Spring is the time when the first mushrooms appear. There comes a real holiday for every novice and professional quiet hunt with experience. An ordinary line is one of those mushrooms that appear just in spring days. It is quite interesting not only by its shape, but also by how it is prepared. But do not run ahead. Everything in order.
Mushroom line: description
This fungus stands out in a bizarre form. Hat it like two drops of water like a brain. She herself is brown, with a diameter of up to fifteen centimeters. It is glued to the base of the leg. The latter usually reaches five centimeters in length. The color of the legs is grayish. Another feature of this mushroom is its fragility. Therefore, it should be collected very carefully. Otherwise, you can break the mushroom. His smell is neutral. That's all that you can tell about what looks like a mushroom line. Further it will be told where this delicacy grows.
Where does the mushroom line grow?
The mushroom picker's guide says that this mushroom grows in coniferous foxes or in leafy plantings. Rotting wood is another great location for these gifts of the forest. But most often the ordinary line hides in the pine forests. When you need to start looking for this fungus? As mentioned earlier, the line is a treat appearing in the forest with the first warm rays. After all, they didn’t just give him the name - the spring ordinary line. Such a mushroom can be easily found as early as March. The mushroom picker's guide says that most often it grows in April-May.
Poisonous mushroom or not?
Edible lines or not? It is impossible to give a definite answer to this question. And all because the fungus itself is very poisonous. In its composition, it contains a substance such as gyromitrin. It is quite toxic. When ingested, it can completely destroy the liver. In addition, there are quite a few examples of deaths abroad with inaccurate use of this fungus.
Fortunately, there are no such examples in Russia yet. The peculiarity of hiromitrin is also in the fact that even during heat treatment it does not collapse. An ordinary line is a poisonous mushroom, but it is still possible to cook it without bringing yourself any harm. And how to do this will be discussed later.
Signs of poisoning with an ordinary line
If you prepare the line incorrectly, the probability that a person recovers is as much as 99%. It is very important to know what signs of intoxication may appear. After all, if you find them on time, you can save your life and loved ones. So what are the symptoms of intoxication?
Signs of poisoning include: diarrhea, severe vomiting, and shortness of breath or delirium. All this is accompanied by severe pain in the stomach and liver. Most often, signs of severe poisoning occur five or six hours after taking the mushrooms themselves. Mostly intoxication occurs within one or two days. If a person has problems with the cardiovascular system, then a fatal outcome is likely.
Line mushroom: how to cook?
As mentioned above, the line is a very poisonous mushroom. With its improper preparation, you can die. Therefore, the next part of the article will tell you how to prepare an ordinary line at home without harming your health. Here will be shown the most popular and simple cooking recipes amazing mushroom. So, it's time to start.
This is the perfect dish. Its relatives and guests will appreciate its aroma and taste. What is required to prepare this dish? Of course, these are mushrooms, as well as one onion, a few lettuce leaves and two tablespoons of vegetable oil. Before preparation it is necessary to thoroughly wash the lines. After that, they are poured with water, to which has been added a spoonful of salt and vinegar. In this mixture, the mushrooms must lie for at least thirty minutes.
Next, the lines are cut and put on a preheated pan. Mushrooms are fried in vegetable oil. In addition, during cooking, finely chopped onion can be added to the fragrant mass. After a small roast, the pan must be closed with a lid, setting the fire to an average level. Stew mushrooms should be fifteen minutes. Finished lines can be served with lettuce leaves.
Another recipe - the lines in the pot. This dish has more ingredients, and time will have to spend more. But, it's worth it. So, for cooking, you must have 100 grams of butter and sour cream, 200 grams of cheese. In addition, you need to buy onions, dill, garlic, salt, pepper, and, of course, the mushrooms themselves. Last need about five hundred grams. When all the ingredients on the table, you can proceed to the preparation.
First, you need to thoroughly rinse the forest with water. At the same time, we should not forget that the mushroom line is rather fragile. Therefore, this procedure should be done carefully and carefully. Next, you need to put a pot of water on the fire and wait until it boils well. And in the boiling liquid you need to dip the mushrooms for five minutes. Then pull them out and drain the water. Then rinse again and re-immerse in boiling liquid. And then repeat the procedure with washing again.
