Mirabilis (Mirabilis) - a perennial herbaceous flowering plant of the family Nyktaginovye or Nochsvetnye, most often cultivated as a letnik. The genus includes more than 50 species. In the natural environment, they live in temperate and tropical areas of predominantly North and South America; one species is common in South Asia.
Amazing - in Latin, the name of the plant sounds. The Aztecs have a mention of the plant atsiomatl (azoatl): fragrant, spicy aroma, gives many flowers, its branches have a disk shape, it has thick leaves and gives a lot of shade. Such a description of Bernardino de Sahagun (Spanish missionary, monk, historian and linguist) indicated in the book "The General History of the Cases of New Spain", presumably it is about Mirabilis.
After the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the seeds of Mirabilis came to Spain, then to England and spread throughout the European continent. Then Mirabilis settled around the world, and in warm countries became his own - in Egypt, he is so loved that he was named the Pearl of Egypt. It has also gained popularity in Morocco - a variety with pink-yellow stripes and orange specks is called “Marrakesh”.
At first glance, the plant is simple, but has some mysterious appeal. Mirabilis is undemanding and unpretentious in the cultivation and care.
Mirabilis night beauty landing and care photos
In gardeners, the most popular is Mirabilis Yalapa (Mirbilis jalapa), which is also called night beauty, Mirabilis laxative. Homeland is Mexico (Jalapa or Jalapa - inaccurate toponym of place designation in Central and South America). Tuberous rhizome, swollen, similar to carrots. Stems are upright, covered with a peel of a pale red shade, over time the lower part becomes woody.
The height of the bush is 30-80 cm, due to the strong branching of the stems, it acquires a rounded elongated shape. The shoots are densely leafy. Leaf plates in the form of ovate-elongated, entire, bare, arranged oppositely, attached with short petioles, leaf color is green.
When mirabilis blooms nightly beauty
Mirabilis blooms in June, delighting with enchanting beauty to the very frost.
On top of the shoots appear corymbose inflorescences. The crowns-funnels reach a diameter of 2.5 cm, the colors are crimson, orange, snow-white, purple, yellow, rich red, there are two and three-color combinations. Flowers of different shades (from crimson to salmon) can be present on one bush, often multicolored uneven stripes adorn the petals. Such staining is a genetic feature of mirabilis. Contrary to expectations, when crossing red flowers and white flowering forms, they turn out rose flowers (instead of red flowers). Fancy colors are obtained due to the fact that no single gene dominates, both are equivalent.
I remember once my mother grew Mirabilis on the plot, calling them simply “dawns”. Indeed, fragrant flowers open with the evening dawn and close with the dawn. In case of cloudy weather, the corollas remain open throughout the day.
Single-seeded fruit, in the form of a dark brown oblong nut. Seed germination persists for three years (with dry storage in a dark place).
Mirabilis cultivation from seed When planted on seedlings at home
Seeds Mirabilis photo
Sowing seeds for seedlings carried out from late March to mid-April. Without treatment, seeds sprout two weeks. To make the seeds germinate faster, they are recommended to be scarified (rub the dense skin with an emery paper or needle file). Another treatment option is soaking for 12–20 hours in warm water (seeds must not be completely covered). For sowing it is better to use small plastic cups.
As a substrate, use a universal soil mixture for growing seedlings or a composition prepared by yourself (according to the reaction, the soil can be alkaline or neutral). Take 2 parts of peat and sod land, 1 part of compost (humus), 0.5 parts of washed sand, add ½ cup of wood ash or 2 tablespoons of dolomite flour to the mixture. Mix all components thoroughly and spill with a weakly pure mortar solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
Mirabilis of seeds at home photo shoots
Fill the cups with soil by поч volume, press down a little. Sow 1-2 seeds in each cup, cover with a layer of soil 1–1.5 cm thick, then moisten with a fine spray. Cover crops with film or glass, provide diffused illumination and air temperature within 18-20 ° C. Sprouts will seem after 5-6 days. After that, do not forget to remove the shelter.
With the appearance of seedlings of the first true leaf, thinning of the seedlings should be carried out: in each cup, cut a weaker sprout to the surface of the substrate with scissors. After that, carry out dressing (use, for example, the Krepysh, Fertika or Mortar preparations).
Seedlings Mirabilis ready for planting photo
Seedlings of Mirabilis extremely negatively perceived waterlogging of the substrate. Water after the complete drying of the earthy coma. After the sprouts reach a height of 10-15 cm, transplant them into larger containers by handling earthen coma. Feed a second time using complex mineral fertilizers.
Before planting in the ground, begin hardening seedlings. The duration of the process should be 10-14 days. Every day take the containers with seedlings to fresh air (open balcony, garden), gradually increase the duration of such “walks”. At the end of the seedlings should spend the whole day on the street.
