General information

About the garden

Pine is an evergreen representative of the Pine family, which retains its viability for 100-600 years and reaches 35-75 meters in height. She is not afraid of cold, snow, wind, drought. The tree loves sunlight and reacts sensitively to pollution in the air, and because of its healing properties it is used in the manufacture of medicines. There is a huge variety of varieties and types of pines. All existing types of pines are usually classified according to the main characteristic of the description - the number of beam needles:

  • double-coniferous group (pine, maritime and similar),
  • three-coniferous (such as Bunge),
  • five-coniferous (Weymutov, Siberian, Japanese and others, having a similar coniferous beam structure).
The world knows more than 100 pine varieties.


Pine (lat. Pinus sylvestris) is a common species that grows in Asian and European latitudes. The tallest trees of this species are found near the Baltic Sea (southern part of the coast). They reach 40-50 m in height. Straight trunk covers the bark of a gray-brown color of enviable thickness, strewn with cuts. The upper layer of the trunk and branches is a thin bark with a characteristic red-orange color, prone to flaking.

At a young age, the tree is distinguished by a cone-shaped crown, which expands and rounds over time. The flowering period is in May - June. This species has a fairly wide range (Globosa Viridis, Repanda, etc.) and is famous for its strength and a high degree of resinous.

Mountain pine (lat. Pinus mugo) mainly occupies the south and center of Europe. The tree has a pin-shaped or creeping multi-stemmed crown, single-growing cones, as well as curved needles with a dark green color.

Siberian pine, or Siberian cedar (lat. Pinus sibirica), lives in the taiga in the East and West of Siberia. The standard height of the representatives of the species is 20-25 m, but there are also 40-meter trees.

They have thick branches and a multi-conical crown of soft dark green needles (14 cm long).

The barrel has a gray-brown color. Siberian beauty cones hide “cedar” nuts (seeds) under their scales.

Austrian black pine (lat. Pinus nigra) is a representative of the shadow-like evergreen from the North of the Mediterranean, whose height reaches 20-55 m. Young trees are characterized by the presence of a cone-shaped crown, but adults have an umbrella-like.

Dark green with a gray tint needles inherent rigidity and luster, and sometimes dullness. This species is famous for its black bark covered with deep furrows.

Verbal description and photo does not convey all the beauty and majesty of black pine. Brilliant cones and straight needles are a wonderful addition to any garden design. Pierik Bregon, Piramidalis, Austriaca, Bambino are among the most popular varieties of the species.

Balkan (Rumelian)

Balkan Pine (lat. Pinus peuce) - a resident of the mountainous areas of the Balkan Peninsula. Shade-tolerant fast-growing species unpretentious to the habitat conditions. Trees grow to a height of 20 meters. Rumelian representatives create forests of pure or mixed types at 700-2300 m above sea level.

The tree is characterized by a grayish-green needles of enviable density, forming a cone-shaped crown. In the early age period, there are no cracks on the brown with a gray tinge of the tree bark, but every year it becomes lamellar in shape and changes color to red-brown.


Himalayan pine, or Walliha (lat. Pinus wallichiana), lives on the slopes of Annapurna (South), in the Himalayas, at a level of 1.8-3.76 km above the sea. This decorative tree grows 30-50 m upwards.

The tree is characterized by the presence of a pyramid-shaped crown of gray-green needles and long cones. Popular varieties of Himalayan species: Densa Hill, Nana, Glauca, Vernisson, Zebrina.

Pine Weymouth, or Eastern White (lat. Pinus strobus), is common in the northeastern part of North America and southeastern Canada. The tree is very close to the ideal because of its direct trunk with a 67-meter growth threshold. Its diameter ranges from 1.3 to 1.8 m.

This type finds its use in construction. Varieties such as Aurea, Blue Shag, Вrevifolia, Sontorta, Densa are very popular.


Virginia pine (lat. Pinus virginiana) is a fast-growing inhabitant of the eastern latitudes of North America. Its height is from 10 to 18 m. The crown is irregularly rounded. The bark with scaly-furrowed relief has a gray-brown color, which acquires a reddish tint to the top of the tree.