Next comes the onion. It should be well cut, but not finely. Dill should also be chopped. Finished onions should be fried in vegetable oil. It should be remembered that it should be a slightly golden hue. Now it's time to go back to the mushrooms. They also need to cut, but not finely. Next, add the line to the bow. Fry mushrooms should be five minutes, you can even less. The process lasts depending on how quickly the water evaporates.
While mushrooms and onions are roasting, you can do cheese. He rubbed on a grater. But the garlic must be crushed using a knife. Now you can put the mushrooms in the pot. Then sour cream and dill are added. All contents are well mixed. And then you need to pour cheese on top. Now the closed pot goes into the oven, where the dish is baked at a temperature of one hundred and eighty degrees. Cheese is unnecessary to bring to a golden crust. And all because mushrooms can lose their special taste. Everything! The dish is ready! It tastes great with white bread.
Lines in sour cream
First you need to wash the mushrooms (500g) in cold water. After that, we collect pure liquid in a medium-sized pan, adding a spoonful of salt and vinegar. Then this water must be poured mushrooms for thirty minutes. After half an hour has expired, they must be boiled for ten minutes in salted water. After completing the process of stitching out of the water: they must cool down. Then they can be cut, but not finely.
When the mushrooms are finished, it's time to shred one onion and three tubers of potatoes. Mixing chopped vegetables with mushrooms, put the mass in a refractory dish. Now you can salt and pepper everything to your liking. The final stage will be the preparation of the sauce. it is done simply.
Three tablespoons of sour cream mixed with the same amount of water. It is necessary to mix everything until a homogeneous mass and boil. When the sauce is ready, they need to pour the mushrooms. Now you can put mushrooms in the oven. Preparing the dish under the lid closed at a temperature of one hundred and sixty degrees for forty minutes. That's the whole recipe for this wonderful and delicious dish. Such mushrooms will be an excellent addition even to the most festive table.
Casserole of the lines
Another recipe, which is worth paying attention to, is a tasty casserole and lines. So, it's time to start cooking this wonderful dish. First you need to soak the mushrooms in cold water for about fifteen minutes or twenty. Now they should be well cleaned of all dirt. Next, boil them in plenty of water for fifteen minutes. Ready mushrooms are sent to a colander and properly drain it. Next, you need to cut very large lines with a knife into several parts for better preparation. And now you need to send mushrooms boiled already in the new water for fifteen minutes. After that, they are sent back to the colander.
Without removing the mushrooms from the tank, thoroughly wash them under cold water. Then you need to cut the mushrooms into straws and fry in vegetable oil. Add salt and pepper to your taste. Then we continue to fry the mushrooms until a good golden crust appears, after sprinkling them with flour. At the end you need to add a couple spoons of sour cream. It is necessary to stew until the oil is evaporated from sour cream. Next, the mushrooms are removed from the heat and sprinkled with cheese. And now it's time to send the pan to the oven, preheated. It is there until the cheese turns into a ruddy crust. The whole dish is ready! It is served with dill. Enjoy your meal!
Medicinal properties of the fungus ordinary line
Besides the fact that the line is used in cooking, it is actively used in medicine. In the old days, the fungus was used as a strong and effective anesthetic. Toothache or muscle pain was easily removed with this amazing fungus. In our time, used tincture of mushrooms. This drink helps with arthritis, rheumatism, radiculitis and other similar diseases. In addition, by rubbing the tincture can cure pneumonia and a long cough. How to cook it? It's time to figure this out.
Preparation of therapeutic tincture of the lines
First you need to clean the mushrooms very well from mucus and dirt. Hats gently separated from the legs and well crushed. Then we send them to the storage tank. It is worth remembering that tamping or shaking a jar with chopped hats is unnecessary. Next is added vodka. It is necessary to pour it so much that it covers a little mushrooms. To insist means it is necessary exactly two weeks, having put it in the refrigerator. Everything! Tincture is ready!
In order to get rid of cold and strengthen the immune system, it must be rubbed into the human body. After that, you need to wrap yourself in a warm blanket for a stronger effect. As you can see, the lines of the mushrooms, although poisonous, can be used not only for tasty cooking, but also as an effective medicine against diseases. The most important thing is to be careful and do everything clearly according to the recipe. Another tip: be sure to consult with your doctor about the specific use of this tincture in order to treat.
