Buttercup anemone has several equivalent names. Often this plant is called buttercup anemone or buttercup anemone. In Latin, the name sounds like Anémone ranunculoídes. Anemones are classified as dicotyledons. The next classification step is to determine the order of the plant. In this case, we are talking about the order of the buttercup flowers, which includes the buttercup family. The type of anemone Lyutichnaya is a representative of the vast anemone genus.
The most suitable place
Most often, this type of plant can be found in deciduous forests. Such an ecosystem is most suitable for this species. Somewhat less often, flower buttercups come across in mixed spruce-deciduous forests. If desired, a buttercup anemone, you can try to plant on the garden plot. This shade-loving plant will serve as a wonderful spring decoration.
Distribution of species
The zone of spreading anemone of a buttercup covers not only the European part of Russia, but also Ciscaucasia, that is, the flat territories north of the foothills of the Caucasus, Southern Siberia, Central Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and even the British Isles. True, in the latter case, the territory cannot be called a natural habitat, the buttercup anemone moved to the British Isles by chance, but it got accustomed to it beautifully.
Description of the plant. Sprout
The sprouts of a buttercup anemone appear very early. This occurs at the very beginning of spring, when the earth still slumbers under a layer of last year’s grass and snow. Each sprout is a stalk with three underdeveloped leaves at the top. Initially, the stem is crocheted, and the folded leaves are directed downwards. It is interesting that the sprout begins to break through not by the upper end or by the leaves, but by a hooked bend, this helps to overcome the forest litter layer.
Roots and leaves
Yellow buttercup anemone refers to perennial herbaceous rhizomatous plants. On average, its height is about 30 cm. The rhizome is located superficially. It is a creeping type, so it can be quite long. Root beaded, fleshy and elastic. Externally, it looks like a brown knot with special banners. The white inner part is well visible on the rift, where starch and other nutrients are stored. From the surface of the rhizome down a few thin roots.
Radical leaves anemone buttercup has not. But sometimes it gives one basal leaf palmar-dissected forms on a long petiole. Like all anemone, a buttercup look has 3 leaves on top of a thin stalk. They are directed in different directions and are located in a horizontal plane, forming a green tier. Each sheet is cut into separate lobes and has a short petiole.
Flowers and fruits
People often confuse garden buttercups, photos of which can be found in special journals, and buttercup anemone. In fact, these flowers are very similar. Notice the differences can only be a very careful examination. So, the buttercup flower has a double perianth with sepals and petals. Anemone is the owner of a simple perianth, consisting only of petals, and sepals are absent. So the name "buttercups-flowers" to anemone can be used only as a joke.
As you already understood, the flowers of this species of anemone have a rich yellow-golden color. Their diameter is about 3 cm. Petals in a bud of 5 pieces, peduncles are always single. On one plant they can be from 2 to 5 units. The flower appears in mid-April and lasts up to 20 days. Then the petals fall to the ground. On the peduncle remains a cluster of small fruits.
During flowering anemone buttercup there are almost no other plants. It refers to primroses. In the forest at this time it is light, nothing obscures it. Buttercups garden, photos of which we have already discussed, bloom much later - closer to June. So confusing these species is quite difficult.
After flowering, the leaves of the anemone buttercup gradually turn yellow. By the end of spring, the forest is dressed with foliage, other plants gradually appear and the anemone becomes dark. Yellowed anemone buttercup falls on the ground and dries. At the beginning of summer, there is no trace of it left, but the superficial rhizome is alive. It will wait for the next spring to please the world with a modest little yellow flower. For a special schedule of life anemone is included in the list of groin ephemeroids.
Who are the gully ephemeroids?
This is a special ecological group, which includes herbaceous perennials, which have a too short growing season. The development of ephemeroids may occur in different periods. For example, the following types of ephemeroids are characteristic of spring: tulips, crocuses, snowdrops, anemone, crested insects and goose onions. And in the fall, the short-term vegetation of the autumn crocus takes place.
Perennial ephemeroids are often confused with annual ephemers. The growing season of ephemera is also fleeting. But in the first case, the terrestrial part of the plant completely dies out after the growing season, but the underground organs (rhizome or onion) remain. In the second case, the plant bears fruit and dies completely.
Buttercup anemone has good melliferous qualities. As soon as it blooms in the forest, hardworking bees can begin the laborious process. Bright yellow flowers attract insects, but, unfortunately, quickly fade. This type of plant is characterized by group growth, so they are easy to find in forest glades. In bad weather and at night, the flowers are closed to preserve their valuable contents.