The tree is characterized by the presence of a hard straight yellowish-green needles and egg-shaped cones. Reddish-brown buds can be dryish or completely coated with resin. Virgin pines prefer cozy and sunny places, a lot of heat and fertile soil.

Korean cedar

Korean pine pine (lat. Pinus koraiensis), called Korean cedar, has the main difference from other species - slimness. Its height does not cross the 40-meter line.

Green-green needles of branches reach 20 cm in length. The tree is characterized by the presence of elongated cones with scales bent at the ends. This is one of the pine species that can survive in the city. Popular varieties include Variegata, Glauka, Vinton.

Cedar elfin

Pine stanica, or cedar elfin pine (lat. Pinus pumila), is a common species in the territory from Primorsk to Kamchatka and in the North. Bushy trees grow only up to 4-5 m. Crohn is quite razlohay and may differ in shape for each individual species: tree, creeping or bowl-shaped.

The needles of cedar elfin wood have a bluish-green color. Pine cones with their ovoid-elongated shape do not belong to large fruits. Seeds are presented in the form of nuts. The varietal range of cedar elfin is quite extensive: Blue Dwarf, Globe, Jeddeloh, Nana and others.


Pine-flowered pine, or Japanese red (lat. Pinus densiflora), is limited to 30 meters in height. The tree is more common on rocky terrain (for example, the slopes of China, Japan and Korea).

The curvature of the trunk - its characteristic feature. The bark of young branches of the tree has a reddish tint, the old ones have an inconspicuous gray. Crohn is different density. It is quite razlagaya and rounded.


Pine hooked (lat. Pinus uncinata) is grown exclusively for decorating landscapes. Her needles - a reduced copy of the needles of Scots pine. At the same time, the size of the bumps exceeds the size of the needles.

As a rule, trees of this species are planted in groups or arrays, but a single variant is also not uncommon.

Crimean pine, or Palassa (lat. Pinus pallasiana), is one of the tall (about 45 m in height) species that inhabit the territory of Crimea and the Caucasus. Despite the fact that it is listed in the Red Book, there are often cases of using this tree as a building material.

A Crimean resident belongs to long-lived plantations, as she has maintained her vitality for almost 600 years.

Representatives of the Crimean species also have decorative properties.


Pine Sosnowski (lat. Pinus sosnowskyi) grows in the mountains of the Crimea, the Caucasus, Iran and Turkey. She is the owner of cones with hooked scales.

The needles of the tree of this species differ from others in their exceptionally green color. Sosnovsky Pine belongs to winter-hardy evergreens.

Pine as a genus has many species, each of which is characterized by healing and antiseptic properties. It is popular not only among manufacturers of medicines, but also landscape designers, and even construction companies (mainly because of its value as a building material). However, this tree can please the eye for more than a dozen years.

Coniferous pine

Related articlesWatering

This species of pine occupies large areas in North America, growing at an altitude of about 3,500 m above sea level. The stunted pine form grows in swamps and sand dunes.Due to its decorative nature, this type of pine is often found in parks on the coast of the Caucasus, where it has taken root due to the wet and mild climate.

Pine is light-requiring, therefore it develops better and grows in open places. In addition, pine drought-resistant plant that does not require additional watering.Dwarf pines have good resistance to diseases and pests, but under unfavorable conditions they may suffer from them. If the plant turns pale and decays, the tip dries up, then it may be affected by a subcortical bug or scutes.

The variety has very modest increments, after ten in height and width the plant does not exceed 0.5 m. The shape of the crown is a ball. The needles are green with a blue tint. Very unpretentious variety, suitable for growing in containers.In general, the genus of pine trees is characterized by rapid development and growth. Exceptions are those species that have to survive in difficult climatic conditions: high in the mountains, in the swamps, on the stingy stony soil in the North. In these cases, mighty trees are reborn into stunted and dwarf varieties. However, they are of great interest for the decoration of landscape plantings.

It features a multi-barreled structure, imported from North America. Light green needles are rather short and twisted, cones of a curved form. It grows up to 25 meters in height. Frost-resistant, unpretentious view suitable for any soil. Divorced only in botanical gardens.Pine wood is widely used in the manufacture of furniture. It is used in the construction of ships and wagons. Port facilities, dams and moorings are being built from it today. The pine forest was even called the “ship grove” or “mast forest”. A court - "floating pines." Pine resin was intensively used by shipbuilders to handle ropes, ships and boats. All this speaks of the high characteristics of pine wood.