The result can be done next. Mushrooms and mushroom pickers are one. Indivisible. Mushroom pickers know absolutely everything about the gifts of the forest and their species. This article will be useful for many professionals and even for inexperienced beginners. we made sure that the ordinary line is a poisonous mushroom and very dangerous for human life. Improper preparation of these mushrooms can lead to serious poisoning. In addition, death is also the place to be. But you can still cook it. The most important thing is to know how.
The lines are really tasty. They are already appreciated by many gourmets and ordinary lovers of dishes with mushrooms. Doing everything strictly according to the recipe, you can be absolutely sure that the ready dish to give only positive emotions. Let this article become a guide and helper for many mushroom pickers, even for the most experienced. And the dishes that were brought here will be a stunning decoration of any table.
Fungus stitch description
Fruit body up to 14 cm in diameter. The cap is irregularly rounded or angular, inside is hollow, deeply wrinkled (brain-shaped), light brown-brown to dark or chocolate brown, slightly brightens with age. The flesh is white, waxy, thin, very fragile, with its figurative smell, without much taste. Leg 3–6 × 1.5–6 cm, whitish or greyish (sometimes with a pinkish tinge), hollow, narrowed to the base, flat or folded.
Soil fungus, inhabits deciduous and coniferous forests, grows on sandy soil at forest edges, on clearings, burns, along roads, in young pine plantations. It is found throughout the forest zone of Russia, except for the Far North, singly or in small groups, not often. Fruits in late March to early June.
The line is characterized by the formation of geographic races, one of the main differences of which is a different level of toxicity. Studies by French biochemists have shown that mushrooms collected in warmer regions accumulate substantially higher levels of toxins.
It differs from the giant (Discina gigas) line by a much darker cap and significantly smaller size, from the Carolinas' discina (it is also a puchkovy or brown line) (Discina carolinensis = Gyromitra fastigiata = G. brunnea) differs by a darker and more “brain-like” cap with no so frank nepriyuschimi to the edges of the edges.
Mushroom properties stitching
About the toxic properties of the line has been known for over 100 years. However, due to the variety of manifestations of poisoning, many experts attributed them to individual allergic reactions or to a mistaken diagnosis (poisoning with other mushrooms or products). Moreover, there are cases when some people who ate about the same amount of mushrooms from one dish “earned” poisoning, but their neighbors on the table did not. It is also well known that some mushroom pickers for many years collect and prepare lines without any negative effect. However, according to the latest biochemical studies, the common line is recognized as a poisonous and even deadly poisonous fungus.
It is confirmed that some geographic races of G. esculenta contain a high level of toxin, known as hiromitrin. Hyromitrin poisoning is extremely rare in North America and Western Europe.
Data for Siberia is unknown, but cases of poisoning are very often observed in Eastern Europe (up to the border with Russia) and Scandinavia. In 1971, Polish researchers found that in Poland 23% of the total number of mushroom poisonings fall on the lines. The number of registered fatal poisonings has decreased since the middle of the last century, in Sweden, for example, where line poisoning is very frequent, not a single fatal case has been known since 1952. The total number of poisonings has also decreased, apparently due to the widespread practice of proper culinary treatment of these mushrooms, However, the average European rate of deaths with line poisoning is still about 25%.
The lethal dose of hiromitrin is 10–30 mg per kg of body weight for children and 20–50 mg / kg for adults. This roughly corresponds (for geographic-rich geographic races) 0.2–0.6 kg and 0.4–1 kg of fresh mushrooms. However, the individual resistance of specific people can strongly influence the activity of giromitrin, up to an almost complete lack of response to these doses.
Studies of toxins line began in 1968, when giromitrin was first identified, being acetaldehyde (N-methyl-N-formylhydrazone). In the body, hiromitrin is hydrolyzed to monomethylhydrazine.
The toxin reacts with pyridoxal-5-phosphate (an activated form of pyridoxine) and forms the substance hydrazone. Hydrazone reduces the production of neurotransmitters by inhibiting glutamic acid decarboxylase, leading to the appearance of characteristic neurological symptoms of intoxication. In addition, monomethylhydrazine causes methemoglobinemia and promotes the formation of methyl radicals, which leads to liver necrosis. Inhibition of histaminase increases histamine levels, which leads to headaches, nausea, diarrhea and stomach pains.
