What does an elm look like?
Elm is a large tree with an elliptical or rounded crown. The branches are spreading with dense foliage. The leaves are simple, large, alternate, often unequally. Elm blooms before the leaves bloom. Flowers nondescript, small, are collected in bunches. Flying nuts, ripen several weeks after the flowering period. Seeds quickly lose their germination. Elm wood is solid, similar to European walnut, it is considered a valuable breed.
Elm gives a thick shadow, but he loves sunny places. At a young age it grows rapidly, especially if the soil is fresh, fertile, loose.
Resistant to dry conditions, easily tolerates pruning.
Common Elm Species
- English Elm (Ulmus procera Salisb) grows in southern and western Europe. Distributed in deciduous, mixed forests, river valleys, floodplains on rich soils.
English elm grows to 50 m. It has high winter hardiness.Types of Elm
Elm Androsova (Ulmus x androssowii Litv) - A hybrid between elm squat and thick. Many attribute it to a variety of squat elm. The tree reaches 20 m, has a very dense crown in the shape of a tent. The bark is gray, on young shoots - yellowish or ashen. The leaves are rounded ovoid, pointed to the top, grow on fluffy cuttings 1 cm long. The winged fruits are angularly round, 2.5 cm long.
Androsova elm is winter-hardy, needs soils with moderate humidity, although it tolerates aridity quite well. Grows rapidly, propagated by seeds. Often used in park construction, beautiful in group plantings and in solitary. It is also used as uncut hedges.
Common Elm also called smooth (Ulmus laevisPall) . It grows in nature in the European part of Russia, Western Siberia, the Caucasus, Kazakhstan, and Western Europe. This shade-tolerant tree, which prefers rich soils, usually grows in deciduous forests.
Grows smooth elm to 25 m, has a beautiful elliptical broad crown. The branches are thin, hanging down. Young shoots fluffy, when growing up become smooth, shiny. The bark is light brown, in adult trees it darkens, becomes brownish-brown and exfoliates in thin plates. Leaflets oblong, pointed, unequal at the base. The edges of the leaves are sickle-toothed. Top leaves are dark green, light green bottom. The lower part of the leaves is soft-hairy, the top is bare. In autumn, the color changes to brownish-purple. The flowers are small, brownish, with purple protruding stamens. Peduncles long, descending. The elm blooms for 10 days, after the fruit-lionfish with cilia along the edge.What conditions are necessary for growth
Elm ordinary - long-lived, lives up to 300 years. It grows quickly, perfectly tolerates a haircut, holds the shape of the crown. In urban environments it grows slowly, especially on poor, dry soils. Early leaf-falling, crown drying can occur. Dense soils and asphalting also retard elm growth. Does not like building shading, dustiness, soil salinization.
It is used in single, group plantings, looks beautiful in the alleys.
Rabbit Elm (Ulmus carpinifolia Rupp. Ex Suckow) it is found in the Caucasus, Central Asia, the European part of Russia, North Africa, Kazakhstan, Western Europe. It grows in broadleaf forests on lighted areas.
Elm grows to 20 m, it has a thick spreading crown, reaching 10 m in diameter.
The branches are thin, dark brown, have cork growths. The leaves are dark green, dense, uneven, shiny. The shape and size vary. From above leaves are bare, covered with sparse hairs from below. In autumn, the foliage becomes bright yellow. It blooms before the leafing, small flowers are reddish-red, going into spherical bunches. Lionfish-fruit with a length of 2 cm.
A very winter-hardy tree, quite salt-resistant. The soil is undemanding, although active growth is observed on nutritious, moist soils.
Forms living dense hedges and walls, is used in the design of gardens, squares, parks.
Ulmus densa Litv common in the wild in Central Asia. It is a high, up to 30 m, tree with a thick, wide, pyramidal, low-lying crown. The bark on young shoots is yellow-brown or gray, dark on old branches. The leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate, both hairless and hairy.
Dense elm is an unpretentious tree, drought-resistant, therefore it is great for planting southern European part of Russia for single plantings, creating alleys, compositions.The geography of the spread of elm
This elm grows to 15 m. The crown of the tree is delicate, in young trees it is widespread, in adults it is oval. The branches are thin, flexible, drooping, greyish-pubescent. Small leaves are elliptical, smooth, symmetrical, dark green in summer, yellow in autumn. The leaves are arranged in two rows, so the shoots look covered with large feathery leaves, for this reason this name was given to the species. Flowers are small, are collected in bunches.