Pine is a coniferous tree, which is peculiarly preparing for the winter period. After all, evaporation at a “minus” temperature is detrimental to the plant, while at the same time the needles remain on the branches. Coping with this plant is quite simple: with the onset of cold weather, a thin layer of wax falls on the needles, the stomata close, therefore breathing stops.Botanical name:

Almost all types of pine additional watering is not needed, it is exclusively drought-resistant plant, and the needles that have fallen down under the tree contribute to the retention of moisture. The exception is the Rumelian pine. This is a moisture-loving tree, for the season it is necessary to water it 2-3 times (about 15-20 liters per plant).Strong and light yellowish wood of this type is used in construction.

It grows in the mountains in south-eastern Europe. White pine is not demanding to growing conditions, resistant to dust and smoke, so it is common in many countries, as well as in Russia. The tree is about 8-10 m high, with a crown diameter of 7 m. Cones are ovate, brown-black.Young specimens of pine and decorative forms with delicate needles can suffer from winter frosts, as well as spring burns of needles, so in the fall they need to be covered with lapnik branches, which must be removed in April. Adult pines are completely winter-hardy.

Description of Scots pine

Spring treatment with Akarin and Actellic is effective against these pests.

Among the dwarf forms of mountain pine there are varieties with needles, which change their color depending on the season as "Winter Gold." All summer long the needles are bright green, and by winter all the needles become golden yellow. The height of the pine "Winter Gold" does not exceed 0.5 m - 0.8 m, crown up to one meter in diameter.

In many gardens coniferous trees have a lot of space, it is convenient to use them in landscape design, because they are quite decorative in any season.

Pine coniferous plant

This species is common in the Balkans and southern Italy. It is characterized by a spectacular long needles of soft green color. Like many other species of pines, photos of which are presented in the material, it is very unpretentious, moreover, it easily tolerates urban conditions. Weakness is not winter-hardy enough for the middle lane, so it is ideal for southern regions.

However, planting pines are used for other purposes. So, a kind of pine root system helps to prevent soil erosion, provides an optimal level of humidity, protects precipices and ravines from sprinkling.

Characteristics of Scots pine

Pine ordinary forms a number of forms, which differ in the structure of the crown, color and shape of cones. There are varieties with a weeping and a pyramidal crown. The color of the needles in young shoots may be golden, whitish or silver. The bark is found scaly or lamellar.

Scotch pine (Pinus silvestris)

You will also need additional autumn watering (after the end of the leaf fall) to the newly planted seedlings. Wet soil freezes less, so the risk of burning needles in the spring (and this is possible, the crown of the pines wakes up early, and because of the frozen soil, the roots of the plant do not produce enough moisture) will be significantly less.

In nature, black pine grows in Central and Southern Europe, and in the west of the Balkan Peninsula. The height of the tree is from 20-40 meters, in youth the crown is pyramid, in maturity - umbrella-shaped. The needles are long, dark green, cones are yellow-brown.

The tree looks spectacular in group and single plantings and is suitable for small areas due to slow growth. Lives about 300-350 years.

A large number of pine species are of low soil requirements, but prefer to grow on sandy or sandy soils. If there is a lot of sand in the soil, then you need to add clay.

What makes a pine tree different?

To prevent many diseases of conifers will help preventive spraying plants Bordeaux liquid.

All dwarf pines are quite unpretentious and can become an ornament to any garden, but still you need to follow some rules when planting them.

When on leafy bushes and trees there are neither leaves, nor flowers, hvojniki delight the eye with green, bluish-gray or blue needles. Among the firs, junipers, yews, pine occupies a worthy place.

The mountain pine is very attractive. Types of pine trees are scattered throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species grows in the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. It is a large branched tree or sprawled elfin wood. Of particular interest for landscape design are various compact ornamental trees, of which they create beautiful compositions along the banks of reservoirs, in rocky gardens, etc. The maximum height is 10 meters and the minimum is 40 centimeters.

