Rabbits are extraordinarily prolific animals, for an adult female to give life to 60-70 rabbits per year is the norm. But an uncontrolled increase in livestock is not required, the rabbit needs healthy and strong rabbits with positive, stable signs.
In this article we will talk in more detail about the age at which rabbits can happen, how to do it correctly and when it happens after a hunt.
Favorable age and season for the first mating
First, let's look at the age at which rabbits begin to breed and when it is possible to happen the first time. The rabbit reaches puberty by 3 months after birth. Avoiding accidental coatings, from this age, animals are sorted and seated, based on their gender.
However, to get healthy and strong offspring, 3 months is still an early age. Therefore, 4-month-old rabbits are suitable for the planned mating of rabbits.
This age is not considered an exceptional rule. So, if the farm contains rabbits of meat breeds, then the first mating starts from 5 or even from 6 months.
However, it is not necessary to overdo it. Non-breeding animals are gaining excess weight, lose interest in the partner, and there are few such animals.
Volcanoes in natural conditions occur year-round. On average, a healthy female has 6–7 okrols annually. In late autumn and winter, their frequency is less frequent due to weather factors. October and November are considered unfavorable for bonding.Selection of rabbits for mating
but the best offspring grows more often in winter. Rabbits born during the cold season are healthier, stronger than their summer relatives. If the goal of raising rabbits is to get fur, then winter is the most favorable season for mating rabbits. It is also worth avoiding the bunnies of rabbits during active molting.
For successful mating, time of day also matters. In summer, morning hours are best suited for mating, as it is not yet hot. In winter or in cold weather, the warmest hours of the day, that is, daytime.
Partner selection and pairing
In the selection of males and females suitable for mating, the following criteria are based:
- Animals must be healthy and be in the right age and condition. To obtain high-quality offspring, individuals over 3 years old, fattened rabbits, animals with underdeveloped or damaged genitals, are not suitable.
- Rabbits must carry the best attributes of their breed or their individual qualities are most suitable for the rabbit breeder,
- For jacketing, it is advisable to select winter rabbits, as well as those born in early litters from the rabbit. These rabbits are best suited for the role of producers,
- No mating of related individuals is allowed.. With a lack of animals, they can always be found on the side. It is worth remembering the need for quarantine and a thorough health check for new animals poured into the herd, especially when it comes to producers.
In addition to the choice of active and strong individuals, experienced rabbitrels also pay attention to the mother and brothers (sisters) of the future producer. If there were many weak or sick rabbits in the litter, and also the mother has flaws (frequent miscarriages, poor temperament), then the likelihood of their recurrence is high.Choice of breed for mating
In addition to individual choice of partners, experienced breeders pay attention to the formation of pairs. Ideal option - carrying out several coverings at the same time. In this case, the surplus (shortage) of rabbits in litters can be mutually compensated, and the choice of future producers will be more.
When forming a pair, they also take into account the experience of the male and female.
Rejection of animals
Frequently situations when the manufacturer loses its status. There are several reasons:
- Rare or, conversely, too frequent matings lead to the loss of the positive properties of the manufacturer,
- The onset of the "limit" age. The best offspring in rabbits 1-2 years of age,
- The presence of the disease, leading to frequent miscarriages. The death of several litters in a row indicates that the rabbit has listeriosis - a dangerous disease that is inherited,
- The loss of the maternal instinct in the rabbit, reaching the destruction of his own offspring is a clear sign of the unsuitability of the animal for further reproduction,
The fecundity of rabbits gives their owner ample opportunities for selection. Therefore, if for some individual signs there are doubts about the suitability of the rabbit for reproduction, then it is better to replace it.Male rejection
Proper preparation of the rabbit for breeding
The key stage of preparation for mating is the determination of the rabbit's readiness for motherhood, otherwise called the hunting period. Its duration depending on the season is 3-5 days.