How to plant a buttercup anemone
Planting buttercups, or rather an anemone buttercup, seeds will require certain skills. Seeds are difficult to collect, and after harvesting must be sown immediately. Otherwise they will lose their germination. Sow better in boxes with loose soil nutrient mixture. Then bury the boxes and cover up with mulch. Next year about 25% of the seeds will rise. Seedlings need to be well moisturized, and they will begin to bloom for 2-3 years.
Much easier to do vegetative reproduction. Long branching rhizome is easily divided into separate fragments. They are shallowly buried in the ground, and soon a bud is laid on each, and adventitious roots are formed. By the end of the summer, all the organs necessary for the independent existence of the buttercup anemone will be formed. Next spring the plant will give an early flower. In a few years, the anemone will grow and form dense little scrubs that need to be weeded and mulched occasionally. In the spring you can make complex fertilizers. Thus, on the garden plot you can get your own primroses.
Description and characteristics of the plant
In common veterans, anemone is called “Wind,” since at the slightest breeze of wind, it sways, and the stem with a bright yellow flower leans to the ground.
A strong, creeping rhizome, due to which the anemone grows, keeps it, and the delicate, at first glance, fragile stem, even after a strong hurricane and rain, again takes up a vertical position. Plant height 15 - 30 cm.Lyutichny anemone
The palmate, strongly dissected leaves, are located high from the ground, have a very gentle, green color in spring, and closer to the middle of summer, darken. The plant, from the moment of planting seeds to flowering, can develop within ten years, and very sensitive to the composition of the soil.
Siberia, the middle zone of Russia, the foothills of the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and Central Europe are an areola of growth, where mostly anemone is widespread. Delivered artificially to the British Isles, it changed nature somewhat and acclimatized.
Anemone is a poisonous plant, therefore, it is necessary to use it as a therapeutic agent with great care., and only provided that you know all the contraindications.
One of the most common types due to a very decorative look, the height of the stem is up to 50 cm. Beautiful bouquet groups are built from it, both from one type and in combined bouquets. Flowers, up to 8 cm in diameter . simple, or terry, can have all shades of blue and colors similar to it.
White or oak wood
A species that differs from the widespread yellow not only in color, but also in height. If the yellow anemone reaches a height of 30 cm, then the white may be 50 cm. . Gardeners are happy to use Anemone Dubravnaya in spring beds.
Plant 10 - 20 cm tall with a soft purple flower, or other similar shades, as well as pink and white. Pointed long flower petals make it look like a daisy. Blossoms, like most representatives, in early springand is widely used by gardeners.
Chemical composition of the plant
The content in the anemone of some toxic substances, such as: tannin, saponins, resins, camphor, ranunculin glycoside, as well as protoanemonin, make it poisonous. Protoanemonin is soluble in organic solvents, but poorly soluble in water. But this is what makes anemone a plant used in the manufacture of certain drugs. Independent use of leaves and stems in the role of medicine can cause significant harm to health.
In addition to the well-known analgesic properties, buttercup anemone has properties:
Anemone is used to treat gallstone disease, paralysis, inflammation of the liver, bronchial asthma, pain of a different nature, and many more diseases. Infusion of leaves on alcohol is used for compresses, rubbing, as a distracting agent, for radiculitis, rheumatism, as well as for the removal of edema.
With joint pain
Use a decoction of leaves, pre-brewed in boiling water, and infused for one day. For a cup of boiling water, you must use 1.5 g of dry raw materials..
For compresses, pour a bundle of leaves with stems with alcohol or vodka, leave for two weeks and apply a napkin moistened with the infusion to the joint, cover with polyethylene and a warm blanket. Keep no more than an hour.
With eczema, skin rashes, festering wounds
In a full cup of boiling water put half a teaspoon of dry raw materials from anemone leaves, wrap in a towel, or use a thermos. Leave on for 15 - 20 hours. Wipe clean skin with a tampon, slightly moistened with this infusion, and after use do not wash. Do not use with open fresh wounds.. Do not put a tampon on a festering wound in the form of a compress, but only wipe it and dry it immediately.
When using decoctions, infusions, you need to remember that the buttercup anemone is a poisonous plant, and how it affects you is a mystery. In any case, consultation of the doctor is necessary. It is absolutely certain that this plant cannot be used for diseases such as:
- Cardiovascular diseases,
- Venous insufficiency
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
Butterucus anemone - an interesting plant, and its use in floriculture, medicine, at the moment, is not wide enough. The main thing - when using in this or that direction, do not forget about caution.and take seriously the means that can harm your body.