The habitat of Scots pine

As an ornamental culture is used extremely rarely. Often used in landscaping country estates, dispensaries, sanatoriums. Planted in mixed stands, singly, in arrays or groups. They can be used in landscaping of forest parks and landscape gardening areas, for planting country roads, especially on poor sandy soil. In culture it grows as a group or singly in large parks, gardens and squares. The decorative nature of the young landing is not very impressive. Trees acquire a high decorative effect by the age of one hundred, when the trunk in its upper part begins to be covered with thin orange bark, which gives elegance and attractiveness to the tree. The aesthetic characteristics of individual pines are enhanced as the stands are thinned. Old pines attract attention from afar. In the absence of air pollution pine ordinary has high sanitary and hygienic characteristics.

The pine plant has a wide range, which extends to different, from an environmental point of view, areas, so the species is characterized by a large number of ecotypes. To date, ecologists stand out more than 30 such ecotypes. For example, Angarsk pine growing in the basin of the river. Angara is an ecotype of Scots pine. Studying and monitoring of common pine saplings of different origin grown under the same conditions shows the difference of plants in drought-resistance and cold-resistance, growth, and resistance to diseases. Also, these plants may differ in morphological features, such as: crown shape, needle length, stem structure, etc. However, all these signs are prone to change and are not used to single out the species.

Pine ordinary: application

Black pine wood has a high resin content, it is elastic, durable and hard. Often used to create underwater structures and in shipbuilding.

Weymouth pine grows in northeastern North America. In those places, its height reaches about 30-40 m, but in our latitudes it is worth counting only on 15, maximum 20 m. Lives about 300 years. The crown of the Weymouth pyramidal pine, the branches are horizontal, the needles are soft, blue-green, 10 cm long.

The soil for planting pines should be in the following proportions - sod, clay or sand (2: 1). Если почвы тяжелые, нужен обязательно дренаж, в качестве которого подходят гравий или песок, слоем толщиной около 20 см.​

​При желании карликовые сосны можно выращивать не только в открытом грунте, контейнерах, но и как бонсай. Остается только приобрести нужное растение и обеспечить ему комфортные условия для роста.​

Не все сосны одинаково зеленые

В перечне современных сортов различных видов хвойных встречаются сосны с цветом хвои, отличающимся от традиционного зеленого. Есть сорта с желтой, желто-пестрой и голубой окраской. Наиболее известные сорта с необычной окраской хвои:

Сосна горная Винтерголд

  • mountain pine: 'Wintergold' (Wintergold ') - compact, pillow shape, 0.8 m high, needles short, tough, light green, golden yellow in winter, very decorative against white snow,' Wintersonn '(Wintersonne') - slow-growing, cushion-shaped, dense shrub, about 0.6-0.8 m tall, needles in summer are light green, in winter they are amber-yellow,
  • Pine-flowering pine trees: ‘Oculus-draconis’ (‘Oculus draconis’) - two yellow stripes on each green needle are a characteristic feature, when put together they create a unique pattern,
  • cedar elfin wood: ‘Glauka’ (‘Glauca’) is an asymmetrical, slow-growing dwarf shrub, 1-1.5 m tall, blue-green needles,
  • Scots pine: 'Aurea' ('Augea') - slow-growing shrub up to 3 m high, needles in spring and early summer are yellow-green, in winter - golden-yellow, cones are light brown, 'Glauca' ('Glauca') - tree 10-15 m high, silver-blue needles.

Application in landscape design

Pines remain one of the most common plants used in landscape design. For decorative purposes, they are planted in open areas one by one or in small groups. Tall and medium pine trees are especially good as tapeworms in large spaces. Low-growing species are best planted in front of higher plants, and dwarf and creeping - in rock gardens, rocky gardens, on the slopes, while creating conifer mixborders and low-growing decorative groups. Dwarf varieties of pines grafted on shtamb, in a single landing or as an element of landscape composition, look very clearly.

Pine is ideal for landscaping sandy or marshy garden area.

Is it possible to create a hedge of pines? Of those species and varieties that can grow on the territory of Ukraine, it is almost impossible to create a classic trimmed hedge, with clear lines and strict geometric shapes. But the scenes - quite. You can also create low curbs of a spherical shape from mountain pine varieties and low-growing varieties of other pine species. A prerequisite for this is a sunny place and shaping.