Between hunting periods pairing is unlikely. The intervals between the next hunting females also range from 5 to 10 days. In winter, they can last longer, as the sexual activity of animals decreases.
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To determine the period of hunting is quite simple. This is evidenced by:
- Increased activity of the rabbit,
- Plucking down on the belly,
- Preparation of materials for the nest.
For credibility check the state of the penis rabbit, called loop. Its redness and swelling clearly indicate the onset of a hunting period in the female.
There is no such limitation for males.
Immediately before mating, it is important to properly prepare the cage.
From the cage of the crawl remove all unnecessary, including watering and feeding trough. The animal will not eat. The cage must be washed and sanitized. Only after that can the rabbit sit down to the partner.
The diet of rabbits before mating should always be more nutritious. For what proportion of feed, oats, grains, legumes, it is desirable to increase.
Steamed potatoes and oats are very useful for males. Feed these foods start for 1.5-2 weeks. Sprouted wheat is very useful for females. Good nutrition increases the number of baby rabbits in the litter and makes them healthier.Mate male to female
And now let's learn how to rabbits for the first and subsequent times. In small farms, where it is not possible to carry out artificial insemination, two methods of mating are practiced:
- Replanting the rabbit to the male for a long time - 5-7 days. In this situation, the animals themselves are determined with the best mating option. At first it is advisable to watch the animals. Cases of fights, if the partner did not like - not uncommon. If partners are aggressive and it ends in a fight, then animals should be seated in order to avoid serious injuries.
- The second option is a short-term replanting of the female for 2-3 hours.. The disadvantage of this method is the need for constant monitoring and, possibly, intervention of a rabbit breeder. Determine the time of the coating visually is not difficult. It lasts for half a minute. After coating, the crawl falls to the side and makes a characteristic squeak - a signal to the rabbit breeder that partners can be seated. If the partners are too flattering and do not intercourse, then the experienced rabbitks simply hold the rabbit with their hands, allowing the male to quickly complete their work.
A successful rabbit cover does not guarantee pregnancy. Therefore, for fidelity, control mating is carried out 5-6 days after the first pairing. There are no features for the control connection.
Often, control pairing is also a test of the results of the first mating. If the rabbit shows aggression and does not allow a proven partner in itself, you can be sure that there is no need for test pairing.
If the mating passes as usual, its date is noted, and, accordingly, after another 5-6 days, another control pairing is performed.Replanting for control mating
Checking the results of mating
Accurately verify the effectiveness of mating can be done within 15 days after its implementation. To do this, the rabbit's stomach very gently probe. There are videos on the Internet showing this procedure, therefore, in order to avoid causing the rabbit harm, it would be useful to view them.
The presence of one or two chains of oblong lumps is a clear indication of pregnancy.
Rabbit's failure to mate
If the rabbit does not allow the crawl, then the breeders choose one of the following options:
- Animals sit down to each other after some time, for example, after 2-3 hours. If the situation repeats, the procedure is repeated after a day,
- If the first method did not work, then you can change the male. Often, this is the most successful option.
Forced or occasional inbreeding
Inbreeding or, to put it simply, related crossbreeding also occurs in experienced breeders. When keeping the herd together (in the pit, aviary, etc.), occasional crossing occurs periodically.
Another problem is the impossibility of finding a pair of your own animals, suitable for health, external data or breed. Then inbreeding becomes forced.
Dozens of scientific papers have been written about the pros and cons of inbreeding; therefore, without going into unnecessary details, let us give an example from practice. Even the ancient pastoralists sought to eliminate the crossing of relatives of similar animals. Experimentally verified that regular inbreeding in a herd leads to degeneration. Although in the laboratory, inbreeding and practiced for the withdrawal of new breeds.Possibility of related mating when kept in a pit
If in your household, for some reason, a kindred interbreeding did occur, then experienced rabbitks are guided by the following recommendations:
- They try in every way to prevent cross-breeding of the born rabbits with other relatives on the paternal or maternal line. Proceeding from this, in a small herd, all the rabbits born from such a crossing are likely to go for meat, and in the future will not participate in reproduction,
- When forced inbreeding, they try to select a pair with the weakest possible kinship, that is, distant relatives. Given the fertility of rabbits, this is quite realistic
- All rabbits born with birth defects, and more and more of them will be removed from the herd with each subsequent mating.