The main symptoms of poisoning lines are divided into gastrointestinal and neurological. They are detected 6–12 hours after eating, although there are cases when intoxication manifested itself after 2 hours. Initially manifested by redness of the face, nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain.
Further, tremors, convulsions, lethargy, ataxia, dizziness and severe headaches, as well as fever are possible (the latter is not typical of any mushroom poisoning and is found only as a symptom of line poisoning). In most cases, after such manifestations, a gradual recovery occurs within 2–6 days.
In severe cases, the destruction of the kidneys and liver and neurological dysfunction are possible, up to and including coma. With such a serious defeat, death can occur within 5-7 days after the use of lines.
In addition to monomethylhydrazine toxicity, carcinogenicity has been shown (laboratory animal studies). And although it is not confirmed for humans, some researchers believe that the toxin may have a cumulative effect, and sooner or later even a small number of the lines eaten can lead to the formation of a tumor.
Line mushrooms in traditional medicine
В народной медицине водочная настойка строчка используется как анальгезирующее средство и применяется для снятия боли, в первую очередь при разного рода суставных заболеваниях, артритах, радикулитах, ревматизме, полиартритах, остеохондрозе, шпорах стоп, разросшихся косточек, невралгиях, а также для лечения панкреатита и поджелудочной железы, при онкологии на поздних стадиях, когда необходимо обезболивание.
Настойка из строчков
Настойку делают из измельченных сухих грибов. Для этого 10 г порошка заливают 150 мл водки и, размешав, плотно закрывают и настаивают в холодильнике две недели. Rub the tincture into the skin of the sore spots and cover with a warm woolen “prickly” scarf.
It is also known that before the water a decoction of the lines washed the eyes with conjunctivitis.
Food use, culinary recommendations
Despite proven toxicity, the lines are widely collected in many countries in North America and Europe. For example, the lines are still considered delicacies and are actively collected in Bulgaria, Spain and Finland.
With proper culinary preparation, most of the hiromitrin can be removed. The recommended methods include drying followed by boiling or boiling fresh mushrooms with a mandatory drain decoction.
It is shown that with repeated boiling, the level of hiromitrin decreases each time by an order of magnitude, while the amount of water should be three times higher than the number of lines, boiling lasts at least 5 minutes, and after each cycle, boiled mushrooms should be washed with cold water. When drying in the open air on the tenth day, the concentration of hyromitrin is reduced by 90%.
The sale of a common line is prohibited on the markets in Russia, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Italy. In the conditions of Russia, the mushroom should be considered edible after pre-boiling with a decoction of broth or long-term drying. Used for the preparation of the first and second courses, snacks and toppings.
According to the book by M. Vishnevsky “Medicinal mushrooms. Great Encyclopedia.
The lines refer to the genus of marsupial fungi of the Discinaceae family (Discinaceae).
Leg 2-3 cm long and with a diameter of 2 to 6 cm, smooth, hollow inside, but dense, expanding in the upper part, much lighter than the cap - almost white or pink. The flesh is waxy, fragile, with a fruity smell, has a pleasant taste,
- giant line.
- line of autumn.
Where to grow and when to collect
Lines of different species grow in different places:
- usual prefers to grow in coniferous forests (especially pine), on sandstones and loams. Often they are found on clearings, burns, and can be found under birch or poplar trees. Loves sunny places,
- the giant is more prone to mixed and deciduous forests, often grows under birch trees, near fallen trees and old stumps, prefers sun-warmed spaces,
- Autumn also grows in mixed and coniferous forests, but prefers soil or remnants of rotten trees.
Edibility and taste
All lines are conditionally edible. According to the old GOST, industrial harvesting was allowed in the USSR. They contain hyromitrins that destroy the digestive system, liver, central nervous system.
These poisons are neutralized in two ways:
- boiling. Lines cook for at least 20 minutes, and preferably half an hour. Per kilogram of mushrooms you need to take at least 3 liters of water. The broth must be drained, the mushrooms are rinsed with clean water. Then you need to boil them for another 10-15 minutes, then rinse again. And only now they can simply be fried in fat. Most poisons remain in the broth. And still you should not abuse mushrooms - they cause pain in the stomach and intestines. Poison lines tend to accumulate in the body,
- drying. This is the most reliable way. They are dried in the oven at a temperature of 55 ° C and higher for a month or on the air for 6 months. During such processing, poisonous gyromitrin evaporates completely, and the mushrooms are ready to cook any mushroom dishes.