The buttercup anemone has an original rhizome: elongated, creeping, divided into separate segments. Due to this, the plant is able to grow rapidly, covering the entire surrounding area of land. Gentle brittle stems firmly held on the roots.Finger-dissected leaves, three-lobed, with long petioles, located above the ground. In the spring months they are pale green in color, and in summer they darken.
The plant has a single stem with a height of 20-30 cm. Bright yellow flowers, similar to buttercups, have 5 petals and many stamens and pistils. Flowers are often solitary and bloom by mid-April, the duration of flowering is 14-20 days. Later varieties bloom from mid-August to October.
Another name for the buttercup anemone is buttercup anemone. The plant has a long life cycle, which can reach 60 years. Differs in high sensitivity to the composition of the soil: its transfer from the wild nature to the territory of the garden plot often ends in death. Therefore, for planting in the country or a country house it is necessary to use only adapted varieties.
Distribution and habitat
Buttercup anemone is common in the European part of Russia, in the southern part of Siberia, in the countries of Asia and Western Europe, the Mediterranean, in Ciscaucasia. It can be found in deciduous, occasionally - in spruce forests and forest edges.
Due to the possibility of vegetative reproduction in the forest can form extensive areas with bright sunny flowers. Some species of anemone tend to grow in sunny meadows and foothills.
Growing and caring for plants
The plant is a perennial, so it may take at least 10 years from planting seeds to active flowering. In nature, most varieties prefer to grow in small penumbra in moist earth, so the place to plant it should be chosen correctly. However, some plant species like calcareous soils.
Many varieties of anemone perfectly adapt to the conditions of the dacha. Growing and caring for a plant is not difficult with accurate knowledge of its varieties and compliance with certain rules and conditions.
Soil and fertilizer
Anemone prefers light soils that absorb moisture well. Therefore, the soil for it in the garden area should be prepared by adding river sand and small stones. To reduce the acidity, it is recommended to pour a little dry lime into the ground.
The plant responds well to the introduction of complex fertilizers, therefore, during flowering, top dressing is used by gardeners to increase the number of flowers and the period duration.
Watering and moisture
With proper selection of the seat, the anemone grows quickly, spreading in all directions and filling the surrounding area with new plants in early spring. In order to avoid thickening, the beds should be thinned, planting extra bushes to new places.
Regular watering is necessary for anemone during the active formation of ground parts and flowering. However, care must be taken to avoid over-wetting the ground. Spring species of anemones do not require excess moisture, and summer-autumn need it, especially on dry days.
Relation to temperature
In temperate climates, the anemone winters in the soil, but at the end of autumn plants are recommended to be thrashed with fallen leaves, peat or spruce branches up to 3 cm thick. In the northern regions, plant rhizomes are recommended to be dug out and placed in a cool, dark place before spring heat.
There are several ways to breed anemone:
- with the help of seeds, which is hampered by their low germination,
- tubers - in the spring when young bushes with buds appear,
- division of the bush (rhizomes).
The latter method is one of the most common, possible both naturally in the formation of active buds on the root, and forced. With the artificial method, the bush is divided into parts, leaving a living bud on each seedling. Then sprouts are planted in the prepared soil, placing the roots in a horizontal line.
Pest Disease and Prevention
The plant is sick very rarely, but is susceptible to pests:
- infection with leaf nematodes is characterized by the appearance of dark yellow spots on the leaves, after which the diseased bushes need to be removed, and before planting new specimens in this place, it is better to completely change the soil,
- when snails and slugs appear, it is recommended to collect them manually, in case of a massive attack, to treat the soil with a solution of metaldehyde.
Beautiful flowers, like buttercups, are used by gardeners not only to decorate the site, but also for treatment. Although the plant is poisonous due to the content of toxic substances (tannin, tar, protoanemonin, saponins, ranunculin clycoside, camphor, etc.), in folk medicine the medicinal properties of a buttercup or buttercup herb are widely used as tinctures, decoctions, compresses and rubbing.
Folk recipes means
Stems and leaves of anemone are used in the form of decoctions, tinctures that can be taken orally, make compresses and lotions.
Some popular recipes are:
- A decoction of the leaves, used to reduce rheumatic pains in the joints, is prepared from 1.5 g of dried raw material per cup of boiling water, infused day. For rubbing and compresses an infusion is prepared from a bunch of stems and leaves (100 g) filled with 1 liter of vodka or alcohol, aged 10-14 days, shaken periodically. The finished strained infusion is impregnated with a napkin and placed on a sore spot, it is necessary to cover it with a plastic wrap and a blanket on top, the duration is 1 hour.
