the disease is the autopsy data. The dead chickens have hemorrhages in the heart, spleen, and in the liver there are also necrosis foci. To clarify the diagnosis, 4-5 bird corpses are sent for autopsy.

A diagnosis is considered to be reliably established if:

  • a culture with properties characteristic of the pathogen was isolated from the patmaterial,
  • of two animals (laboratory mice) infected with the isolated pathogen, at least one of them died.

Treatment methods

Pasteurellosis is not treated. All infected birds are culled. Even if the animal can be cured, it remains the carrier of the pathogen and can infect healthy birds. The fight against the disease is reduced to the timely slaughter of sick birds and to prevention.

After scoring all sick chickens, and disposing of carcasses, non-diseased individuals organize a course of preventive therapy. They are given antibiotics for a week, for example:

  • Levomycetin - 60-80 mg per 1 kg of live weight, 2-3 times per day (added to feed).
  • Tetracycline - 50-60 mg / 1 kg.
  • Akvaprim - 1.5 ml per 1 liter of water.

For preventive treatment is also suitable "Spectam B", "Floron", other drugs, made on the basis of spectinomycin and lincomycin.

To find an effective drug, you need laboratory data. Based on the antibioticogram, which determines the sensitivity of the pathogen to drugs, the most effective medication is selected.

The room in which there were sick chickens, treated with "Ecocide C" or "Monklavitom." Lactic acid is also suitable for disinfection.

To disinfect the house use:

  • 5% bleach bleach solution,
  • 10% solution of iodine monochloride,
  • 20% fresh lime - the surface is whitened three times with an interval of one hour.

On the grass mowing grass. Do not let chickens on him for two weeks - he must be exposed to the sun. Further walking sprinkled with quicklime. Plowing the ground, thoroughly dry all wet areas. Pasteurellosis vaccination is an exceptional measure in a small chicken farm. It is resorted to if the infection cannot be eliminated by any other preventive measures.

Is the disease dangerous for a person?

Pasteurellosis is dangerous not only for chickens, but also for their owners. The disease is transmitted from a bird to a person through direct contact. Transmission of pathogenic sticks occurs through wounds and microcracks. Boils appear on the skin of an infected person.

Through mucous infection does not penetrate. Airborne infection rarely occurs. But if this happens, a person's brain membranes and ears become inflamed, osteomyelitis appears.

  • they come into an infected house only in working clothes and gloves,
  • personal hygiene.

At the first alarming symptoms, it is necessary to consult a general practitioner or an infectious diseases specialist.

Can other animals become infected?

Pasteurellosis is dangerous not only for chickens, but also for other birds - geese, turkey ducks, quails. They are also ill with farm animals - pigs, cows, goats, etc. It is also found in cats and dogs. Any animal can infect them - through direct contact, through drinking, food, bites, scratches. The source of infection is sick animals and carriers of the infection. The latter include mice, rats and guinea pigs - they can live and spread bacilli for years.

Is it possible to eat meat of a bird that was sick with pasteurellosis?

Meat slaughtered due to pasteurellosis chickens, you can eat. Farmers breeding chickens are interested in profits. If all the birds scored due to the outbreak of the disease had to be disposed of, they would have suffered huge losses. Fortunately, poultry farmers, meat from chickens with pasteurellosis, becomes safe after heat treatment. But disinsectors have their own opinion on this matter - they believe that all infected chickens, live or slaughtered, should be destroyed.

History reference

As the records show, the disease has been known to people for a long time, but its nature was established only in the 19th century.

For the first time pasteurellosis was described in 1877 by D. Rivolt.

A year later, E.M. Zemmer discovered the pathogen of chickens.

Much work to identify the nature of pasteurellosis was done by L. Pasteur.

In 1880, a scientist identified the pathogen and was able to get it in pure culture. Thanks to his work, active specific prophylaxis was developed.

It was in honor of his discoveries that the name was established. Pasterella.

Pasteurellosis sick birds in all countries of the world. In Russia, the disease was detected in all regions, and the highest incidence was recorded in the middle lane.

Foci annually recorded in several dozen places. The situation is worsened by the fact that not only poultry but also animals are affected by this disease. The economic damage is significant. Sick chickens dramatically reduce their productivity.

Pathogens

Pasteurellosis occurs due to Pasteurella P. Haemolytica and P. Multocida, which are elliptical sticks.

They are located in isolation, do not form a dispute. They are characterized by bipolar coloring in smears of blood and organs.

Given the heterogeneity of the P. Multocida structure, it is especially important to select vaccine strains.

Pasteurella that causes pasteurellosis, can live long in frozen meat (up to 1 year), in corpses (up to 4 months), much less - in cold water (2-3 weeks) and manure.

Good kill their direct sunlight. Treatment with 5% solution of carbolic acid and lime milk, bleach solution (1%) also helps.

Symptoms and forms of the disease

Chickens are usually infected through the mucous membrane of the pharynx and upper respiratory tract.

It does not exclude infection through the digestive tract and damaged skin.

Another way is disease transmission through bloodsucking parasites.

As soon as microbes enter the body of the bird, they immediately begin to multiply.

First, in the place of introduction, then entering the blood and lymphatic system. In the course of pasteurellosis, agressins play a certain role, which increase the infectious ability of bacteria and suppress antiogressins.

The incubation period can last a different number of days. The nature of the course of the disease depends on the form of the disease.

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This form is the most common. The bird shows lethargy, it seems that she is depressed. At the same time, the temperature rises to 43 ° С, pronounced cyanosis appears on the ridge and beards.

Possible discharge from the nose of a foamy yellow liquid. The bird stops eating, but it drinks a lot and eagerly. For acute form is characterized by slimy diarrhea. In this form, chickens do not live more than 1-3 days.

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