How can it happen in the cold season?
A rabbit breeder should not be afraid of winter intercourse. However, to prevent frostbite and death of animals adhere to the following recommendations:
- Winter bonding held warm, in the closed and heated rooms. A suitable temperature for rabbits is the range of 19-27 degrees of heat. If it is impossible to achieve the desired temperature, then a drop of 3-5 degrees is not critical. With proper cell warming, it is permissible to produce healthy offspring and at 10 degrees of heat. However, the rabbit’s worst enemy is not low temperature, but drafts and dampness, which must be eliminated.
- Rabbits must be full, and the diet is as varied as possible. Suitable for winter feeding to future parents of potatoes, legumes, oats, sprouted grains of wheat, maize and other cereals,
- Animals within 1-2 weeks before and during mating long daylight hours required, at least 12 hours a day. Artificial light is allowed. Insufficient illumination leads to extremely few okrols (1-2 rabbits) or it is the main obstacle for successful mating.
Now you know how and at what age rabbits happen. However, we note that the experience comes to the breeders with years and mistakes. However, a careful study of the issue, the use of advice and the help of experienced rabbitks will save you from many, often fatal mistakes and will allow you to get healthy rabbits with the right signs.
And finally, we offer to watch a small video from which you will learn when rabbits are covered:
Basic Requirements for Mating Animals
For productive mating, rabbits must meet several important criteria:
- Age. Both partners must reach an optimal reproductive age, which is 5 months for females, and 7 months for males. Also, old individuals (older than 6 years) should not be allowed to mating, since such animals cannot produce healthy offspring.
- "The right individual." The pair should be of standard size for the breed, have no health problems, not be in the process of shedding, and also be ready to mate.
- Character. Animals must have a calm disposition. Also, lethargic or weakened individuals are not allowed to mating.
- It is advisable to update the tribal rabbits at least once a year for healthier and stronger offspring.
When are rabbits ready to breed?
Rabbits are early-ripening animals. They begin to multiply within a few months after birth. But at what age is it most appropriate?
Usually for medium-sized breeds it is at least 4 months old, but for better offspring it is better not to rush and wait another month, two. The minimum body weight of the female is 2.5 kg in small rabbits.
In more severe breeds, maturation occurs more slowly, and they are ready for reproduction at 6 months of age. And after 8 months they are allowed to admit to mating. Having reached puberty, rabbits begin to mark the cage intensively.
To avoid undesirable mating of rabbits, the young need to be seated separately by gender. To do this, determine the sex of pets most accurately.
Medium-sized breeds ready for breeding upon reaching 4 months of age
Learning to distinguish the sex of rabbits
The reproductive organs of rabbits are designed in such a way that it is difficult to distinguish individuals of the opposite sex without skill, therefore, it is simply necessary for a beginning rabbit grower to determine the sex of their pets. If you ignore this skill, then you can be trapped and long-awaited offspring can not wait, putting the same-sex animals together. Then you have to constantly consult with a specialist, and this is a loss of time and money.
Regarding the age at which gender can already be determined, it is not less than one month, although even experienced breeders are mistaken. After it is done, it is problematic to do this, since it is better not to touch the rabbits once again, otherwise the rabbit can stop feeding, and these signs are not yet manifest explicitly.
Therefore, buying rabbits, especially when experience is not enough best to follow the rules:
- when buying a rabbit, do not be worth believing the sellers of the word, sometimes they are intended to sell an animal and may give false information,
- so you can ask for help from a person who knows the question thoroughly,
- when knowledge is present, but there are doubts, it is better not to hurry, but to postpone the purchase until the next time,
- when choosing, it is better to give preference to babies who have already turned 2 months old, at this age sexual characteristics are already expressed more clearly.