- For diseases of the bladder, kidney and gallstone disease, a decoction of 2 g of dry raw material or 5 g of fresh water, which is poured over 200 ml of boiling water, is often used. Insist in a thermos for 4 hours. Употреблять за 20 минут до еды трижды в день.
- Для избавления от бессонницы и шума в ушах рекомендуется заварить 1 ст.л. измельченной травы анемона, залить 400 мл кипятка, настаивать 2 часа, затем отфильтровать. Пить по 1 ст.л. 4 раза в день.
- For the treatment of skin diseases (eczema, rash, purulent wounds) an infusion of 1.5 tsp is prepared. dry leaves and 300 ml of boiling water, kept warm in a thermos for 15-20 hours. Wipe the skin and purulent wounds with a cotton swab moistened in the infusion, and then dry.
- For colds and treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract need to prepare a decoction of 1 tbsp. chopped dried roots and 250 ml of hot water, simmer for 10 minutes over low heat, cool and filter. Drink 2 tbsp. three times a day.
Preparation of raw materials for treatment can be done independently during the beginning of flowering of the anemone, in dry and clear weather.
Biological description and characteristics
The folk name of the flower is “wind”, because even with weak gusts of wind it swings strongly, and a thin stem with yellow flowers leans towards the ground. Rhizome elongated, creeping, divided into separate segments. Thanks to its root system, the buttercup anemone spreads, expanding over the entire accessible area. The roots also keep it upright, and the gentle, seemingly brittle, single stem can withstand even strong hurricanes. Basal leaves are usually not, rarely there is one leaf. Finger-cut leaves are fixed on long petioles and located at a sufficient height from the ground, in spring they are painted in a light green color, but around the middle of summer they become darker in color.
Buttercup anemone is a perennial plant and it may take about ten years from planting seeds before flowering. And the full life cycle of one rhizome can last up to sixty years. This plant is extremely sensitive to the chemical composition of the soil. An attempt to transplant forest anemone to the garden plot is likely to be doomed to failure due to the difficulties in accurately reproducing the composition and properties of the soil customary to the plant. It is better to use specially bred varieties adapted to the conditions of the garden for these purposes.
Buttercup anemone can be found in the European part of Russia, in the foothills of the Caucasus, in the south of Siberia, in Western Europe, in the Mediterranean region and in Asia. It was also artificially brought to the UK, where it was slightly modified during acclimatization. Anemone is a poisonous plant and it should be used very carefully as a drug, and only taking into account all the contraindications and observing the dosage.
Buttercup anemone, along with the oak tree, is most characteristic of the European part of Russia. The shoots germinate at the very beginning of spring from the near-surface horizontal rhizome, thanks to which the plant spreads and forms whole clusters or spots. One, rarely two five-petal yellow flowers bloom on a separate long pedicel. Blooms in spring: in April or May. In July, leaflets are already tied, which are then opened along the seam, freeing multiple seeds. When growing a buttercup anemone in the garden plot, the following rules should be observed:
- to land in light penumbra,
- choose a well-drained soil
- acid soils should be fertilized with dry lime,
- periodically thin out flower beds,
- water regularly, especially during the flowering period, but not excessively, as excess moisture damages the plant,
- to make during flowering mineral fertilizers.
Koronchataya. Flowers of this type are similar to field poppies, but have a neater, noble form. They have a more diverse color: red (like poppies), azure-blue, snow-white, soft purple or pinkish with multi-colored splashes and edges. This type of anemone has flowers of the largest size, reaching a diameter of ten centimeters. For early and more magnificent flowering is necessary:
- soak the planting material in water for a while
- plant in well-drained soil,
- avoid shaded areas
- if the soil has an acidic reaction it is necessary to neutralize it with dolomite flour.
White (oak). The main difference of this species from the widespread buttercup anemone is white, not yellow flowers, having from six to eight petals instead of five. The white anemone is also somewhat larger - up to 50 centimeters in height, against thirty in a buttercup. Anemone oakwood, due to early flowering, is well suited for spring flower beds.
- Prefers sufficiently lit places.
- Feels better on rich alkaline soils.
- The soil should be loose and have a texture.
- For the winter, a white flower bed with anemone is better to mulch to prevent it from freezing.
Tender. The stunted height is from ten to twenty centimeters, with flowers of various shades of purple, less often pinkish and white. The shape of the flower petals gives it some similarity with chamomile. Flowering begins at a characteristic time for representatives of this species - in early spring.
Benefits and dangers of anemone
Anemone contains a wide variety of toxic substances that make it dangerous to health.. But it is these substances that allow the use of anemone as a raw material used in the pharmacological industry. It is important to remember that the independent use of plant parts for medical purposes can cause severe harm to health..
