Actinidia in recent times more and more common in the summer cottage and household plots of Russians. This ornamental shrub perfectly adapted to the climatic conditions of our country, so its cultivation and care are quite simple, they can even beginner gardeners. The most popular variety of this plant is colomikta - it grows fast, resistant to frost, its flowers have a pleasant aroma, and the fruits can be eaten. What should be the right care for actinidia and how to grow it from seed, consider in our article.
What is actinidia?
This plant is a decorative garden creeper, having cross-pollination. That is why for the best of its growth, flowering and yield in the garden is recommended to have its female and male appearance.
Actinidia is widely used in landscape design - they form hedges from it, decorate garden arbors and other similar structures with it. Especially often used for these purposes colomikta. Already in the 3rd year of life, it can arrange, such as in the photo, a dense and high wall, which in the spring will be decorated with white fragrant blooms, in a hot summer will give a life-giving shade, in the autumn it will be painted in a stunning crimson color, and even in winter it will surprise with its prite snow, fancy ornament of the trunk and branches. It does not matter whether it was grown from seed or the vegetative method was used for this.
Actinidia is widely used in landscape design.
The fruits of some varieties of this decorative vine can be eaten. They have a pleasant sweet-sour taste, delicious strawberry flavor and endowed with useful properties.
They contain a huge amount of ascorbic acid, vitamins A and PP, plant fiber, pectin, starch and other components necessary for our body. They are recommended to include in your diet to people suffering from anemia, scurvy, hypo-and vitamin deficiencies, rheumatism, lung diseases and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the fruits of actinidia gently eliminate heartburn, indigestion, constipation, and other types of dyspeptic disorders.
As for the varieties of actinidia, which more than a hundred have already been bred by modern breeders, the aforementioned colomikta, argut, Chinese, polygamous, seaside, etc. are most often found in the gardens of our fellow citizens. It is quite simple to grow such a liana in our own garden; to do.
Planting actinidia in the garden can be done either in autumn or in early spring, using a 2-year-old sapling grown in a specialized nursery. Choosing it, you should pay attention to the integrity of the root system and the trunk and the presence of shoots. An excellent option would be to purchase a bush with closed roots, as shown in the photo, which would warn the drying out of an earthen clod that actinidia does not tolerate. Since this plant has cross-pollination, one male should necessarily go for 3 female plants of the same species. Interspecific pollination is excluded. As for growing it from seeds, this process is not used at home.
After the seedlings are selected, the place of their planting should be determined. Both Chinese actinidia, and colomikta, and its other varieties, with proper care, can form dense thickets, rising on supports to a height of 20-30 meters — this must be taken into account when choosing a place for them. Despite the fact that it is recommended to plant this garden vine in wet soils, it does not tolerate the stagnation of groundwater. As for the acidity of the soil, it is good if it is neutral or slightly acidic, enriched with humus or other organic fertilizers. The right place for planting this ornamental plant will be the sunny side of the garden. This is especially true for its edible varieties, such as colomikta. The more actinidia will receive light, the richer will be its harvest.
Landing in the ground of this vine can be divided into several stages:
- Under each seedling digs a hole 60 cm deep.
- Drainage is installed at the bottom of the pit using river pebbles, small stones and brick fragments for this purpose.
- The drainage is laid fertile land and poured deciduous humus.
- Complex fertilizers and wood ash are added to the soil.
- The earthy lump on the root system of a young plant is well moistened.
- In the middle of the hole is a mound, where the seedling is installed, without deepening the root collar, and powdered with earth.
- The soil around the seedling is compacted and poured with plenty of water.
- Pristvolny zone is mulched with peat, hardwood compost or humus.
It should be noted that such mulching should be done annually. It will prevent overheating and drying of the roots of the plant. The minimum distance between seedlings - 2 meters.
If actinidia is planted in the spring, then the beginning of May will be the best time for planting it. But if it is planted in the fall, then it should be done 2-3 weeks before the first frost. And use only young seedlings for this.