The nutritional value
Like all mushrooms, the lines have a diverse and valuable composition. They are low in calories, contain only 22-23 kcal per 100 grams.
The ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates:
- proteins: 2.9 g (
12 kcal), fats: 0.4 g (
4 kcal) carbohydrates: 2 g (
Energy ratio (b / w / s): 51% / 16% / 35%.
Nutritional value and composition of the lines:
- ash - 1 g,
- mono - and disaccharides - 0.2 g,
- water - 92 g,
- dietary fiber - 0.7 g
- PP (NE) - 0.4814 mg,
- C - 8 mg,
- B2 - 0.1 mg,
- B1 - 0.01 mg.
Is it possible to confuse similar species
The lines are quite unique in their appearance. The only mushroom that looks like them is a morel. But even that knowledgeable person will never confuse them. Just look at the photos line and morel. It is not very dangerous to make a mistake here, because the morel is not a poisonous mushroom and a delicacy mushroom. Morel
What of them can cook
So, if you are not afraid of the information about the poisonousness of the lines, we give below the recipes of dishes with these mushrooms. They can be dried, fried, salted, boiled and pickled. Dried stitches are the safest.
They are dried either in the oven at a temperature of 60 degrees and above for 30-40 days. It can be dried at room temperature, in a warm, dry place for 180-200 days. During this time, all of them will evaporate poison. Fried lines are very tasty. But you can fry them only after careful cooking.
How to cook
Mushrooms are boiled in water for 25-30 minutes. Broth merges. After that, you can cook a variety of delicious dishes.
Lines in sour cream. Ingredients:
- lines - 1-2 kg,
- sour cream - 2-3 tbsp. spoons
- salt to taste.
The lines fried in sour cream. Ingredients:
- lines - 1-2 kg,
- sour cream - 2-3 tbsp. spoons
- flour for rolling
- vegetable oil,
How to pickle
Salt stitches can be hot and cold.
- fresh lines - 1 kg,
- salt - 0.5 kg,
- cloves, peppercorns, dried dill, a few leaves of black currant.
Fill them with 0.5 glass of water, salt, put on a medium-high fire and simmer until boiling, stirring constantly. After boiling, add all the spices and cook for 20 minutes, stirring occasionally. Ready mushrooms will settle to the bottom, and the pickle should acquire a transparent texture.
After cooling, the mushrooms are distributed in prepared containers, filled with brine and clogged. Store them in the basement. After 2-3 months, the mushrooms are ready to eat.
- fresh morels - 10 kg,
- Bay leaf,
- Oak bark,
- cherry twigs
- salt - 0.5 kg.
Raw lines do not get greasy because of their toxicity. Therefore, you must first boil them for 30 minutes in water. Rinse the container for salting with boiling water, put half of all herbs and spices on the bottom. Then put a layer of mushrooms (not very thick - 5-6 cm) and sprinkle with salt. On top again, a layer of spices, a layer of mushrooms and a layer of salt. So repeat until the container is full. Mushrooms will be ready in 2-3 months.
This recipe is very rarely used for stitching, as the cold method of salting is more suitable for white mushrooms, milk mushrooms, mushrooms and waves.
How to pickle
Before starting the marinating mushrooms boil for half an hour. Then washed with cold water and separated legs. We are going to marinate hats.
Composition of products:
- mushrooms - 1 kg
- water - 70 g,
- Vinegar 90% - 130 g,
- salt - 1 tbsp. spoon,
- sugar - 1 tsp,
- spices - pepper (black and peas), dill, cloves, bay leaf, garlic, horseradish sheets.
Add spices and sugar. You can add more black currant leaves, cherries. Bring to a boil. Place the mushrooms in the jars, pour in the marinade and seal. Turn the jars and place in a warm place before cooling. Store best in the cellar.
As you can see, the lines are quite edible and are suitable for preparing many dishes. The main thing - to follow the rules of their preparation, so as not to get poisoned.