It is not difficult to figure out the sex of the matured rabbit, the difficulty is in keeping a fairly strong animal. In addition, their hind legs are dangerous, they can strike and injure with sharp claws. In order to find out the gender is necessary:
- the animal sits on a low plane, then firmly holds on to the withers with its right hand,
- now you have to lift the rabbit and sit it on its hind legs, then immediately turn it over on the tail,
- it is important to do it quickly so that he does not turn out and turn over on his stomach, and in this position it is difficult to resist him,
- not letting go of the nape, with the other hand, stretching the skin, one should examine the place where his genitals are located,
- pressing down on them with your fingers from top to bottom, as if squeezing them out,
- the genital slit will open wider, the rabbit can be recognized by a sharp triangle resembling a tongue,
- the male will have a penis in the form of a small bullet. In males, small bumps are easily palpable - these are the testicles. When they are expressed explicitly, then the animal can no longer be tortured and released, this is exactly the male. Only the testicles should be two, otherwise he suffers from cryptorchidism, and such individuals are rejected.
Some recommend putting rabbits back on their knees for inspection, but this method is not suitable for large breeds.
Determine the sex of young rabbits
Rabbits' organs are not viewed well enough and for this purpose it is better to use a magnifying glass. If you gently press in the middle of the cloaca and genitals, then the females will not see anything, and the males will have a slight bulge, with a hole in the middle.
Sometimes some try to determine gender by animal behavior, but this is not a selection criterion. Even gay, especially young animals, are able to jump on each other. This happens because of the bubbling hormones at a young age or from a showdown.
In adulthood, the difference is more noticeable on secondary grounds. Самцы мужественнее, крупнее, с массивной головой, особо это заметно у крупных пород.
Как определить беременность?
Понять, что крольчиха беременна, можно по поведению с кролом на контрольной случке, когда она благосклонна к нему, поэтому оплодотворение не произошло.
Therefore, in order to be completely sure, after 2 weeks after the rabbits have mated, she will be examined for pregnancy.
Carefully, trying not to frighten the rabbit, you need to feel her stomach with your fingers, if she is pregnant, you can feel small balls on the stomach, these are embryos. When they are not felt, it means that the pregnancy has not come.
To determine pregnancy, you need to gently probe the abdomen.
Inbreeding is a very undesirable occurrence. Its consequences after birth are weak offspring, reduced immunity, diseases, various deformities and mutations, the death of embryos. This sometimes happens if the mating of rabbits occurred unauthorized, when the owner did not have time to seat the mature youth or animals to be kept in a heap.
It happens that there is no possibility to dilute the “old blood” at home, then inbreeding happens by necessity, that is, forced. In this case, you should follow the rules:
- Mating of rabbits and too close kinship is extremely undesirable. The further it is, the lower the risk of getting poor quality youngsters.
- For mating, you can choose only healthy manufacturers.
- The resulting offspring is better to score, and put the meat up for sale. As an opportunity, buy a crawl or rabbit in another farm.
Inbreeding individuals are not allowed to breed
Many inexperienced rabbit breeders are interested in the question: can rabbits be crossed at home if they are of different breeds?
This method is quite applicable when the breeder wants to improve the economic characteristics. Such a crossing allows you to get the offspring more healthy, large, feed is consumed less, and the weight gain is more pronounced.
Sometimes interbreeding is used when they want to get rid of the shortcomings of some breeds or breeding new ones. But the result will be, if rabbits of different, but combined breeds are selected, the male of the gray giant can be crossed with a female chinchilla or a Viennese blue. Down and rabbits, grown for sale skins, can not be crossed.
Down and sandpaper rabbits can not be mixed with each other.