Since Chinese actinidia, colomikta and other varieties of this garden creeper do not have aerial roots, they are great for decorating buildings, fences and garden pavilions. They easily climb the walls, skillfully wrapping them around. It is possible to form these plants, as shown in the video, a hedge, but this will require support so that the vines do not intertwine with each other. Arches, tapestries and pergolas are used as supports, the installation and dismantling of which is quite simple.
Order of care
Actinidia, as, indeed, any other garden plant, must be properly maintained. Taking care of this garden vine will consist in the regular performance of the following works:
- weed removal
- watering and spraying
- harvesting fruits and seeds
- top dressing
- pest control
- treatment for diseases.
Spraying plays a particularly important role. It becomes relevant in the dry summer. If the vine is regularly sprayed in the morning and in the evening, as well as watered, it will not turn yellow and lose foliage, and its fruits will be juicy and sweet.
Feed actinidia during the year should be 3 times.
In early spring and during the formation of ovaries, the soil surrounding its trunk should be fertilized with nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers. And after harvesting around mid-September, it will be enough to fertilize the plant with potassium salt and phosphorus.
Separate words deserve pruning actinidia. This procedure is required if the crown of the liana is very thick and does not transmit light well. Pruning are subject only adult plants. This should be done during the summer, be sure to pinch the tips of the shoots. The rejuvenating pruning, the rules of which can be seen on video, is carried out only after a colomicta or any other variety of this garden creeper reaches the age of 8 years.Trimming scheme
All varieties of actinidia are almost immune to diseases of horticultural crops. But sometimes these creepers can be attacked by powdery mildew, fruit rot, gray mold or fungal infection, which must be dealt with immediately at the first appearance of their symptoms. As for pests, most often young plants are attacked by leaf beetles, bark beetles, caterpillars and golden-eyed. To get rid of them will help Bordeaux liquid, which process they need in the fall and early spring.
Since the fruits of actinidia do not ripen at the same time, harvesting will take place from mid-August to late October. Ripe berries are not showered for a long time from trunks and are not afraid of autumn frosts.
After the harvest and the seeds are over, the plant will need to be fed, removed from the supports, covered with spruce leaves and poisoned in them for mice who like to make nests in the vines. This will allow young plants to winter. Adult lianas do not need harboring.
Chinese actinidia, colomikta and its other varieties multiply quite simply, as well as, for example, girlish grapes, which are also used for landscaping the site.
Selection of seedlings is a delicate matter
Buy Actinidia seedlings preferably in special nurseries, where plants are grown on the spot, and not brought. It is better not to take seedlings in spontaneous and random markets. When acquiring an unusual plant for the dacha, you need to remember simple rules that will relieve you of most of the problems during a subsequent landing on the ground:
- Actinidia has quite fragile roots, plants with bare roots are most susceptible to adverse conditions. If you leave a sapling with a bare root system for at least 7-12 minutes in the sun or strong wind, actinidia will disappear, and the surviving plants will grow and develop poorly, significantly inferior in growth. Buy planting material with closed roots (in a pot) with a clod of soil and well packed. The optimum age for planting seedlings is three years,
- Actinidia is one of dioecious cultures, so you need to buy male and female vines, otherwise fruiting actinidia may not occur,
- To determine the floor of the plant before the vine blooms, it is impossible. Gardeners recommend buying actinidia in nurseries,
- Actinidia grown from seeds may lose the characteristics of a variety. It is recommended to acquire seedlings cultivated from cuttings of actinidia, in which young stems grow from lateral buds, the trunk looks like penechki. Seedlings obtained from seeds consist of a main stem, coming from the bud,
- On sale is the most common actinidia colomicta, differing in appearance. It has hardened one-year stem, intense juicy color, changing from green to rich coffee. On the crust, small bulges are visible, hillocks of light shades, so the escape is a bit rough to the touch. Other types of actinidia have smooth stems of light green tones with a sandy and brown tint.
