In agriculture, 291 types of herbicides are widely used. They share many features. Some are distinguished by chemical composition, others by effects on weeds, and others by method of use.
Separating them into species, you can easily choose the desired drug to combat a particular weed.
In this article you can consider several of the most common assistants:
- Herbicides of continuous action. Absolutely destroy all types of plant pests. In agriculture, they are widely used for complete cleaning of long-uncultivated fields. They have a detrimental effect on both weeds and healthy crops. Therefore, their use is recommended after harvesting or immediately before planting.
- A common substance of the form is considered Tornado. Substance is widely used before sowing. Appreciated for the ability to deal with the most malicious weeds, even such as hogweed.
- Agrokiller. Another favorite assistant gardeners. Due to the high concentration of this substance, effective control of annoying weeds and even of artisanal vegetation occurs.
- Dikvat. An indispensable tool when sowing carrots and planting potatoes. Its application is effective, before germination of a useful culture. Also, the drug with its effect accelerates the drying process of plants, which allows you to actively use it when harvesting sunflower and alfalfa.
- Herbicides selective action. Chemists and agronomists call this substance a selective herbicide. Its use allows one of the vegetation to die without causing any harm to the other. Due to this feature, this species is most often used for tillage in agriculture. Summer residents and gardeners use the drug by different methods. This may be the introduction of a substance into the root system or spraying the leaves and stem.
- One of the first herbicides of this kind was copper sulfate. Agronomists noticed that it is this substance that can prevent the growth of weeds and lead to its death. All types of selective herbicides can be divided into 2 groups, one of which will be called widely selective, and the other will have a narrow purpose.
- A widely selective group is used to destroy any plant species. A narrowly selective group is used to kill a particular type of vegetation. For example, the drug Tristar, will help destroy chicken millet, and Grodil will protect crops such as rye and wheat.
- Soil herbicides. Such substances are applied to the soil surface, which will lead to the creation of a protective layer. As soon as the shoots of weeds get to such protection, they will die. For the effectiveness of such herbicides, the soil should not be dry and have a large number of earthy lumps. It is also useful to prikopat tool in the soil for 5 centimeters. The most common preparations for soil treatment are Harnes, used when sowing maize and Stefacil (he is trusted to combat weeds on beet crops).
- Leaf herbicides. These drugs are used as soon as the plant rises and shows its first leaflets. When a substance gets on weed shoots, all life processes of the plant will be blocked. All existing leaf herbicides are related to a widely selective species and are able to fight all types of weed grass. The most common drugs today are Accord and Forsat.
- Systemic and contact herbicides. Contact chemicals can destroy that part of the harmful vegetation with which contact has occurred. Using such a drug, spraying the foliage, the weed will dry out, and its root system will continue to exist, and after a while it will give new shoots. A representative of this type of Acet is widely used in gardening. With its proper use, the summer residents successfully struggle with sprouted weeds, the appearance of which caught them off guard. WITHSystemic drugs that can destroy a harmful plant with a strong root system. They penetrate into the structure of the trunk and, spreading, completely destroy the plant. A representative of this species, Buran, has found widespread use in agriculture.
Pros and cons of the use of "chemistry"
Proponents of the use of chemicals at the site indicate that only applying herbicides from weeds, you can defeat perennials with bulky roots. The advantages of this method of struggle include:
- saving time, eliminating the need for repeated mechanical action, such as weeding, cutting off above-ground parts of plants,
- high rate of elimination of plants unnecessary at the site, minimum labor costs,
- virtually all types of weeds are annihilated equally effectively - annuals and perennials.
Gardeners who are used to fighting weeds in the garden by biological or mechanical methods, note the disadvantages of herbicides:
- the destruction of many beneficial insects, including pollinators,
- part of the composition is absorbed by cultivated plants, which are then eaten,
- components of herbicides for several years can be stored in the ground, all subsequent crops will accumulate some chemicals.
Unlike mechanical weeding, during which it is possible to damage above-ground parts of cultivated plants, herbicides are applied directly under the root or by spraying. Also during weeding, there is an intense evaporation of moisture, which can result in loss of yield.
In order not to make fruits or above-ground parts toxic, it is necessary to strictly observe the dosage. With proper treatment with herbicides, alternation of chemical and manual (mechanical) weed, the percentage of toxic substances in cultivated plants will be minimal and will not harm health.