What do the terms mean - Breed, Breed group, Offspring, Line, Family, Cross
When describing the breed of rabbits use the wrong terms - "species", "subspecies", these are zoological terms for the classification of wild animals. When specifying the kinship of domestic pedigreed animals use other terms:
- The breed is a human-bred group of animals of the same species that have the same external characteristics and direction of use, for example, the Belgian Flandre breed of rabbits is a breed of meat-shaving direction. now more decorative giant.
- Breed group - several breeds that have the same external characteristics, and the purpose may differ. For example, in the breed group of albinos, there are meat, meat shturkou and downy breeds.
- Offspring - splitting in the same breed, such as the White Giant (German spawn) and the White Giant (Russian spawn),
- The line is males of the same breed from an outstanding producer (sometimes, this is a group of valuable animals with the same breeding roots),
- The family is female of one breed from an outstanding mother (more often used in horse breeding, rarely in rabbit breeding).
- Cross - this is a highly productive animal hybrids that show the best results in fattening. Cross is not a breed, only descendants of two or three breeds are sent for fattening. See below for text on ready-made schemes for getting simple crosses. Complex crosses are produced by alternating crossing in specialized breeding centers. In modern Russia, such centers do not exist. Genetics we killed.
To consolidate the material, be sure to read about Pannon rabbits and, I hope, with simple examples, you will understand the difference of the breed from the line, the hybrid and the cross. The fact is that in relation to the White Pannons there are fierce disputes between non-professional rabbit lovers. Most consider whether these rabbits are not a breed, but a hybrid.
Read about the Belgian Flandre breed. Meet the breeds of giants, relatives of Flandre and the white giant giant breed group. Read about the outstanding breed Black Rabbit, which is called the black-brown breed.
Directions of global breeding rabbits
Rabbits are divided into productive and unproductive (decorative). Productive rabbits are bred to obtain meat, wool, fluff in industrial quantities. Ornamental rabbits are classified as unproductive animals, as their main purpose is to please the eye. Of course, decorative meat rabbits can also produce meat and wool, and fluff, but in very small quantities (for themselves). Decorative rabbits are divided by size:
- giants (a classic example is the Belgian Flandre and any rabbits for home keeping,
- mid-sized (Black and fire - one of the first decorative breeds of rabbits, to decorate estates in England),
- dwarfs (do not get confused). Artificial breeding of freaks (dwarfs) is quite a difficult task, of at least three combinations of genes, only one gives true nanism. See how dwarfs are removed when crossing decorative rocks.
Dwarf rabbits - a kind of decorative, rather than a separate breed, or rather not the breed group
In rabbit breeding there are four areas of breeding.
- Traditional selection. Breeding animals with the best performance in the desired direction (meat, skin, down), breeding rabbits resistant to climate, resistant to certain diseases.
- In-depth selection. Breeding rabbits with unusual characteristics, for example rabbits with Rex skins. What kind of Rex is not displayed at the present time. A very large group of lop-eared rabbits, common name rabbit ram.
- Decorative selection. Breeding rabbits in the direction of reducing the size, imparting special properties, such as breeding rabbits with exotic luminous skin - the direction of exotics breeding.
- Mixed Selection. When rabbits of rabbits of different breeds, usually decorative breeds, are combined in one animal, for example, rexes are lop-eared, with erect ears, with a short pile of fur, with a long pile, with curls and so on.
Traditional and in-depth selection - areas of professional animal husbandry, partly a hobby. Decorative and mixed selection, mostly a hobby of biotechnologists, geneticists. Unfortunately, for 20-30 years we are very behind in this direction. perhaps the younger generation of domestic geneticists will help us rise from our knees, but for now ....
Difficulties in rabbit breeding
Rabbit bosses independently, at their own peril and risk, are engaged in the preservation of breeds. On the creation of promising new breeds of rabbits can not speak. Without methodological help mistakes happen, experienced farmers and beginner breeders.
Incorrect crossbreeding of different breeds of rabbits leads to the degradation of pedigree qualities even in initially highly breeding animals, and the cost of purchasing a purebred rabbit can be recorded at a loss.