Elm treegreen is winter-hardy enough, freezes in severe winters. Resistant to drought, soil undemanding. It grows very quickly. But large trees reach trees only in the southern regions on well-moistened soils. Resistant to urban conditions, asphalting, street dust, smoke. Beautiful in decorative plantings, but does not give a shadow in the street. You can form a more compact and thick crown by trimming.
Squat elm also called small-leaved, Ilmovik (Ulmus pumila L) . It grows in the wild in the Far East, northern Mongolia, Japan, Korea, and Transbaikalia.
It is found in deciduous, mixed forests, prefers fertile soil.
Squat elm low, grows up to 15 m, sometimes grows shrubs with a dense rounded crown. The branches are thin, young pubescent. The leaves are small, elliptical, leathery, with a sharp short top, somewhat unequal.
In spring, the leaves are green, the lower part of the leaf is light green. In the summer the leaves darken, in the fall olive-yellow. Flowers are collected in small bunches. Lion seeds are buff or yellow-brown. Winter hardiness is average, this type of elm is light-requiring, unpretentious to the soil, to its richness and humidity.
Squat elm drought-resistant, tolerates molding, cutting. Develops in urban environments.
This type of elm tree transports easily, is very good for landscaping arid areas. The undoubted advantage of the elm is the absence of root offspring, this is a remarkable quality for garden and park construction. It is used in landscaping new buildings, creating living clipped hedges, street plantings.What kind of elm to choose
Arod Elm has a second name - Japanese birch bark (Ulmus propinqua Koidz = U. japonica (Rehder) Sarg). Grows in eastern Transbaikalia, Mongolia, Japan, Northern China, in the Far East. Distributed in cedar-broadleaved valley forests.
This type of elm is a large plant up to 35 m in height, beautiful, with a regular straight trunk, a wide spreading crown, rather thick.
The bark is whitish on the trunk, brown on the shoots, smooth or with cork growths, it looks beautiful when the plant is not covered with foliage.
Young shoots have a dense edge, dark-brown buds. Ovoid leaves have an unequal base grow on a short petiole. Top leaves rough-pubescent, fluffy bottom. In the spring the foliage is green, in the summer it gets dark, in the autumn it is brownish-red, dark crimson, brown-chestnut, the leaves are whitish from below. The flowers are small, reddish, collected in bunches. Lion Seeds are yellow-brown in color.
Japanese birch bark grows faster than other elms, tolerates shading, frost, urban conditions. Propagated by root suckers and seeds. Good for landscaping cities, parks, green building. Especially beautiful in the autumn.
Rough elm also called Ulm mountain (Ulmus scabra Mill. = Glabra Huds). It grows in the Balkans, in Scandinavia, the European part of Russia, Asia Minor, Central Europe.
Distributed in deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests, usually on calcareous soils.
This type of elm tree has a wide rounded crown, rather thick, grows to 35 m under good conditions. The bark is smooth, dark brown, dark brown on the branches. Young branches densely covered with hairs. The leaves are large, up to 17 cm in length.
Ovoid, with sharp teeth on edge. The top of the leaves is rough, the bottom is stiff-haired. The foliage is dark green, it turns yellow in autumn. Flowers unsightly, are collected in spherical bunches, grow on long pedicels. Elm blooms up to 7 days.
Seeds are large, winged, greenish.
This elm grows quickly, unlike many other species, it is demanding of soil and its moisture. It grows well in shaded places, resistant to frost, tolerates good urban conditions, drought-resistant.
Where does it grow and when does it bloom?
Elm trees grow well on fertile soil and with the right care reach large sizes. However, under natural conditions, they can easily tolerate drought and floods, and are easily tolerated by extreme cold. Most often elms grow in the territory:
- Western Siberia
- South Ural,
- Volga region
- European countries
The powerful crown of these trees holds dust well. It often serves as a barrier fence as a living planting. Large crown with dense foliage can often be seen in many parks and gardens of cities. In their natural habitat, elms are often found in deciduous forests, along the shores of lakes and rivers. They help create clean plantings.
The flowering period begins very early, in March - April. Small and inconspicuous flowers collected in bunches in the leaves, easily pollinated by the wind. The ripening period of the fruit depends on the climatic conditions. Most often they ripen in April - June. The fruit of an adult tree begins to give at the age of 7-8 years.
Care and breeding
Propagation of elm trees occurs mainly by seeds. The tree can also be propagated by shoots. If the seeds are placed in an airtight container, they will be able to retain their properties for germination for 2 years. After the seeds ripen, they are planted two weeks later.