Pine mountain, cedar elfin great for fixing the slopes on the site. Virtually all types of pines are an excellent starting material for forming nivaks. Pines are also an essential attribute of conifer plant lovers.

Source - Neskuchny Garden №1-2 2016

Peter Rekovets, dendrologist, chairman of the Kiev Landscape Club.

Pine - description and characteristics of the tree.

The pine tree grows very quickly, especially in the first 100 years. The height of the trunk of a pine varies from 35 meters to 75 meters, and the diameter of the trunk can reach 4 meters. On wetland soils and under adverse growing conditions, the height of century-old trees does not exceed 100 cm.

Pine is a light-loving plant. The flowering time comes at the end of spring, but the process takes place without the appearance of flowers. As a result, pine cones are formed, which differ in the variety of shapes, sizes and colors.

Male cones of most species of pines have an elongated, cylindrical-ellipsoidal shape and a length of up to 15 cm. Female pine cones are mostly rounded, broadly ovate or slightly flattened, 4 to 8 cm long. The color of the cones, depending on the species, may be yellow , brown, brick red, purple and almost black.

Men's pine cones

Female pine cone

Newly-formed female pine cones (above) and female cones of the 2nd year of development (center)

Pine seeds have a hard shell and are both winged and wingless. In some species of pine (cedar pine) seeds are edible.

Seeds of Scots Pine

Pine - a tree, the crown of which has a conical shape, turning into old age in the likeness of a huge umbrella. The structure of the cortex also depends on age. If at the beginning of the life cycle it is smooth and almost without cracks, then by the age of one hundred years it acquires a fair thickness, cracks and becomes dark gray in color.

The shape of a tree is formed by long shoots that lumber with time, on which needles and needles grow. Pine needles are smooth, tough and sharp, gathered in bunches and have a life span of up to 3 years. In the form of needles, pines are trihedral or sector. Their length varies from 4 to 20 cm. Depending on the number of leaves (needles) in the beam, there are pine trees:

  • double conifers (for example, Scotch pine, seaside pine),
  • triple conifers (for example, Bunge pine),
  • five-coniferous (for example, Siberian pine, Weymouth pine, Japanese white pine).

Depending on the species, the trunk of the pine can be straight or curved. Shrub pine species have a multi-crown creeping type, formed by several trunks.

Annual rings on the cross-section of the Angara pine trunk

The shape of the pine crown depends on the species and can be

  • roundish
  • conical,
  • skittle-shaped,
  • creeping.

In most species, the crown is located quite high, but in some species, for example, in the Macedonian pine (Latin Pinus peuce), the crown begins almost at the very ground.

The quality of the soil plant unpretentious. The pine root system is plastic and depends on the growing conditions. In sufficiently moistened soils, the roots of the tree spread out parallel to the surface for a distance of up to 10 meters and go down shallowly. In dry soils, the taproot of the tree goes 6-8 m deep. Pine reacts poorly to urban, polluted and polluted air. Moreover, almost all members of the genus tolerate low temperatures well.

Photo by: Trance Light

Where does pine grow?

Basically, pines grow in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere, the growth limits extend from the north of Africa to the regions beyond the Arctic Circle, including Russia, European countries, North America, Asia. Pine forms both pine forests and mixed forests, along with spruces and other trees. Nowadays, thanks to artificial cultivation, this type of pine as a radiant pine can be found in Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar and even in South Africa.

On the territory of Russia, 16 wild species of pine trees are widely distributed, among which the common pine occupies the leading place. Siberian cedar is common in Siberia. Korean cedar is often found in the Amur region. In the mountainous areas from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus grow mountain pines. Crimean pines are found in the mountains of Crimea and the Caucasus.

Author photo: Ruta Badina

Types of pines, photos and titles.