Without a serious approach to breeding, the breed qualities of a rabbit quickly disappear. The generational change in the rabbit is the fastest in agriculture. If the breed is not supported, then in two or three years nothing can remain of the breed.
Common mistakes in rabbit breeding
- A rabbit intended for a tribe has hidden or apparent vices.
- Mistakes in the choice of pairs of parents, especially when cross breeding.
- Improper grading of young animals tested for breeding.
- Errors in the maintenance and feeding of breeding rabbits.
Crossing a rabbit, how to organize
The creation of rabbit breeds is a complex, costly undertaking that requires not only financial expenditures, but also deep scientific knowledge in rabbit genetics. People devote many years of training and practical experiments to breeding work with a rabbit - a lifetime. In our case, we will reveal only the very basics of selection available for use in domestic rabbit breeding.
How to organize breeding work with rabbits in the household
Rabbit breeder's job consists of following simple, understandable rules. The main rule in tribal rabbit breeding is to keep strict records, fixing the results of cases in the table, journal. This is a must. Analysis of the work done is carried out on the basis of records. Without accuracy, it is impossible to select rabbits.
Rabbit Selection Rules
- Leave on the tribe of the earliest ripe rabbits, with the maximum indicators of body weight during weighing. Females bearing 7-10 rabbits, no more than two pustovok per year, with high milkiness (rabbits with a large mass at weaning).
- The herd of rabbits is divided into three groups: the breeding core (50-60% of the rabbits on the farm), the productive livestock (fattening), candidates for culling (from the breeding core).
- On ordinary (commodity) rabbit farms, only four methods of breeding are used (absorption, purebred, industrial, variable).
- Periodically, it is necessary to change manufacturers of rabbits.
- On ordinary farms, pairing with rabbits, which are not related to males, is avoided by accidental inbreeding (on breeding farms, inbreeding is sometimes used to identify beneficial deformities (mutations).
Useful deformities of rabbits - dwarfism, albinism, hairs under beaver (Rex)
What is useful to rabbits, it is undesirable for a person, agree? Read more about inbreeding below.
How to cross rabbits, crossbreeding methods available for beginners
Not all methods can be applied in domestic rabbit breeding. For some methods, it is necessary to have a deeper knowledge of genetics than the methods proposed below for crossing. Four breeding methods are available in domestic rabbit breeding:
- absorption mating
- pure breed of one breed,
- industrial (production of hybrids of the first generation based on two breeds) - simple hybrids of the first generation (for ready-made schemes, see below),
- variable (obtaining hybrids of two or three or more breeds in the form of hybrids of the first and second generation) - complex hybrids (crosses). Schemes are classified (patented) by manufacturers of rabbits crosses.
Breeding of purebred rabbits, the beginning of breeding
For beginners who decide to engage in breeding in the rabbit breeding, the best choice is the breeding of purebred rabbits. They are unpretentious in feeding, errors in breeding do not matter, the rabbit breeder acquires the skills of appraisal (evaluation of the exterior of the rabbit). If you have time, look at breeding rabbits at home for yourself, without organizing an individual enterprise.
Having received some experience, an amateur can easily improve the quality of the animals of his herd by the method of absorbing crossing. To do this, buy one or two breeding males and successively interbreed them with the outbred females. How to improve the quality of mongrel rabbits read the following section of the article (absorption mating), try to understand how the genes of your mongrel (improved) females are absorbed by the genes of pedigree rabbits (improver). It is very simple and fun. Genetics require a mathematical mindset and perseverance.
Pure breeding, maintaining breed standard
Pure breeding in rabbit breeding is used in all farms where pedigreed rabbits are kept. The principle of the method is the mating of the best representatives of one breed.
A photo. Pure breeding rabbits of the same breed. Rabbits of black and fiery breed.