Plant does not need preliminary soil preparation. They need to be expanded in the soil with a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, cover with a layer of soil and pour plenty of water. During the first month, the seeds are watered regularly and abundantly. In very hot weather, it is desirable to cover the seeds with a film before the appearance of the first shoots. As the young tree grows, it will be easy to tolerate excessive moisture or drought. Young shoots grow well even in the shade.
Before planting seeds or seedlings should take into account the growth rate of the plant. After 2-3 years, the tree can shade other plantings. It is known that elms have a negative effect on the grapes, so they cannot be planted nearby.
The leaves and elm bark are rich in nutrients. They have many beneficial effects:
Collecting bark recommended during the flowering period in spring. The leaves are collected in the summer in dry weather. For collection, material from elm smooth, which goes under the frame, is mainly taken. Collected bark from a tree retains its properties for 2 years. Various decoctions and tinctures from many diseases are made of it:
- wound healing
- digestive system,
- skin diseases
A decoction of the leaves eliminates colic and helps for the speedy healing of wounds on the skin. A mixture of bark and kidney from birch, willow has a beneficial effect on the body with dermatitis and burns, if you make a decoction from the composition.
Elm is a valuable tree species.. Its wood is not subject to rotting, even with an increased level of humidity. Such a feature made elm wood very popular and in demand. In European countries, it used to be used for many construction works, as well as for water supply. In Russia, skids, shafts and arcs for horse-drawn transport were made of such wood.
According to its main characteristics and properties, wood is very similar to oak wood. The material is viscous and difficult to crack. It is difficult to handle hand and electric cutting tools, it is difficult to plane. Despite such difficulties in processing, it is perfectly polished and glued. Before the start of finishing work, the wood must be treated with soil, filling the pores. In the process of drying the material practically does not crack. Such a property in elm is similar to oak.
At present, elm wood is in demand for furniture and flooring. Valuable natural material is also used in shipbuilding and engineering.
Tree elm description
Serrated leaves from 2 to 16 cm, depending on the species. They have a characteristic asymmetrical base and taper to the top. The leaves are located on the shoots alternately, forming a dense, dense crown.
Red-purple flowers, collected in inflorescences of several pieces, appear along the shoots in March or early April. After pollination in place of flowers, small winged fruits are tied, which are carried by the wind.
Elm seeds that have fallen into the ground germinate literally in a few days, and the tree begins to bear fruit at the age of 6-7 years.
Garden varieties and types of elm with a photo
Mountain Elm or Rough Campdouni (Ulmus glabra Camperdownii). It is a picturesque low tree with a characteristic weeping crown in the form of an umbrella of hard shoots.
The height of “Camperdownii” is usually 2–2.5 m. In a few years, the crown width can reach 6–18 m. The leaves are large, hard, numerous. In the fall, they acquire a golden yellow color.
Weeping Elm "Pendula" with compact crown. Another low-growing variety of mountain elm with shoots forming a green tent.
Trees prefer sunny places and fertile soil.
The same kind of variety from Dutch manufacturers - "Shiva" (formerly "Monstros"). Rare dwarf elm, one of its most miniature forms. Grows in the form of a compact, round bush. In adulthood, its size is only 40 cm in height and 40 cm in width.
The leaves are large, about 4 cm, which is special for this small plant. The unique appearance and shape of the variety fits perfectly into the composition of low-growing shrubs, conifers and cereals.
Elm cork or elm (U. Minor).Synonyms: small, field or grab-leaved elm. In nature, it is a powerful long-lived tree that grows throughout Europe. Three varieties have become common in gardening.
"Argenteovariegata". The decorative effect of the ilm lies in its variegated foliage with white and cream spots. It grows slowly. The height of an adult tree reaches 10 meters, and the crown width is 5 meters.
Typical requirements for this species are fertile, moderately moist soil, a sunny location that enhances the brightness of the color of the foliage.
In the garden, “Argenteovariegata is in perfect harmony with other variegated plants, although usually these original varieties are planted separately, to create a strong accent in garden design.
"Webbiana" - decorative elm with a unique type of foliage. Throughout the season, the leaves of this tree are slightly folded. It seems that the tree dries up or is ill.
Meanwhile, this is a feature of the varietal form. Produces a wide crown of several large strong branches. The maximum height is about 4-5 meters. It grows well in moist and fertile soil, but due to the foliage structure, which reduces water evaporation, the variety is resistant to prolonged drought.
The most popular and incredibly beautiful variety of this type - "Jacqueline Hiller". Compact, low and slow-growing tree. Its decoration is small, tightly spaced, slightly twisted, dark green leaves about 2-3 cm long.