Where to plant actinidia?
If you are going to grow exotic in the garden, you must take into account the natural conditions of growth of actinidia, where the vine grows in the penumbra of other plants and trees. When choosing a place, it is desirable to create an environment that is closest to the natural one. In small areas, such a task can be unbearable, where to plant actinidia in this case?
Growing up actinidia in the country requires the installation of a support (trellis) on which the vines will grow upwards. A lot of space is not required, you can select the land near the walls of country houses or houses, actinidia looks great in the gazebos, hedges. Actinidia is highly decorative at any time of the year. In the spring attracts attention with a beautiful green color of foliage, in the summer - with unusual flowers. In winter, intertwining vines under a snow carpet look spectacular and unusual. In August, the leaves of actinidia acquire red and brown shades.
Actinidia Argut in the summer has dark green foliage, which is poured on the trellis by a dense wall, in autumn the leaves turn bright yellow. At the beginning of September, Polygamus has light green and yellow leaves, among which orange berries ripen, not crumbling even after the first frost.
Actinidia is a fairly shade-tolerant vine, but fruiting occurs with a sufficient amount of light. Plants are planted at the western or eastern walls in a small shade, but with the stay of the sun. If you do not know which plants to plant next to actinidia, boldly plant beans, beans or peas. Plants planted nearby will improve the soil and create a good microclimate for vines to grow well.
Actinidia grows on almost all types of soil, but does not accept alkaline soils. Sour and slightly acidic lands are best suited, heavy loams are not desirable for growing vines. It is not recommended to grow a vine near an apple tree, it is better to plant near a nut, currant, gooseberry.
Characteristics and varieties
Culture belongs to the woody perennial vines of the genus Aktinidiev. Under natural conditions, it is found in the Far East and in Asian countries (Himalayas, Tibet), has more than 30 species. Wild varieties of actinidia can reach a length of 8-15 meters, but in the gardens they grow to 3-4, less often to 7 meters.
Shrub Actinidia Colomikty
Stems are brown, covered with slightly flaky bark and large leaves with excellent decorative characteristics. At the beginning of their development, they have a brownish-golden color, after which they acquire an emerald color, then turn white, and gradually turn pink with a crimson hue.
Actinidia colomikta leaves have an original, constantly changing color
In late spring or early summer, the vine begins to bloom with white inflorescences 1.5 cm in diameter, with a specific aroma that attracts bees to the site. The fruits of actinidia are small berries of oval or cylindrical shape. At first, they are quite hard to the touch, taste is hot, but as they mature they soften and become sweet-sour. From one bush you can get about 4-7 kg of fruit.
Fruits of actinidia colomicta
Interesting! Actinidia kolomikta - a close relative of kiwi, an exotic plant, berries which is very popular due to its taste. The fruits of actinidia are smaller, but not inferior to their "relatives" in their characteristics and the content of nutrients.
Fruits of different varieties of actinidia (2) differ in shape and taste characteristics and are inferior to kiwi fruit (1) in size
Table 1. The best varieties of actinidia colomikty.
Attention! Actinidia Kolomikta refers to dioecious plants, so its vines differ by gender - fruits appear only on females, while male plants are used for pollination. You can distinguish them only after the appearance of flowers - female vines bloom in single flowers, and male ones - in buds, in 3-5 flowers. To get the crop you need to plant the plants of both sexes.
Creepers vary by gender
Cultivation of actinidia colomikty
Most of the varieties of actinidia Kolomikty have winter hardiness and unpretentiousness to the growing conditions, therefore, they are perfectly acclimatized in central Russia. It can be propagated in several ways - by seeds, cuttings or layering, each of which has its own characteristics. An important role is played by the correct choice of soil, the observance of the rules of planting young plants on the site and caring for them.