For the manufacture of medicines used surface of the plant. In addition to the well-known analgesic action, buttercup anemone has the properties:
- anti-inflammatory (antiphlogistic).
Anemone is used in the formation of stones in the gallbladder, paralysis, liver disease, and other diseases. Alcohol tincture of anemone leaves is used for compresses and rubbing, and in addition, as a means to relieve swelling.
In height, the noble variety is not more than 12 cm. Unlike other varieties, the leaves begin to grow directly from the rhizome. The leaf is dark green above, and the underside is maroon-purple. The flowering period begins in winter. Flowers may be white, blue, pink or purple.
Serrated leaves, strongly dissected, grow on thin rhizomes. The flowering period is in April-May and lasts about 30 days. Flowers have five sepals and many stamens.
Suitable for growing in ambient conditions. The stem is tall and dense, can reach 60-70 cm. The flowers are bright with elegant petals, have a pleasant aroma. This variety is characterized by a long flowering and can bloom all summer. Resistant to weather changes.
Early variety that blooms in April and May. In height to 50 cm. Such grade needs to be grown up among bushes and in the rare forests.
Rhizome black, vertical. Leaves on long petioles. Flowers large, light shade. The variety grows well and can reach maximum sizes in a few years.
This species is found in the south. The variety is very beautiful, it grows in the mountains at an altitude of 2000-3000 thousand meters. The flowering period begins in May and lasts 30 days. Flowers purple hue. On each peduncle may be several large flowers. After flowering, the growth of terrestrial parts of the plant begins. Grows lightly.
Types of anemone lutikna
There are more than 150 varieties of anemones that have external differences, as well as different growing season. Let's look at the most common types and their features:
- "Forest" - found on dry hills, meadows, meadow steppes and in light coniferous forests. It reaches a height of 5–15 cm, and the diameter of the buds is 3–7 cm, they are painted in a snow-white color. The flowering period of the forest anemone falls on April - May.
- "Japanese Terry" - reaches a height of 60–70 cm, the leaves are pinnatisect, saturated green. Blooms in mid-summer and pleases with its pink or white buds until autumn. This species can be grown indoors.
- "Dubravnaya"- grows in deciduous and mixed forests, refers to spring anemone, the flowering period begins in mid-April and lasts 20 days. The flowers are painted white with a violet shade.
- "Fork" - grows mainly in wet soils, hummocky meadows and among shrubs. It blooms in early June and pleases with its buds until July. The petals of the flowers are white, their lower parts may have a reddish tint.
- "Felt" - can reach a height of 100-120 cm. Refers to resistant and cold-resistant species. Felt anemone produces buds in the middle - end of August, the flowering period lasts until the end of September - beginning of October.
Conditions of detention
The plant is successfully grown in the open field, it will become a worthy decoration of the dacha plot or any flower bed. Especially since the flowering of anemone begins very early, when many other plants have not yet had time to wake up after winter. The buttercup anemone prefers light partial shade, so it is best to plant it between trees and shrubs. When choosing a landing site, it is worth considering that the anemone grows very quickly.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
For the preparation of various drugs using both dried and fresh leaves of the plant. Cut the anemone is necessary only in gloves and avoid contact with its juice on the skin. Then the leaves are either immediately crushed in a meat grinder and poured with alcohol, or dried in the open air or dried and packed in bags made of natural fabric.
As alcohol tinctures from fresh leaves of anemones, and dried raw materials should be stored in a dark, cool, well-ventilated area. The shelf life of this raw material is 24 months from the date of procurement.
Possible difficulties in growing
When complying with the rules of agrotechnics, problems with growing plants are extremely rare. The main thing is not to allow overmoistening and drying of the rhizome, as well as to make mineral fertilizers in a timely and metered manner. In cold regions, it is necessary to dig up the tubers for the winter, otherwise flowering will occur much later.
Pests, diseases and prevention
Anemone does not belong to the painful representatives of the flora, but even with the high resistance to diseases, some problems can still arise. It happens that a herbaceous plant infects slugs. To combat them, it is enough to install water containers with high chlorine content. Plant affected by nematodes. Sometimes nematodes attack an anemone of buttercups, their harmful effect is directed to the rhizome, which is covered with spots, it hurts and dies. If such a problem is diagnosed, the plants destroy and disinfect the soil.
Now you know that a herbaceous plant called an Anemone anemone can easily be grown in its summer cottage. Her bright yellow flowers will be among the first to announce the arrival of spring and delight with its beauty. And if necessary, you can dry its foliage and use it as a medicine for various diseases.