Place for planting Mirabilis
Mirabilis is extremely thermophilic, so choose for it an open area, well lit and warmed by the sun. We suffer to a penumbra, but the flower dress will be less smart. Requires protection from drafts and cold wind. The plant does not tolerate stagnant moisture at the roots - do not plant in lowlands, if ground water is near, it will be necessary to build a bed on a hill. Try to take a place away from other cultures, since Mirabilis is quite aggressive and is able to crowd out neighboring cultures.
The soil requires moderately fertile, neutral or alkaline by reaction. Sour soils categorically do not tolerate - the soil must be lime. Perfect loam or clay soils with good drainage.
The soil of the plant prefers moderately fertile, loamy. Good drainage is required. Mirabilis does not tolerate sour soils and stagnant waters.
When and how to plant Mirabilis seedlings in open ground
Where to plant Mirabilis photo in the garden
Seedlings of Mirabilis are planted in open ground when the soil warms up well and the threat of return frost is completely bypassed. This time in the middle lane falls at the end of spring (approximately the 20th of May).
At what distance to plant Mirabilis
Usually, Mirabilis is planted in rows, while for normal growth and development between individual plants, keep a distance of 40-50 cm. Pass the seedling into the hole, fill the soil, press the ground lightly, the root neck should be flush with the ground surface. For successful rooting of seedlings provide good watering.
Sowing seeds Mirabilis in open ground
Sowing Mirabilis seeds in open ground photo
Seeds can be sown directly in open ground. Pre-seeds are prepared by analogy with sowing on seedlings (scarification or soaking). Sowing is carried out in late April-early May. Make grooves about 3 cm deep, spread out the seeds, keeping between them a gap of 7-8 cm (later seedlings are thinned, excess shoots are simply thrown away or used as seedlings). Cover the grooves with soil, pour over lukewarm water, cover the area with film or non-woven material. Remove cover when shoots appear.
Not bad mirabilis breeds self-sowing. You will need to adjust the seedlings by thinning or transplant sprouts to the desired location.
Reproduction mirabilis cuttings
Growing Mirabilis from seeds at home does not require any significant time and special knowledge. The main requirements for the successful development of seedlings: heat, timely watering, one-time feeding.
Store Mirabilis seedlings in a warm dry place with a sufficient level of illumination. Water it moderately - as soon as the topsoil is completely dry. Excess moisture in the soil and water stagnation is fraught with root rotting and death of Mirabilis.
Feed the seedlings with any easily soluble mineral fertilizer. In the last days of May, the seedlings of Mirabilis need to be moved to the open ground, in the previously prepared planting pits.
Planting scheme: 30x50 cm. A layer of mineral fertilizers is laid on the bottom of the pits before planting seedlings.
Mirabilis from seeds at home will be able to grow even a novice in gardening. The process of disinfection of planting material is very simple, and the soil, if necessary, can be purchased at any gardening shop instead of making up the soil mix yourself. Care Mirabilis seedlings includes the most basic procedures, understandable even to inexperienced growers.
Mirabilis, growing from seed
Since this plant comes from southern countries, it is considered a perennial. However, our severe winters do not allow the flower to survive, so Mirabilis is grown as an annual. The most convenient waygrowing mirabilis from seed. If the summer turns out to be dry and warm, the seeds of Mirabilis will ripen completely and can be used next spring to obtain seedlings of this fragrant plant.
Seeds of Mirabilis are sown in mid-April. It has its own characteristics: the large seeds of Mirabilis are covered with a hard shell, which is very difficult to remove. Such "armor" does not allow the seeds of the plant to germinate quickly. Many flower growers before planting cut each seed with a nail file or file. If there is no time for such procedures, the seeds of Mirabilis are sown with a margin, since most of the seeds simply cannot grow.
To get blooming Mirabilis, growing from seeds is carried out at home. To do this, fill the pots with light soil with a low level of acidity and sow Mirabilis seeds. At the same time, care must be taken that there is no excess moisture in the soil, as the seeds may rot. In the subsequent mirabilis seedlings watered rarely and moderately. Mirabilis looks great on the plot next to the astilba.
Mirabilis - growing from seeds in a greenhouse
It is most convenient to grow Mirabilis as well as ranunculus in a greenhouse or nursery area covered with foil. The seeds of the plant are sown in small boxes of seedlings. Capacities necessarily cover with a film or use for this glass. Boxes with seeds put in a greenhouse or greenhouse. With sufficient heat, the seedlings of Mirabilis appear in a week. When growing mirabilis from seeds, it is necessary to sow with “excess”. As soon as the first shoots appear, a part of the film is removed from the box.
Fully cover is removed when the plant will form the first leaves. Mirabilis grown seedlings dive into cups, the diameter of which is about 7-9 cm. When growing young seedlings of Mirabilis, it is important to water moderately, which will allow the plant to form properly.
Alternative landing Mirabilis
This breeding tubers, which is possible only in the spring. Tubers can be stored in sand or sawdust all winter.