Aktinidiyu kolomiktu widely use in landscape design
Actinidia Kolomikta - climbing culture, and does not take up much space, but the site for planting must be chosen carefully, since its life span is from 20 to 30 years. The best option is soil with neutral, high or weak acidity. Alkaline soil for plants are not suitable, as loam, sandstone and areas with shallow groundwater - an excess of moisture can damage the plant. The structure of the ground should be sufficiently loose and breathable.
Culture can grow in one place from 20 to 30 years
The conditions for lighting actinidia is undemanding, but for good development it is better to plant in partial shade - so that it receives a sufficient amount of light, but in the hottest time of the day the root necks are protected from ultraviolet rays. Protection against winds and drafts is also welcome - if the place chosen for planting is too open, bean annuals can be sown near the vine. They will not only serve as protection, but also create a microclimate comfortable for actinidia.
Important! Actinidia colomikty creepers require support, but it is not recommended to use fruit trees, especially young ones, for this purpose - the winding “neighbor” can simply strangle the tree, as a result of which it will die.
It is better to plant seedlings of actinidia kolomikty in spring, but it is also possible in the autumn period, 2-3 weeks before the first frost. The culture belongs to frost-resistant plants, but the root system in young individuals is very sensitive - if they do not have time to settle well before the cold, a strong decrease in temperature can damage or destroy the planting. Before planting the site should be well dig, and if the soil is acidic, add lime to it.
You can plant young plants in spring or autumn
Table 2. Instructions for planting actinidia kolomikty.
For a while, until the plants take root (it takes 5-10 days), it is better to close them against sunburn with paper or cloth, and then immediately install the supports.
Attention! Before planting young plants it is impossible to add lime or manure to the planting holes - they will burn the roots and the bushes will die.
In the first months after planting, actinidia colomikta needs regular care, which mainly consists of watering, mulching and feeding.
- Watering. Поливать посадки нужно часто, но умеренно, не допуская пересыхания почвы и застоя воды. В жаркую пору листья следует утром и вечером опрыскивать водой из шланга со специальной насадкой или пульверизатора.
- Mulching. The roots of actinidia lie near the soil surface, so deep digging is not allowed - you can only loosen the soil slightly, remove the weeds and grind it with dry peat.
- Top dressing. Twice a month they feed the plants with mineral fertilizers in the form of granules, which are scattered over the surface of the soil before irrigation. You can use manure diluted with water in the ratio of 1 to 10.
- Crop. Pruning of vines is carried out after the plants are 3-4 years old. The procedure is carried out in the summer or autumn, but in no case in the spring. The bushes are cut dry, weak or frostbitten shoots, and pinch the tips of the rest, which stimulates the development of new shoots. Once in 8-10 years, the plantings are rejuvenated, cutting off the entire above-ground part so that the hemp remains 40 cm high.
To stimulate the growth and development of actinidia cilia, colomicas should be regularly pruned
- Shelter. Actinidia colomikta tolerates frost well, but in regions with severe winters, plants must be protected. They are removed from the supports, sprinkled with dry leaves and spruce branches to make a twenty-centimeter layer, and poison from mice is placed on the ground. In the spring, the shelter is removed and again straighten the liana on the supports.
A sign that the plant receives normal care and enough nutrients - active growth immediately after planting (up to 1.5 meters per year).
Young plants are better protected from cats.
Important! The shoots of actinidia colomikty love to nibble cats - the scent of the plant acts on them just like valerian. If representatives of the cat family visit the site, it is better to protect the bushes for a year or two, surrounding them with a metal or plastic fence.
Diseases and pests
The plant has good immunity, but if you choose the wrong site for planting and care errors spotted (phyllossticosis, ramulariasis), mealydew, mold microorganisms and the rot.
Plants should be regularly inspected for signs of disease.