Chemicals classification and review
Herbicides are substances based on chemical components that destroy weeds. Such chemicals are divided into two types: selective action, when specific plant species are selectively removed, and continuous action, when all types of vegetation are killed on the site. The latter method is used mainly not for summer cottages or a vegetable garden, but for the removal of vegetation on industrial sites, highways, drainage canals, and forest clearings.
Herbicides of continuous action
The herbicide of continuous action works against any kind of vegetation - wild and cultural. He does not "distinguish" plants by edibility, family, stops the livelihoods of any instance. Such non-selective preparations of a universal type inhibit the development of a large number of plants. Used for different purposes:
- in preparation of the land for sowing,
- Weed control during the growing season of cultivated plants
- end of harvesting for the extermination of perennials,
- shortening the period of ripening of agricultural plants.
Preparations from weeds of this type are divided into two groups:
- System. With such agents, mature plants or young shoots are treated, leading to their complete destruction.
- Contact. They are used for pretreatment of soil, have a low degree of leaching from the ground, are used before the beginning of sowing works in agriculture.
Such agents act on the aerial parts, destroy the membranes of leaf tissue and shoots, cause necrosis, as a result of which there is a rapid loss of vegetation. Any kind of herbicide is potentially dangerous for animals and humans. The substances glyphosate and 2,4-D, which are part of the majority of continuous herbicides, in 2015 were recognized as carcinogens, contributing to the development of cancer.
Today in agriculture no more than 290 types of such drugs are used, the rest is banned. Mainly used for weed control on the runways, along the roadsides and at industrial plants.
Reduces the activity of growth of dicotyledonous organisms, effective against weeds. Systemic herbicide is used mainly against perennials, most in demand around the world. With the active substance, which is part of the drug, at least three more products are produced under other names (for example, Tornado, Hurricane).
Available in the form of granules or aqueous solution, ready to use. It is suitable for the treatment of vapors, has a wide range of use, is optimal for preparing the soil for sowing using no-till technology. But, like other pesticides, adversely affects the composition of the soil.
Use is allowed both in a personal economy, and at the agricultural enterprises. The minimum dosage is 1 l per hectare, the maximum is 8 l per hectare. It has a toxic effect on animals, insects and people. When using and storing it is necessary to adhere to the following rules:
- store in original plastic containers (do not pour into iron containers),
- the maximum period of use is 5 years at a temperature not higher than +30 and not lower than -1,
- the spraying procedure is carried out only in windless, not rainy weather,
- cultural plantings must be protected from contact with the composition.
As a desiccant, the drug is used to dry the soil. Usually carry out the procedure for crops such as potatoes, cotton, peas, sunflower, canola, strawberries, strawberries.
The best weed remedy, one of the most powerful systemic herbicides, which is used mainly in industrial and public facilities, in agriculture - for sunflower and rapeseed. Displays any vegetation from the territory, including trees and shrubs. The active ingredients in the composition accumulate in the soil, slowing down the development of plant tissue cells. It is highly effective both at the initial stage of growth and for adult specimens, it has high rain resistance, low toxicity, does not migrate in the soil.
- To combat woody herbaceous vegetation, the consumption is from 2 to 5 liters per 1 hectare, the procedure is carried out by spraying during the growing season (April-September),
- for sunflower, consumption is lower - up to 0.12 l per hectare, sprayed in the early phases of development,
- for rapeseed - up to 0.12 l / ha, by spraying in the early phase of weed development.
The solution is prepared immediately before use, mixed in the original container, then mixed with water directly in the sprayer. For bees and other insects, the remedy is practically harmless; it is better to carry out the treatment in the morning or after sunset with the absence of wind. It is necessary to protect the skin and respiratory tract by special means.
Herbicides selective action
Modern selective herbicides suppress one or several types of weeds. Used on specific cultures, but the cultures themselves do not damage. The growth of unwanted weeds is suppressed without harm to plantations.
The active substances in the composition penetrate the barrier of the leaf, as the juices move, they spread both to the roots and to the surface parts. The plant dies quickly, stops its development and growth. If you do not exceed the dosage, the lawn grass does not suffer.
Available in several forms:
The destruction of weeds by means of such means is safe for cultivated plants, as well as for animals, people who eat them.