The method is designed to preserve the breed characteristics. Without periodic input, from the outside, of a fresh producer, after several generations, the quality of the breed decreases. Pure breed rabbits do not differ from crossing rabbits of the same breed - they are synonymous.
Ready schemes for producing hybrid rabbits for meat-fed
The recommended interbreeding cross-breeding schemes are recommended for males: Vienna Blue, Soviet Chinchilla, White Giant, White New Zealand, California, Silver, Black and Brown, Butterfly, Baran, which are crossed with one of the females listed on the list.
Rabbits - hybrids 1st generation. For fattening use baby rabbits from the fathers and mothers of these breeds.
- Male rabbits of the Vienna Blue breed, recommended to cross with females (one of the choice) of three breeds - Soviet chinchilla, California, New Zealand.
- It is recommended that males of Soviet Chinchilla rabbits be crossed with females (one of the choice of) two breeds - White Giant, New Zealand White.
- It is recommended that males of the White Giant rabbits be crossed with females (one of the choice of) three breeds - California, New Zealand White, Butterfly.
- It is recommended that males of the New Zealand breed rabbits be crossed with females (on the choice of one of them) of two breeds - Soviet chinchilla, Black-and-brown.
- Silver breed males are recommended to cross with females of the same breed - Gray Giant.
- It is recommended that males of the Black-Brown breed be crossed with the same breed of females - Californian.
- It is recommended to breed males of the Californian breed with black and brown females of the same breed.
- Males of the Butterfly rabbits (German motley giant or Strokach) are recommended to cross the Vienna blue with females,
- Male rabbits of the Baran breed are recommended to cross with the Soviet chinchilla females.
- Males of the Burgundian rabbit with females of the California breed. I found this scheme in foreign sources; I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the translation.
There are no other ready-made schemes yet. Schemes are translated from scientific reports published in the available literature.
Meanwhile, we are far behind the advanced countries. For example, in France, there are firms that cross and breed hybrid female rabbits, which they then sell to farmers. Farmers independently mate hybrid females with the best males for the region, and the young are fattened, and all this is under the control and scientific support of scientists. In short space. It looks like a business in rabbits in Ukraine and Belarus, rabbit breeding is better developed than in Russia, there will be time to read.
What breeds of rabbits should not be crossed
There are giant rabbits, the use of which in industrial breeding is not recommended. These are rabbits of the German Riesen breed (Flandra's brother) and Flandre himself. It is believed that at present, these are the largest rabbits in the world, but are distinguished by late maturity, so mating with the aim of obtaining gigantic offspring will not bring the desired success. There is no real Flandra in Russia, there are his brothers Gray Giant, the White Giant. Or I do not understand something. All over the world, the quality of productive rabbits has long been abandoned by Flandrov and our breeders argue about this breed. Tell me, if you know, write in the mail or in the reviews.
What happens if you cross different breeds?
When crossing different breeds of rabbits (not listed above) you will have a hybrid rabbit in the first generation. Whether he will inherit the power of heterosis of the first generation is unknown.
The main thing is not to use hybrids in breeding on a home farm.
The only use of hybrid rabbits is an accelerated fattening on an industrial farm. However, if you want to experiment with the study of heterosis, use in breeding work:
- males of a class not lower than the elite, in the direction of productivity that you want to improve.
- Females can be used in the class below (according to the rating scale).
To evaluate your experiment, use the methodology for evaluating heterosis by economically useful traits, the simplest indicators:
- growth rate
- slaughter weight
Feeding of hybrids (rabbits of the first cross generation) let's leave for factory breeding, when profitability is calculated by day, for example, to turn in 200-300 fattened animals not in 90, but in 70 days. Randomly crossing different breeds of rabbits is the surest way to breeding purebred animals.
Inbreeding rabbits in the wild fauna
Rabbit inbreeding is a common occurrence in nature, but due to the high fertility and mortality, the variability of the offspring does not have a significant effect on the population as a whole.