Young leaves pink shade. Varietal form is grown on the shtambe, and in the form of a bush. Can grow in any light. The variety is resistant to diseases and low temperatures, can grow on fertile and poor soils. After 10 years, its height reaches 1.8 m.
Белый или американский вяз (Ulmus americana). Это дерево невероятно выносливо, в отличие от многих декоративных сортов и гибридов может выдерживать температуры до минус 42 ̊С! К сожалению, данный вид восприимчив к голландской болезни.Сорт «Beebes-Weeping»
The tree has a tall, slightly laced crown. An interesting fact is that the American elm does not show sensitivity to the length of the photoperiod — it will continue to grow all the time in the autumn, despite the shrinking days, until its growth is stopped by frost.
Squat Elm (U. Pumila) or small-leaved (Ulmus parvifolia) originally from East Asia. A small evergreen shrub or tree that is ideal for creating a bonsai style. The leaves are small, some varieties are small, shiny.
High grade variety "Geisha". In spring, the leaves are white-green and white-cream, but after a short time they turn dark green with cream cloves around the edges. A tree with a picturesque crown, part of the branches grows vertically, and some hang slightly to the ground, often sold on a trunk.
The variety is completely frost resistant, although it is not recommended to plant in places open to strong winds. It requires fertile, moist soils and a lot of sun affecting the bright color of the foliage. The maximum height is about 3 meters. Looks great as a tapeworm near the house or on the lawn.
Hokkaido - dwarf Japanese variety. In eastern countries, gained great popularity as an excellent material for the formation of elm bonsai. It grows in the form of a bush with a dense, branched, oval crown. Height is about 50-70 cm.
The shoots are thin, fancifully curved, densely leafy. Due to the shape of the growth of shoots, this tree is decorative not only during the season, but in the winter! It has a very high resistance to different types of soil, although it grows best on fertile and moderately moist soils in full sun.
The variety is completely frost-resistant, but it is better to grow it in places protected from the cold winter wind. In the garden looks great in rockeries, on the alpine hills, along the tracks. Such planting allows you to appreciate all the advantages of the varietal form.
A very famous hybrid in gardening - Dutch Elm (Ulmus x hollandica) Wredei. Low tree with narrow conical or cylindrical crown.
The shoots are densely leafy. The leaves are wide, tight to the escape. In the spring they are light yellow, in the summer they acquire a golden-green color. Leaf shape slightly twisted. The tree grows slowly and in 10 years reaches 4 m in height.
The plant has low soil requirements, resistant to frost. Recommended variety is great for color compositions, especially looks beautiful next to the varieties of trees and bushes with green and purple foliage (barberry, elderberry, purple).
The variety can grow in the sun and in the penumbra, drought-resistant, but when planted in the sun requires regular watering.
General rules for elm care
Species belonging to the genus Ulmus are usually more demanding when it comes to the substrate and the level of moisture. Their natural habitats are mostly wet and fertile areas near rivers. However, the ground must be permeable, since the elm does not tolerate stagnant water.
Young elm saplings after planting require regular watering, the soil should not dry out. Mature trees are watered in the absence of rain and after a snowless winter.
Poor soils enrich with compost or humus. The land around the plantations is mulched with a thick layer of compost, bark or pebbles, thus avoiding the evaporation of moisture.
The elm care includes sanitary pruning, which is carried out in early spring. Since the shoots grow very slowly, a strong shortening is not recommended.
Pests and elm diseases
The Ilmas once belonged to one of the most popular trees in the European landscape. Unfortunately, in the twentieth century, many of them were afflicted with the Dutch Elm Disease (DED).
The first symptoms of the disease are observed already at the turn of May and June, when at high temperatures the leaves begin to curl, fall off, and the stems wither. This disease is quite aggressive; therefore, prophylactic or therapeutic (at the onset of the illness) treatment with Topsin M 500 SC is necessary immediately after the temperature rises above 15 ° C.
How to get rid of aphids folk remedies - read here.
The treatment is repeated after 10-14 days, trying to spray the drug on all parts of the tree. The following processing is repeated in the summer, and the last one is carried out in the autumn. The Dutch hybrid is most susceptible to the disease, other ornamental elms are more resistant.
Plantings may also be affected by viral and fungal diseases. For this reason, observation from the beginning of the growing season and prophylactic treatment are required.
Of the pests most known elm leaf beetle, aphid. In the fall (October, November) it is possible to carry out preventive spraying. For this purpose, Promanal or Treol isobicides based on paraffin oil are used. The leaves are burned in the autumn to prevent the spread of disease and pests.