  • Pine ordinary(lat. Pinus sylvestris) grows in Europe and Asia. The tallest pines can be found on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea: some specimens have a height of up to 40-50 m. Other pines grow up to 25-40 m and have a trunk diameter from 0.5 to 1.2 m. In Scots pine, straight trunk with a thick gray-brown bark, cut by deep cracks. The upper part of the trunk and branches are covered with a thin peeling orange-red bark. Young pines are distinguished by a cone-shaped crown, with age the branches assume a horizontal position, and the crown becomes wide and rounded. Scots pine wood is a valuable building material due to its resinous and high strength. Ethanol is produced from pine sawdust; essential oils and rosin are produced from resin resin. Common pine varieties: Alba Picta, Albyns, Aurea, Beuvronensis, Bonna, Candlelight, Chantry Blue, Compressa, Frensham, Glauca, Globosa Viridis, Hillside Creeper, Jeremy, Moseri, Norske Typ, Repanda, Viridid ​​Compacta, Fastigiata, Fridtig, Fastigiata, Jeremy, Repanda, Viridid ​​Compacta, Fastigiata, Jeremy, Moseri, Norske Typ

Photo by: Juhász Péter

Author photo: Didier Descouens

Pine ordinary varieties of Globosa Viridis

  • Siberian Cedar Pineshe Siberian cedar(lat. Pinus sibirica) - The closest relative of Scots pine, and not real cedar, as many mistakenly believe. A tree up to 40 m high (usually up to 20-25 m) is distinguished by thick branches and a thick crown with many tops. Straight even trunk of a pine has a gray-brown color. The needles are soft, long (up to 14 cm), dark green, with a bluish bloom. Siberian cedar enters fructification at about 60 years of age. Gives large ovoid cones that grow up to 13 cm in length and up to 5-8 cm in diameter. At the beginning of growth, they are purple in color, mature brown. The ripening time of the cones is 14-15 months, the fall starts in September of the following year. One Siberian cedar pine gives up to 12 kg of nuts per season. Siberian cedar is a typical inhabitant of dark-coniferous taiga in the territory of Western and Eastern Siberia.

Author photo: Maria Novikova

Photo by: Crusier

  • Pine marsh (long coniferous)(lat. Pinus palustris) - a massive tree growing to 47 m in height and having a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 m. The distinctive features of the species are yellow-green needles, the length of which can reach 45 cm, and the exceptional fire resistance of wood. Long pine pine grows in southeastern North America, from Virginia and North Carolina to Louisiana and Texas.

  • Pine of Montezuma (white pine)(lat. Pinus montezumae) grows up to 30 m in height and has a long (up to 30 cm) grayish-green needles, collected in bunches of 5 pieces. The tree received this name in honor of the last leader of the Aztecs, Montezuma, who decorated his headdress with the needles of this pine. White pine grows in western North America and in Guatemala. In many countries with a temperate climate, it is grown as an ornamental plant, as well as for collecting edible nuts.

Author photo: ColinFine

Photo by: Pratheep P S

  • Pine stanicashe elfin cedar(lat. Pinus pumila) - a type of low bushy trees with widely spread branches, distinguished by a variety of crown forms, which can be tree-like, creeping or cup-shaped. Trees grow up to 4-5 m, rarely up to 7 m in height. The branches of the creeping pines are pressed to the ground, and their tips are raised by 30-50 cm. The needles of the pine wood of bluish-green, from 4 to 8 cm long. Pine cones are small, ovate or elongated. Nuts are small, up to 9 mm in length and 4-6 mm in width. In the harvest year from 1 hectare you can collect up to 2 centners of nuts. Elfin cedar is an unpretentious plant, adapted to the harsh northern climate. Widely distributed from Primorye to Kamchatka, in the north of the range it goes beyond the Arctic Circle. Varieties of elfin pine: Blue Dwarf, Glauca, Globe, Chlorocarpa, Draijer’s Dwarf, Jeddeloh, Jermyns, Nana, Saentis.

Photo by: Dr. Nick kurzenko

Author photo: Anisimov Denis Alekseevich

Blue dwarf elfin pine

  • Crimean pineshe Pallas pine(lat. Pinus nigra subsp. Pallasiana, Pinus pallasiana) - a tall tree (up to 45 m), with a wide, pyramidal, in old age - an umbrella-shaped crown. Pine needles are dense, prickly, up to 12 cm long, cones are shiny, brown, oblong, up to 10 cm long. The Crimean pine is listed in the Red Book, but is used as a valuable building material, in particular for shipbuilding, and also as a decorative tree for park landscaping and creating a protective forest belt. Crimean pine grows in the Crimea (mainly on the southern slopes of Yalta) and in the Caucasus.