An example is the resettlement of wild rabbits in Australia. On the continent, a whole continent was inhabited from rabbits of several families. On an ordinary farm, fertility is much lower, reckless inbreeding leads to genetic abnormalities, a gradual degradation of the family group due to low fertility.
Inbreeding is a zootechnical and veterinary term. Analogue in humanitarian medicine is called incest (intsuht).
Benefits of inbreeding
In zootechny and veterinary medicine, many works have been written on the use of inbreeding in breeding work. Breeding or breeding in oneself is a literal translation from English. In some cases it is a very useful property to identify mutations that have been helpful in a rabbit.
Distinguish between random and predictable inbreeding.
Inbreeding is used to breed linear animals. Rabbits of the same line have a very similar chromosome set. Это качество используют в разных целях. Самое понятное обычному человеку, не специалисту, использование животных с генетически закрепленными хромосомами в фармакологических исследованиях. При введении исследуемого лекарства у всех животных одной линии будут примерно одинаковые реакции. Это позволяет стандартизировать результаты.Managed inbreeding in the process of breeding work were obtained:
- Rabbit albinism: white giant.
- dwarf breeds of ornamental rabbits.
- Bred rabbit sheep and the whole group of lop-eared girlfriends.
- mutation rex skin obtained.
In humans, mutations caused by: albinism, dwarfism, unusual body shapes, fur are called deformities, and in rabbits these are new, unusual breeds.
Inbreeding in a commodity (non-breeding) rabbit breeding is prohibited. It is believed that in domestic rabbit breeding, the consequences of inbreeding are deformities, a decrease in the productive qualities in rabbits. This is not because of the biblical commandments, but in order that the breeders lovers do not spoil the breed.
As they say - do not know the ford, do not go into the water
Rabbit breeds have a very high genetic variability. The transmission of a genetic abnormality, even if the phenotype (external signs) remained unchanged, is a time bomb. Delayed deformity can put a cross on the breed bred.
Is it possible to cross a domestic rabbit and a wild hare
The question whether the rabbit and the hare can be crossed should be answered. No you can not! Despite the fact that the rabbit looks very similar to a hare, no one has managed to cross these animals so far. When studying species that are close in phenotype (external features), it turned out that their genetic code is fundamentally different. Why this happened in the process of evolution is unknown.
- the rabbit has 22 pairs of chromosomes,
- the hare has 24 pairs of chromosomes.
Chromosomes - cells of the body in which hereditary information is encrypted. At the confluence of the sperm with the egg, information from the father and mother is merged into a single code containing 22 pairs in the rabbit and 24 in the hare.
A photo. Hare (left) and rabbit (right). Not amenable to intersection with modern methods of genetic engineering
The differences between the rabbit and the hare in two pairs of chromosomes led to a fundamental divergence of the biology of species. The suckeriness of the rabbits is 30 days, the hares - 60 days. The newborn rabbit is born naked and blind, and the hare is immediately sighted and covered with fur. The bunny rabbit is in the nest for about 15 days, and the hare has already tried vegetable food for 2-3 days. Rabbits always molt in the same color. Hares molt depending on the season of the year (hare, hare). This is the same hare. Rabbits live in burrows in groups, and the hare is alone in the field, unification is possible only for the rut period. Hares freely overwinter in the fierce frosts; a rabbit can spend the winter in a harsh climate only if it is fed by a person. Perhaps in the future, advances in genetic engineering will make it possible to cross a hare with a rabbit, but so far this has not happened.
Is it possible to cross a rabbit with an animal of any other kind
Definitely not. For example, a chinchilla (animal species) does not intersect with a rabbit. Although there are some positive examples of the type of mule, hinny. However, hybrids are sterile in the sexual sense. From them it is impossible to get offspring. If interested, read about the hypothesis of breeding rabbit breed Flandr. According to one version, several breeds of rabbit and Mara Patagonian, a giant rodent, were the ancestors of this breed. Rabbits are not rodents, but lagomorphs.