This group of herbicides includes funds intended for the destruction of deciduous weeds:
- Widmaster. Belongs to the class of benzoic and phenoxyacetic acid, produced in the form of an aqueous solution. It is used after shoots of weeds for protection of corn, spring. It has a wide range of effects against perennials, annuals, dicotyledonous weeds, and protects them quickly and for a long time. Can be used immediately for spraying. Apply at air temperatures up to +25, the first treatment should be done until more than 4-6 leaves appear on the weeds. Mixing with other insecticides, gramicidins, fungicides is possible.
- Lintour. It belongs to the class of sulfonylurea derivatives, benzoic acid. Produced in granules, systemic herbicide is used mainly for winter and spring. Particularly effective against difficult to eradicate weeds - sow thistle, mar, chamomile The drug is ready to use, can be used in tank mixtures with other herbicides. Belongs to the class of post-harvest herbicides. Processing begins in the period of the beginning of tillering. When combined with other drugs requires compatibility testing. It is not recommended to use on soils with an acidity index less than 7, 5. Strict adherence to crop rotation is also required.
- Lance. Effective in the fight against annuals, annuals. It has special efficacy against bitter pink, completely destroying both the roots and the aerial parts. It is ideally combined in tank mixtures with other drugs. It is steady against washing off by a rain. The active ingredient aminopyralid penetrates the leaf structure and is transferred to all tissues, stopping new cell division. Application begins in the tillering stage until the second internode appears.
Preparations of this spectrum are used mainly on an industrial scale in agricultural fields. Used more often in combination with other herbicides in tank mixtures.
Effective in the fight against perennial, annual cereal weeds. List of effective tools:
- Bagheera Super. Disrupts the process of photosynthesis, stops growth, leads to the fact that weeds wither and die. Effective against annual cereal - self-seeding rye, barley, chicken millet, foxtail, wheatgrass. It is necessary to apply in the phase of active growth in warm weather and with sufficient moisture of the earth. The recommended doses are from 1 to 4 g per square meter, spraying is carried out at a height of weeds up to 15 cm, the multiplicity of treatment is 1 time.
- Trophy. Diffuse herbicide, which is introduced before planting immediately into the soil. Available in the form of an emulsion, a canister with a volume of 20 liters. Effective against dicotyledon broadleaf weeds of cereal annuals. Compatible with other drugs. The duration of protection is up to 10 weeks depending on the weather. The treatment is performed by spraying the top layer of the soil, in the case of drought, the reserve is up to a depth of 3 cm. Before spraying, a solution is prepared at a rate of 200-300 l per 1 hectare.
Treated cultivated plants are protected throughout the vegetative growth phase. The duration of action of the herbicide is influenced by the amount of precipitation, air temperature and other factors.
Treatment with weeds with herbicides should take place with mandatory protection of the skin and respiratory tract. It is also necessary to follow other rules:
- solutions are kneaded immediately prior to their use, cannot be stored,
- cultural plants, if necessary, can be protected by covering them with a film,
- need to cultivate the land in rubber gloves, a mask to protect the eyes, mouth, mucous membranes,
- It is not recommended to spray in windy weather,
- must take into account precipitation, do not do the processing before the rain.
After all the work you need to thoroughly wash your hands, face, mouth, rinse with a solution of soda, the clothes in which the treatment was carried out, wash. Also, keep in mind that many chemical fumes are toxic, including to animals.
Also popular are other types of herbicides - Liquidator, Ground, Zenkor, Propolol. They are no less effective, have a similar method of exposure to weeds, are selected based on the type of weed.
In addition to herbicides that eradicate weeds, there are other varieties. Algaecides are designed to combat vegetation on water, arboricides inhibit the growth of trees and shrubs. Such tools are used mainly on an industrial scale - in agriculture and fisheries.
Why do we need to fight weeds
Answer for yourself the following question: “What is a weed?”. For each gardener, the answer to it may be different. One can count last year's dill as a weed or parsley, which unexpectedly grew out of place, and for the second one, wheatgrass or horsetail fall under this category. But generally speaking, the weed is called grass or flowers that grow in an inappropriate and inconvenient place, and at the same time take away most of the precious light, moisture and nutrients from cultivated plants.
In addition, too much planting density per unit area contributes to the development of serious diseases and harmful insects. In order to avoid this, it is recommended to use herbicides - chemical preparations for weed control. Their use requires specific knowledge, experience and, of course, effort from the gardener. Some prefer to spray each plant individually, while others prefer special solutions, which pour all pest growth.