Signs of diseases of actinidia - the appearance on the fruits and leaves of gray or black spots. At the first signs of disease you need to hold the following activities:
- spots can be removed with 2-3 trim treatments bordeaux mixture,
- for treatment of powdery mildew the bushes need to be pollinated ground graythen spray soda ash solution,
- it is very difficult to remove the rot and mold, therefore it is necessary to regularly remove the affected branches and fruits and burn them, and after the plants discard the leaves, treat the ground with antifungal agents.
Of the pest insects cause the greatest harm to vines leaf beetles, butterfly larvae, barbel and bark beetles. You can fight them with the help of special preparations - acaricides and insecticides.
Berries, similar to miniature kiwi, are used in any form
With proper care, actinidia colomikta gives a rich harvest of fruits that contain many useful substances. They can be consumed fresh, dried, boiled jams, jams and marmalades, and the leaves and bark are used in traditional medicine for the manufacture of medicines against colds and inflammatory diseases.
Actinidia treatment recipes
Having spent a little time and work on growing this amazing plant, you can get not only a beautiful garden decoration, but also a tasty and healthy dietary supplement.
Planting Actinidia seedlingsIf you decide to plant actinidia on your plot, then sprouts obtained by cutting must be used (actinidia grown from seeds lose their varietal characteristics). You can grow seedlings yourself, and you can buy in a specialty store. When buying seedlings of actinidia, two things should be considered:
- How was the escape (if the shoot grows from the bud - it is obtained from the seeds, if a short trunk with side shoots - the shoot is obtained by propagation from the cutting).
- What sex is a plant (actinidia - dioecious culture, so for fruiting it is necessary to buy seedlings of both sexes).
Optimum landing times
Cultivation of actinidia depends largely on the time of planting. Among gardeners there is no unity on the issue of optimal timing. There are several options:
- early spring, before the juices began to move,
- the end of April - the beginning of summer (after the end of flowering),
- autumn (at least two - three weeks before the start of frosts).
Soil compositionActinidia prefer acidic and slightly acidic soils (pH = 4 - 5), but grow well on neutral (with good fertilizer). The least suitable clay soils with high groundwater levels. A necessary requirement for successful growth is that the soil for actinidia must have good drainage. It is advisable to plant plants in elevated areas with natural drainage.
When planting actinidia in advance (two weeks), you need to prepare landing pits (when decorating walls - trenches):
- 0.5 m - width, length, depth (trench length depends on the wall length),
- drainage (brick dust, pebbles),
- over the drainage - enriched soil (humus (bucket), charcoal (50 gr.), superphosphate (250 gr.).
Good predecessors and neighbors of actinidia
The best predecessor is black currant (it loosens the soil, does not deplete it). The choice of "neighbors" due to the usefulness of the plant for actinidia. Beneficial effects provide:
- legumes - beans, beans, peas (improves the soil, maintains the desired moisture balance, improves the microclimate),
- black currant, filbert,
- flowers - petunia, gerbera, calendula, aster, etc. (do not dry the soil, decorate).
- adult fruit trees (especially apple trees). Trees with their roots dry the soil. Digging the near-stem circle is dangerous for actinidia roots. The described plant can climb tens of meters up and braid trees, making it difficult to collect fruits,
- young fruit trees (may die from the "hugs" of lianas).
Basics of Actinidia Care
Proper planting and the complete absence of pests facilitate the care of actinidia. For better growth of the plant and increase fertility, it is advisable to provide it with supports - trellis (galvanized wire between the posts).
Watering and fertilizing the soil
Watering actinidia - moderate. Excessive moisture should not be allowed (the indicator is the ground at the roots). All actinidia like spraying leaves with water dust (morning and evening).
Fertilizers are selected according to the preferences of the plant (slightly acidic and acidic soil) - potassium chloride, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, wood ash, etc. Categorically contraindicated chlorine fertilizers such as lime and fresh manure.