Author photo: Tatiana Vinokurova

Author photo: Bonnlander

Author photo: Tatiana Vinokurova

  • Mountain pineshe European pine tree or zherep(lat. Pinus mugo) - treelike shrub with a pin-shaped or creeping multilateral crown. The needles are twisted or curved, dark green in color, up to 4 cm long. Wood with a red-brown core is widely used in joinery and turning. Young shoots and pine cones are used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. The skull is a typical representative of the alpine and subalpine climatic zone of southern and central Europe. Mountain pine and its varieties are very often used in landscape design. The most famous varieties are Gnome, Pug, Chao-chao, Winter Gold, Mugus, Pumilio, Varella, Carstens and others.

Photo by Michal Klajban

Pine mountain grade Mugus

Pine mountain grade Pumilio

Pine mountain grade Carstens

  • White Pineshe white pine tree(lat. Pinus albicaulis) different smooth light gray bark. Straight or sinuous trunk of a pine grows up to 21 m in height and looks almost white from afar. In young trees, the crown has the shape of a cone, becomes rounded with age. The needles are curved, short (up to 3-7 cm in length), of an intense yellow-green color. Male cones elongated, bright red, female features a spherical or flattened shape. Edible seeds of white-stem pine are an important food source for many animals: American walnut, red squirrel, grizzly bears and baribal. Golden woodpecker and blue sialia often nest in tree crowns. White-stemmed pines grow in the mountainous regions of the subalpine belt of North America (Cascade Mountains, Rocky Mountains). Popular pine varieties: Duckpass, Falling Rock, Glenn Lake, Mini, Tioga Lake, Nr1 Dwarf.

Photo by: Richard Sniezko

Photo by Matt Lavin

Author photo: Walter Siegmund

Pine white grade Glenn Lake

  • Himalayan pineshe pine bhutan or pine Walliha(lat. Pinus wallichiana) - tall, beautiful tree, widely cultivated around the world as an ornamental. The average height of pine is 30-50 m. Himalayan pine grows in the mountains from Afghanistan to the Chinese province of Yunnan. Himalayan pine varieties: Densa Hill, Nana, Glauca, Vernisson, Zebrina.

Author photo: Velela

Himalayan pine varieties Zebrina

Author photo: Robin Abraham

  • Pine pine(Italian pine) (lat. Pinus pinea) - a very beautiful tree with a height of 20-30 meters with a dark green, compact crown, with the age of taking the shape of an umbrella due to prostrate branches. Pine needles are long (up to 15 cm), graceful, dense, with a light bluish bloom. The pine has almost round large lumps up to 15 cm long. The seeds of the pine tree are 4 times larger than the cedar, with up to 8 tons of nuts are obtained from 1 ha. From the ground pine seeds, referred to in Italy as pintles, they prepare the famous pesto sauce. Due to the exceptionally beautiful shape of the crown, pine pina is a valuable ornamental plant that is actively used in the art of bonsai. In its natural environment, pine grows along the Mediterranean coast, from the Iberian Peninsula to Asia Minor. Cultivated in the Crimea and the Caucasus.

Author photo: Alessio Sbarbaro

Author photo: Javier Mediavilla Ezquibela

  • Pine blackshe Austrian black pine (lat. Pinus nigra) grows in the northern part of the Mediterranean, less commonly found in parts of Morocco and Algeria. The tree, with a height of 20 to 55 meters, prefers to grow in the mountains or on rocks of magmatic origin and often grows at an altitude of 1300-1500 meters above sea level. The crown of young trees is pyramid, with age it becomes umbrella-shaped. The needles are long, 9-14 cm, of a very dark shade of green, depending on the variety, and are shiny and matte. The view is quite decorative and is often used by lovers of coniferous trees for landscape plantings. Popular varieties of black pine are Pierik Bregon, Piramidalis, Austrian (Austriaca), Bambino (Bambino).