What types of herbicides exist
В современном садоводстве гербициды для уничтожения сорняков, безусловно, самый лучший и самый действенный способ защиты приусадебного участка от ненужной и надоедливой растительности. На сегодняшний день их существует более трехсот. These drugs are chemically active substances that are used to control the amount of weeds or to prevent their growth.
All herbicides by type of exposure are divided into two types:
- Herbicides from weeds of a continuous spectrum of action, or as they are also called non-selective, capable of destroying almost any varieties of not only annual and perennial weeds, but also useful plants. That is why they are mainly used in those places where cultures do not grow. For example, at the end of autumn after the harvest or in the spring, before the sunrise of shoots. Very often, weed control of herbicides of this type becomes the only possible way for the soil from the vegetation at forest cuttings and stadiums.
- Herbicides selective action from weeds or simply selective. They do not harm crops, but they are capable of destroying most common, not desirable, plants on the site. Due to such properties, selective herbicides can safely be sprayed onto healthy crops and not be afraid for the next harvest.
Attempts to get rid of unwanted perennial vegetation by mechanical means (digging, weeding, disking) often lead to the opposite result: the site is clogged even more. In this case, herbicides from continuous weeds become the only way out in the struggle for the harvest.
In addition, there is another classification: on the basis of appearance and method of application.
There are not two types here, but three:
- The first type - herbicides for the destruction of contact weeds. This type of drug is able to hit the plant with only one contact with its leaves and stem. Such drugs are mainly used to control swan, bristle, gum, biting midge and other annuals, including cereal weeds.
- The next type is herbicides of systemic exposure. Once on the leaves and the root, they spread throughout the plant, thereby ensuring its complete destruction. This type of chemicals is most effective when spraying vegetative weeds with a developed root system, including perennial.
- And the last type is chemical preparations whose action is designed for the early phases of weed growth and extends mainly to the roots and seeds of harmful plants.
It should be clearly understood that the time, method of application and action for a particular type of chemical means depends on their properties, preparative capabilities, the selectivity of crops and the characteristics of the substance in the plant. If you are a novice in gardening, we would recommend you before buying any drugs, with the help of a professional seller of a specialized store. He will tell you not only which herbicides to use in each particular case, but also help you to choose the optimal mixture of these funds.
Interesting. The lemon ants that live in the Amazonian forests kill any green shoots by injecting formic acid into the leaves, which acts on them as well as herbicides against weeds. They do not touch only one tree Duraya. As a result, areas are formed on the banks of the Amazon where nothing grows except for this kind of tree. It looks depressing, and the locals call these forests the gardens of the devil.
A short video on the topic:
Do we need to always deal with weeds?
The removal of weeds with the help of herbicides is in most cases a necessity, but “harmful” and “useless” plants can often become an original decoration of a flower bed or a lawn. The main thing is to approach the issue correctly. "Useful" plants sometimes bring much more trouble, which is why you can always experiment with competitors. And yes, it is better from the very beginning to immediately prepare for the painstaking process.
Before direct cultivation, it will not be superfluous to know all the information. Let's say the choice fell on St. John's wort. It is possible that the beloved cottage will not have the forest, "comfortable" conditions for its further growth. Type of land, habitat, amount of water - you need to deal with this, so that the cultivation took place as gently as possible. In a pinch, you can buy the plant in special stores, all the procedures there have already been carried out.
Why even grow under the nose of these strangers?
It will sound a little ridiculous, but it is a great way to take something interesting for children. Many seemingly useless plants are edible or medicinal and seemingly very bearable, which will positively affect the general mood of the garden and its owners, because at times the shade of light neglect looks very nice. And it is always interesting to know the world, especially if it literally grows under the window.
It would be nice to know about the method of reproduction of the new flower, so that its excessive seeds can stand sideways to the rest of the beds. It will also have to follow the growing season so that unexpected harvests will not be taken by surprise. In principle, the time collected seeds can be used in everyday life, if knowledge and skills allow. In any case, the digging will have to be taken with appropriate seriousness, since the new inhabitant of the flowerbed, whether it has taken root or not, can always be threatened with reprisals by the neighbors.
Any plant, let it grow earlier in the most severe forest, needs care at least for the first time. Otherwise it will inevitably turn into the same weed. The same strawberry, if it is not processed, has every chance to lose its attractiveness and flavor. If you do not pay tribute to raspberries, and it will grow so that it wants, but it will not be so easy to get rid of. Therefore, before getting rid of any shoots, consider whether it can not be useful and whether you should not start to cultivate it.