Before feeding actinidia in the spring, after the snow melts, it is necessary to gently loosen the ground near the roots (3–5 cm). Digging is impossible - you can damage the roots. Feeding is necessary:
- in early spring (they mulch with organic matter and fertilize - for every square meter - 35 grams of nitrogen, 20 grams of phosphate or potash fertilizers),
- the middle - the end of spring (formation of ovaries) (15-20 grams of nitrogen, 10 grams of phosphate and 10 grams of potash supplements per square). In summer, you need to constantly monitor the root neck, fill the ground when it is exposed,
- at the end of the harvest, before winter. Creepers are fertilized with superphosphate and potassium chloride. The roots are additionally covered with a layer of peat and leaves.
How to trim
Actinidia care involves regular pruning.. Pruning is necessary for a young liana (for its proper formation) and for an adult plant (constant growth of the liana leads to thickening, darkening, and lower yields).
When planning pruning, consider the following:
- The best time for the procedure are the summer months, immediately after the completion of flowering,
- in the fall, about a month before frosts (frost periods may vary in different regions) - pruning is not recommended (awakened buds and young shoots will not ripen and the frost will kill them). In the southern areas, sanitary pruning is carried out after the end of leaf fall,
- in early spring (when the juice is moving along the vine) pruning is prohibited - any violation of the integrity of the plant is fraught with its death.
Winter hardiness of actinidiaActinidia varieties grown in our latitudes have a fairly high frost resistance (colomicta can tolerate frost down to -35. -45 degrees ° C). The first 2 - 3 years of life for young plants for the winter is better to cover with a pillow of leaves, spruce branches or polyethylene.
It is not cold temperatures in winter that are most dangerous for vines, but spring frosts (young shoots of actinidia, flower buds and buds are most sensitive to them). Lowering the temperature below zero by 8 degrees can destroy a young shoot.
Planting an actinidia near a residential building partially neutralizes the danger of frost, but a problem may arise from the flow of rainwater from the roof.
Harvesting and storage
Actinidia brings the first fruits to achieve three to four years of age. Plants of seven years old and older bear fruit regularly (one actinidia can produce from 12 to 60 kg of crop). Harvesting begins at the end of August and continues until frost.
The ripening period of berries of different varieties of actinidia is not the same:
- colomikta - in the middle of August (fruits ripen unevenly and some of them can crumble on the ground). Green fruits can ripen in heat after removal from the vine. For transportation and storage, it is better to pick slightly greenish berries,
- argut and giralda - the beginning of September (they acquire a bright green color and tender flesh),
- polygamy - September (color of berries - from yellow to orange),
- purple - the end of September (the berries are not showered, purple).
Fresh fruits are best kept in cool, well ventilated rooms (they strongly absorb odors).
Green and lignified cuttingsDescription of the methods of vegetative propagation of actinidia, one must begin with the fastest and most common - grafting. This method allows you to inherit varietal characteristics and get a lot of seedlings. Used two options - green and lignified cuttings.
Green cuttings (the upper part of the shoot from 10 to 15 cm) are stored in late May - early June (when flowering ends): a cutting with two - three buds and internodes. The bottom cut of the stalk should have 45 °, the top - straight. Stalk:
- they are sown for rooting in the landing pit with a substrate (drainage, 10 cm of humus mixture with sand and 5 cm of river sand), kept under the film, sprayed twice a day,
- after 30 days they begin to air, from August they open for the night,
- for the winter, they are covered with a pillow of leaves, in the spring - they are transplanted.
To increase this indicator, the method of wicking is used (a month before planting, cuttings are placed on the ice with the upper ends and closed - the development of the buds stops. The lower parts are warm. After 30 days the roots appear, then the cuttings are planted in open ground).
The division of the bushes is rarely used in household plots as a method of reproduction of actinidia, but if there is a bush plant on the site (it grows on poor soils, suffered from frost, without support, etc.). Shrubs are divided after leaf fall before frost or in early spring before the movement of juices. Each part of a divided bush should carry stems and roots at the same time.