Author photo: Przykuta

Black pine grade Pyramidalis

Bambino Black Pine

  • Weymouth Pineshe white eastern pine (lat. Pinus strobus). Under natural conditions, the species grows in northeastern North America and in the southeastern provinces of Canada. Less common in Mexico, Guatemala. A tree with a perfectly straight trunk, reaching 130-180 cm in girth, can grow to a height of 67 meters. The crown of young pine trees is cone-shaped, becomes rounded with age, and more often of irregular shape. The color of the bark is slightly purple, the needles are straight or slightly curved, 6.5–10 cm long. Weymouth pine is widely used in construction as well as in forestry due to numerous varieties. The most popular varieties of pine: Aurea, Blue Shag, Вrevifolia, Сontorta, Densa.

Author photo: Oksana Velikova

  • Angarsk pine is an ecotype of an ordinary pine (lat. Pinus sylvestris). The species is widely distributed in Siberia, in the area of ​​the Angara River basin, and occupies fairly large areas in the forests of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, as well as the Irkutsk Region. Angarsk pine can grow up to 50 m in height, while the trunk circumference often reaches 2 meters. The crown of pine trees is pyramidal, with a sharp top, the bark has an amazing ash-silver tint.

Planting pine and caring for her.

The pine tree is used for gardening of park zones, sanatoria and personal plots. To do this, use seedlings aged 3 to 7 years. The best soil for pine is sandy soil. For heavy soils carry out additional drainage. Between seedlings should be left at least 1.5 m.

Mature trees do not need additional watering, it is necessary only for young plantings. For the best survival of seedlings the first 2 years they are fed with mineral fertilizers. In order to avoid freezing, youngsters should be sheltered for the winter. Pruning of adult plants is necessary for the formation of the crown and the removal of diseased branches.

Elfin pine Draijer’s Dwarf

Healing properties of pine.

The curative properties of pine were discovered by our distant ancestors: clay tablets 5 thousand years old with recipes of extracts from pine needles were found during excavations of ancient Sumer settlements. Pine needles are rich in phytoncidal volatile substances that disinfect the air, thanks to which medical and health institutions and children's camps are trying to place it in the pine forests.

Kidneys and pine needles have a truly unique chemical composition, containing a lot of substances that are useful for the human body:

  • vitamins C, K, B, PP and E,
  • carotene,
  • essential oil,
  • tannins,
  • alkaloids
  • terpenes
  • benzoic acid,
  • lignins.

В народной и традиционной медицине существует масса рецептов использования сосновых почек и хвои, помогающих бороться с множеством тяжелых недугов. Here are some of them:

  • гипоксия (дефицит кислорода в тканях и органах),
  • сердечно-сосудистые заболевания,
  • остеохондроз,
  • невралгия,
  • ревматизм,
  • аденома простаты,
  • кровоточивость десен.

Наибольшая концентрация полезных веществ содержится в хвое 2-3 летнего возраста и в набухших, но еще не распустившихся почках сосны.

Эфирное масло сосны применяют для лечения простудных заболеваний (бронхит, воспаление легких, туберкулез и т.д.). В психотерапии его используют для лечения нервных расстройств.

Pitches and pine tar are used to prepare ointments needed in dermatology.

Contraindications for taking pine-based drugs are chronic renal, hepatic failure, and pregnancy.

The use of pine.

Pine wood is a valuable material that has been used by man for centuries. Without it, it is impossible to do in the construction of private houses and homestead buildings, and the wood is used both as the main and as external finishing material. Pine wood is produced from durable, beautiful and inexpensive furniture, parquet and veneer are made. Pine wood is indispensable for the construction of certain types of bridges and railway canvas, where it is used in the form of made piles and sleepers. Wood pine wool is produced from pine wood, and pine firewood is considered one of the best in terms of heat recovery.

Pine for the New Year.

Traditionally in the Russian houses it was decided to decorate the Christmas tree in the New Year. But with the advent of many nurseries where they grow special decorative varieties of pines, most Russians tend to buy pine for the New Year.

Such trees look simply luxurious: they are distinguished by a beautiful compact form with strong branches and long fluffy needles. In addition, pine, compared with the Christmas tree, does not crumble much longer and has a refreshing, pleasant, tarry aroma.